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esquier, bailif of the lordshipps of Mark and Oye, shal have the conducting of xl. persons at the least, dykers, inhabitantes in the said lordshipps of Mark and Oye, besides ten of his howsehold servaantes and officers; and the residewe of the said nombre to be furnished with xx'i archers of the kinges retynewe of the towne of Calays.

And forasmuch as the soodain assemblie of the said xl. persons, inhabitants in dyverse partes and parishes of the said lordships of Marke and Oye, mought happily be an occasion of some inconvenent brute noyse and suspicion, it is further agreid and condescended in avoiding the same, and for the more quyet and peaxible compassing of the said purposes, that the Monday being the sixt of September, the said John Rookwood esquier shal bring the said xl. persons which he shal have in his leading, to be set in worke that daye in the kinges river called the Leade, lying between Mydle way and Footmannys inne, without Bollein gate; and, that day's worke upon the said ryver finished, the said John Rookewood to lye all the next night following, with his said nombre of xl. dykers, and the others his howsehold servauntes and officers, at St. Peter's or therabouts.

Also, it is further agreid and condescended, that for prevencions of all espyes and significacions to be given to any owtward parties, aswel the passage of Newneham bridge to be stopped that Monday at night, as also the same night all other passages of the high and lowe countreys within the kinges marches of Calays meete for that purpos, to be stopped by the forsaid lord chamberlain, lord Graye, and John Rookewood.

And wheras ther hath ben hertofore, and nowe is, nightly watche kepte, as wel on the behalf of the kinges highnes our maister, as the French partie, of eyther side of the said ryver of Cowbridge, it is agreid and condescended, for avoiding of all suspicion which mought arise by the soodain encrease of the nombre of the watchmen of our partie, that twoo honest and discreete men (that is to say), John Foorde and Richarde Leonard, the kinges majesties servauntes, shal, the said Monday at night, watche the saide Cowbridge at the place and with the onely nombre accustomed.

Also, it is further agreid and condescended that the next morning after, which shalbe on Tuysday the vijth of September, the said lord Graye, sir Richard Grenfeld, and John Rookwood esquier, with all their nombre and company aforsaid, shal assemble and meet together at the howse of Boytehaikes, nigh to Cowbridge, before the howre of three in the mornyng, and there rest quietly, without noise, til such tyme as the said watches on both parties be dissolved, and then to sett in worke the said dikers and labourers about the making and dyching of all the said iij. dyches in manner and forme as is beforsaid.

And to the intent the said iij. grete dyches shal incontinently after the making of them be filled with water, to the more annoyance of the same waye, it is agreid and condescended, that the bank of the ryver called Hollehed shalbe cutt by the said dykers in such places meete for the lettin in of water into the said dikes as to the overseers of the woorkes herafter appointed shalbe thought meete.

Also, it is further condescended and agreid, that the next night next after ensuing, that is to say, on Tuysday at night, the said our watche nigh Cowbridge shalbe advaunced and encreased to the nombre of xl. watchmen, to watche nightly after by the space of xiij. nightes. And the said xiiij. nightes so expired, to deducte of the saide nombre of xl. watchmen every night (one next following after another) five watchmen nightly, till (by such deduccion) they be reduced and brought to the nombre of x, according to the former stynt of watchmen accustomed.

Also, forasmuch as to such nombre of indiscrete persons (that is to saye) ixxx. labourers, dykers, and others, are requisite and needefull good, substantial, and discrete governours, it is agreid and condescended, that the said lord Graye of Wilton, sir Richard Grenfeld knight, John Rookwood esquier, Frauncis Hall man at armes, Richard Lee surveyour, William London, Williain Smyth, Geffrey Boocher, Hugh Filcok, and John Gavell, souldeours, Morant Haynes, Richard Leonard, George Caninges, John Foorde, Myddleton Dicker, inhabitantes within the lordships of Mark and Oye aforsaid, shalbe the overseers and governours of the said workemen ; and Calais pursevant, Hugh Giles and Thomas Prowde, archers on horseback, to give their attendaunce there.

Also, it is further condescended and agreed that for the necessarie provision as wel of victualles as also tooles and instrumentes for the said purpose, shalbe the said vjth day of September carryed in the companye of the said sir Richard Grenfeld and John Rookwood, in waagens to the howse of the said Boyte haikes, ther to be kept in moste secret wise, these parcelles of provision folowing :

In beere, v. barelles.
In bred, vj. doosen.
In Essex cheeses, vj. doosen.
In onyons, vj. boonches.
In drynking bolles, xxiiijti.
In maundes, * to convey away the erth, iiija.
In shooveles, xxxti.
In billes, to be redy if resistance were made, vjxx.

In hardles, to make ways over the dyche of Maign brook for conveyance of the erthe, xij.

In witness of all which agreements the said lord deputie, lord chamberlain, and all and every other of the kinges majesties said counsailours of Calais, to this book have severally subscribed their names. Dated the said xxviijth daye of August, in the xxxijth yere of the reign of our said souveraigne Lord, &c.



