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bar iron becomes Bessemer process Best Best best Yorkshire iron blast furnace breaking weight brittle called carbon cast iron cent cinder coal cold combination compressive considerable crystalline crystals different kinds ductility Eaton Hodgkinson engineer experiments extension fibre fibrous forge foundry fracture fuel fusible give grey hammering hardness hearth heat hematite hereafter Hodgkinson hot blast important inch square increased kinds of iron Kirkaldy length limit of elasticity longitudinal tenacity malleable iron manufacture material mean melting metal modulus of elasticity obtained permanent set pieces pig iron plates portions practical produced proportion puddled iron puddling puddling furnace purposes qualities of iron resist rupture rolled shape slag smelting soft specific gravity specimens square inch Staffordshire steel strain strength of cast structure Styffe temperature tensile strength tested thick tons per square torsion toughness transverse strength transverse tenacity tried ultimate elongation usually variety vary welding wire wrought iron
Página 153 - From these experiments the translator is led to draw the following conclusions : — 1. That for such iron as is usually employed for rails in the three principal rail-making countries (Wales, France, and Belgium), the breaking strain, as tested by sudden blows or shocks, is considerably influenced by cold ; such iron exhibiting at 10° F. only from onethird to one-fourth of the strength which it possesses at 84° F.
Página 22 - ... possess greater interest. The influence of this element in causing variation in the physical properties of iron is one of the most extraordinary phenomena in the whole range of metallurgy. Under the common name of iron are included virtually distinct metals, which in external characters differ far more from each other than many chemically distinct metals. Without carbon the manifold uses of iron would be greatly restricted ; and, so far as is yet known, no other metal or mixtures of metals coidd...
Página 152 - Fahr. it is generally diminished, not to any great extent, indeed, in steel, but considerably in iron." 4. " That the limit of elasticity in both steel and iron lies higher in severe cold ; but that at about 284° Fahr. it is lower, at least in iron, than at the ordinary temperature.
Página 22 - ... shall learn hereafter, other elements may and often do concur in modifying, in a striking degree, the qualities of this wonderful metal. Ours is emphatically the iron age ; and it may be confidently asserted that no other element has contributed so largely to the civilization and happiness, and, may we not also add, paradoxical as it may seem, to the misery of mankind. But let us not forget that carbon has done its share in this good and evil work.