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[The State of Rhode Island and Providence plantations has not assumed a form of government different from that in the foregoing chapter. For in that, the king ceded to the Governor and Company, all powers, legislative, executive, and judicial, reserving to himself, as an acknowledgement of his sovereignty, a render of the fifth part of the gold and silver ore that should be found within the territory. The Governor, Chief Magistrates, and Legislators are chosen by the freemen as usual, and all judicial and executive officers are annually elected by the Governor and Company, or upper and lower House of Assembly. All processes, original and judicial, formerly issued in the King's name, but they now issue in the name of the Governor and Company. The oaths of allegiance and of office are made conformable to the principles of the Revolution. The Governor, in his legislative capacity, cannot give a new gative to any act of the two Houses ; but, in common with the other Magistrates, has one voice only.;
The State is divided into five counties, in each of which there is a Court of Common Pleas and General Sessions of the Peace, held twice every year, for the trial of all causes not capital, that arise within their limits; from which an appeal lies to the Superior Court of Judicature, Court of Assize and General Jail Delivery, whose Jurisdiction extends over the whole State, and who also sit twice a year in each county. The Constitution admits not of religious establishments, any further than depends upon the voluntary choice of individuals. All men professing one Supreme Being, are equally protected by the laws, and no particular sect can claim pre-eminense.]
CONNECTICUT, Account of the Constitution of Connecticut::... CONNECTICUT is divided into six counties, and W each county is divided into a number of towns.Each town has a right to send two Representatives to the General Court of Allembly. The General Court consilts of two branches, called the Upper and Lower House. The Upper Houle is composed of the Governor, Dep. Governor, and 12 Afiftants o: Counsellors ; and the L.House, of the Represeptatives of the several towns. This Court has the fole power to make and repeal laws, grant levies, difpose of lands, belonging to the State, to particular towns and persons ; to erect and Nile judi. catories and officers, as they shall see necesiary for the good government of the People; allo to call to account any Court, Magistrate, or other Officer, for any milo demeanor or mal adminiftration; and for juit cause may fine, displace, or remove them, or deal otherwise, as the nature of the cale shall require ; and deal or act in any other matter that concerns the good of the Staie, except the election of Guvernor, Deputy-Governor, Affitants, Treasurer, and Secretary, which shall be done by the freemen, at the yearly Court of Election, unless there be any vacancy, by reason of death or 0therwise, after the election, which may be filled up by the General Court. This Court has power also, for reasons fatisfaétory to them, to grant fufpension, releale, and jail delivery upon reprieve, in capital and criminal cases. The General Court has two itated sessions annually, on the second Thursday of May and Otober.
The Governor, or in his absence, the Deputy-Governor, may call the Assembly, on fpecial energencies, to meet at any other sime, The Governor, DeputyGuvernor, Alfiltants and Secretary, are annually electe ed on the second Thurday in May. The Reprelenta. tives are newly chosen for each stated Tellion. The
Judges and Justices are annually appointed by the General Court ; the fame perfons are commonly re-appointe ed, froin time to tiine, during their capacity to serves unle's guilty of nisbehaviour. The Sheriffs are appoint. ed by the Governor and Council, without limitation of time ; bus may be superseded by the authority that apo points them. The Governor, for the time being, is Captain-General of the inilitia ; the Deputy Governor, Lieurenant-General; the other general officers, ao the field officers, are appointed by the General Court, and commissioned by the Governor. The captains and fubalterns are chosen by the vote of the company anı! houtholders living within the limits of the company ; the perfons, fo cholen, must be approved by the General Court, and commissioned by the Governor, before they have power to execute their offices. All the mil. itary officers hold their offices during the pleasure of the Allembly ; nor can they refign their coin millions, withour leave of shie Captain.General, under penalty of doing duty in the ranks, as private foldiers. The mode of electing the Governor, Deputy.Governor, Afliflants, Treasurer, and Secretary, is, that the freemen, in: he feveral towns, meet on the Monday next after the first Tuesday in April, annually (being the day appointed by law for that purpose, and chovling Representatives) and give in their votes for the perfons they choose for faid offices respectively, with their names written on a piece of paper, which votes are received and fealed up by a conttable, in the freemen's meeting the votes for each of laid offices, in a different faper writing on the outside the name of the town, and the office, for which the votes are given in ; which are sent by the Reprefeniatives, to the General Court, to be held on the second Thursday of May next enfüing, at which time, afier the House of Representatives have chosen a Speaker and Clerk, a Committee is chosen of Mem. bers of both Houses, to fort and count the votes, and declare the names of the persons chosen ro said offices, Aay freeman, qualified to vote for Representatives, &c. may be eiected to any office in the goveroment. In chooling Affiftancs, twenty ferfons are nominated by
the votes of the freemen, given in at their meeting for cliootiag Repretentatives in September annually, and sealed up and sent to the General Court in October then next ;? which are counted by a comınittee of both Houses, and the twenty persons, who have the greatest number of votes, Itand in nomination, out of which number, twelve are to be chosen assistants, by the freemen, the next April, in manner a fore described. : The qualifications requisite to entitle a person to vote in elections of the officers of government, are maturity in years, quiet and peaceable behaviour, a civil conversation, and forty fillings freehold, or forty pounds personal estate ; if the Selecimen of the town certify a person qualified in those respecls, he is admitred a freeman, on bis taking an cail of fidelity to the State.
The names of all that are thus admitiel, are enrolled in the Town Clerk's office, and continue freemen during life, unless disfranchised by a sentence of the Su. perior Court, on convictton of a mildemeauor.
- The Governor, or, in his absence, the Deputy-Governor, in the Upper Houle and the Speaker in the Lower House of Assembly-have a casting voice, when the Members of the refpective Houses, including the Governor and Speaker, are cqually divided in opinion op any question.
There is, in this State, a Superior Court, consisting of one Chief Judge, and four other Judges, who have authority in all criminal cases, extending to life, limb, * and banishment, and to hear and determine all civil actions, brought by appeal from the county Courts, or on writs of error. This Court also hath authority in all matters of divorce. There are two lared sessions of the Superior Court, in each county annually.
There are also County Courts held in the several counties, consisting of one Judge and four Justices of the quorum, who have jurisdiction in all criminal cases, arising within their respective counties, where the pun. ishmeot does not extend to life, limb, or banishinent. The County Courts alfo, have original jurisdiction in all civil actions, wherein the demand exceeds furty fhillings.
The Superior and County Courts try matters of fact, by a jury, according to the course of common law,
Justices of the Peace have authority to hear and determine civil actions, where the demand does not exceed torty shillings. They also have authority, in some cases of a criminal nature, punishable by fine not exceeding forty shillings, or whipping not exceeding ten stripes, or sitting in the stocks.
This State is also divided into a number of probate districts, lels than counties ; in each of which is appointed a judge for the probate of wills, granting adminiftration on inteftate eltares, a ppointing guardians for minors, ordering distribution of intellare eltares, &c. An appeal lies, from any decree of this Court, to the Superior Court.
The Superior, County, and Probate Courts appoint their respective Clerks.
The General Court has, till very lately, been the ondy Court of Chancery in this State. But by a late law, the County Courts determine matters of equity, from five pounds to two hundred value ; the Superior Court from two hundred to eight huvdred pounds value ; and the General Allembly, all cases exceeding the last mentioned fum.
All attornies at law are admitted and sworn by the County Courts; there is no Attorney General, but there used to be one King's Attorney in each County ; but since the King has abdicated the Government, they are now attornies to the Governor and Company.