Several stages of the subsequent progress of this affair are to be traced in the acts of the privy council. On the 14th Oct. 1540, letters were received from sir John Wallop “declaring his jornay to St. Peer to speke with the Frenche king, and of the communicacion which a frende of his had with hym by the way toching the breking of the passage at Cowbridge, saying that he had herde say it shulde be new made, and if the Calesians woolde let (i. e. hinder) it, that it shulde cost broken heddes."* The next day the French ambassador had audience of the king, and one of the subjects he proposed was “ the passage broken at Cowbridge ;" to which the king replied that “ he toched not his master's grownde, but upon his owne made trenches and ditches, which he myght lawfully do, and woolde defende the same if the French king woolde go about to fill them, with no lesse force than they wolde defende theyrs, for all their high bragges."I On the 17th of the same month," the king was advertised from the depute of Calais how that the Frenche men of Arde had made agayn the passage at Cowbridge, which before was by the sayde

* Maunds, baskets. In allusion to the king's gifts distributed to the poor on Maundy Thursday from the maunds or baskets in which the gifts were contained.-SPELMAN.

+ Proceedings, &c. of the Privy Council, edited by Sir N. H, Nicolas, vol. vii. p. 63. # Ibid. p. 64.

depute at the kinges commaundement defeated, and that the xiijth of this present the sayde depute caused the sayde passage eftsoones to be broken. The sayde depute also sent hither the copye of his message sent by Gysnes pursyvant to the capitayne of Arde, and his answer therapon, and after that the capitayn's lettre to the depute and his answer to the same, which were somewhat poygnant and pickyng upon both sydes."** The next day a letter was addressed to the deputy of Calais, “ willing him to defeate from tyme to tyme that which the Frenchmen shulde do for the passage at Cowbridge, having allwayes an eye that by any entreprise he woolde make he did not put in any hazarde or daungier the towne or any other of the fortresses.”+ On the 30th Oct. copies were received of further letters that had passed between the deputy and the capitain of Arde on this subject ; I which were acknowledged by a letter written to him on the 1st Nov. directing him to follow the order before prescribed ; and on the same day a letter was written to Stephen the Almayne, directing him to repair to the court. On the 7th Nov. letters were sent to the deputy “ to receyve Steven the Almayne at Calais, and to cause the surveiour to joyne with him in the view of the marches, for the devising of a platt of the same, and specially of the passage at Cowbridge and the ryvers nere unto the same, but that in no wise they shulde suffre hym to view the towne of Calais, or to se the secretes of the same." || On the 16th another letter was addressed to the deputy, “ to appoint Frauncis Hall, in the absence of the surveiour, to joyne with Stephen th' Almain for the making of the platt of the marches and passage about Cowbridge, until such tyme as the surveyour were sent home again.” On the 28th Dec. letters were brought from sir John Wallop, which declared "the Frenche kinges appoyntment of mons". de Bees capitayn of Boloygne, and (blank) a master of requestes dwelling at Amyens, to mete in commission with like personages to be sent from the kinges majestie, the ijde. of February, for the determinacion of the matters of Cowbridge. ****

This is the last we find on the matter. It appears that we owe to this controversy the map of the vicinity of Calais, of which a fac-simile is given in the introduction to this volume.


(MS. Cotton, MS. Titus, B. 1. p. 2086. a transcript.) A Declaration of the nomber of Workmen and Labourers, with their

Wages, working beyond the Sea, on the King's Majesties Fortifications, anno Henrici 8. regni 33.

At Calais. First, 133 workmen on Dyvelyn bulwarke, everie of them at 8d. sterling

* Proceedings, &c. of the Privy Council, edited by Sir N. H. Nicolas, vol. vii. p. 66. + Ibid. p. 67.

I P. 73.

§ Pp. 74, 75. || P. 79.

I P. 83.

** P. 100.

the daye, with their howers, amounteth in the moneth, containing 28 daies, summa . . . . . . . 1241. 2s. 8d.

Item, 526 labourers working on the same bulworke, everie of them at 6d. sterling by the daye, with their howers, summa

3851. 6s.

At Rysbanke. Item, 70 workmen, everie of them at 8d. sterling the daye, with their houres, summa . . . . . .

641. 8s. Item, 211 labourers working on the said workes, everie of them at 6d. sterling the daye, with their howres, summa .

1471. 14s. The nomber of workmen and labourers amounteth to 939, the somme of their wages for one whole moneth to the somme of . 7311. 10s. 8d.

An Estimate of all manner of provisions, emptions, and cariages, for

the foresaid Workes at Calais and Rysbanke, by the space of one moneth, conteining 28 dayes.

First, in coles 5 chaldron and a halfe a daye, spent at 5 lyme kyeles, amounteth in the moneth to 154 chaldron, at 8s. sterling the chaldron, summa

. . . . 531. 188. Item, 200 ton of chalk, spent by the daye at the said kyeles, and for filling of the welles, amounteth to 2,800 ton, at 8d. sterling the ton, summa

· 931. 6s. 8d. Item, spent in brikkes monethly 600,000, at 58. sterling the 1000,


1501. Item, in tymber, 60 ton,* at 3s. 4d. sterling the ton, summa 301. Item, in yron worke, monethly

. 131. 6s. 8d. Item, in boordes, nayles, herdelles, mastes, spares, bastes, terras, and diverse other necessaries

. 301. Item, in freight of stone from Feversham and St. Augustine † at Canterbury · ·

, 201. Item, in hard stone and freight of the same from Maidstone to Calais . . . . . . . . . 601.


* The miscalculations in this and some other places belong to the manuscript.

+ The buildings of the late monastery at Canterbury, as at various other places, were made to serve the office of a quarry.

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