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The roome and service belonging to a gentleman huisher. A gentleman huisher ought to commande the sayd sewer and kerver to wash their hands before they take their towels.

The gentlemen huisher ought to forbid ye no manner of man do sett any dish upon the Kings bed, for feare of hurting of the Kings rich counter points* ye lyeth thereupon, and ye the sayd huisher take good heede ye no man wipe or rub their hands upon none arras of the Kings, whereby they might bee hurted ; in the chamber where the King is spetially, and in all others.

The said gentleman huisher ought to know the Kings mind when it shall please him to have any Schames, Ministrells, or any such other, to come to his presence, or ells not.

Service belonging to a Grolme Porter. First-A grolme porter ought to bring ladders for the hanging of the Kings chamber ; the sayd Groome Porter to bring in tables, formes, trestills and stooles, strawe for beds, rushes, and all such other necessarie things belonging to the sayd chambers, as the gentlemen huisher shall commande him, the said grolm porter to have all the foresayd stuff to the sergeant of the Hall.

The Grolme Porter ought to bring to the Kings great chamber dore all manner of fewell, as wood and coles as shal be thought necessary when it shal be commanded by a gentleman huisher or a yeoman huisher, an also to ha ever ready torches, sises, with other lights for the Kings chambers as it hath beene aforetimes accustomed to be delivered. The order of the King on Good Friday, touching his coming to service, hallowing of

the Cramp Rings and offering and creeping to the crosse. First the King to come to the closett, or to the chappell, with the Lords and noblemen wayting on him, without any sword to bee borne before him on that day, and there to tarry in his travers till the Bishop and Deane have brought forth the crucifix out of the vestry, (the Almoner reading the service of the cramp rings) layd upon a cushion before the high altar, and then the huishers shall lay a carpet before ye for the King to creep to the crosse upon, and ye done there shall be a fourme set upon the carpet before the crucifix, and a cushion layd before it for the King to kneele on; and the master of the jewell house shal be ther ready with the cramp rings in a basin or basins of silver ; the King shall kneele upon the sayd cushion before the fourme and then must the Clerk of the closett bee ready with the booke conteyninge ye service of the hallowing of the sayd rings, and the Almoner must kneel upon the right hand of the King, holding of the sayd booke, and when ye is done the King shall rise and go to the high altar, where an huisher must be ready with a cushion to lay for his grace to kneele upon, and the greatest Lord or Lords being then present shall take the basin or basins with the rings, and bear them after the King, and then deliver them to the King to offer ; and this done the Queen shall come down out of her closett or travers into the Chappell, with ladies and gentlewomen wayters on her, and creepe to the crosse ; and that done, she shall returne againe into her closett or travers, and then the ladies shall come downe and creepe to the crosse, and when they have done, the Lords and noblemen shall in likewise.

ON CRAMP-RINGS.

The custom which prevailed in England during the middle ages of hallowing Rings upon Easter day and Good Friday, which rings, in consequence of the benediction thus bestowed, were supposed to possess the power of securing the wearer from the falling sickness and cramp, has already received illustration from Brand and Ellis. Some few interesting particulars having presented the selves in addition to the facts collected by those learned writers, they are here presented to the reader.

* (Modern) Counterpane.

We learn from Hospinian, as cited by Brand, that the Kings of England had a custom of hallowing rings upon Good Friday, and that the custom originated in a ring which was long preserved with especial veneration in Westminster Abbey, supposed to have been brought from Jerusalem by some pilgrims, and which ring, it was discovered, Edward the Confessor had given to a mendicant who had solicited charity in the name of Saint John the Evangelist.“

Polydore Vergil repeats the same story of the ring given to the mendicant at Jerusalem, and adds,

“ Iste annulus in eodem templo (scil. Westmonasterii), multa veneratione perdiu est servatus, quod salutaris esset membris stupentibus valeretque adversus comitialem morbum, cum tangeretur ab illis, qui ejusmodi tentarentur morbis. Hinc natum, ut reges postea Angliæ consueverint in die Parasceues, multa cerimonia sacrare annulos, quos qui induunt, hisce in morbis omnino nunquam sunt.”—p. 143, edit. 1546.

More explicit and authentic information regarding the manner in which this offering was made, is to be collected from the Wardrobe Accounts of Edward III., a manuscript in the Cottonian library. Amongst the alms with which the royal household is debited are the following entries :

Anno ix. In oblationibus Domini Regis ad crucem de Gneytheb die Paraceues in capella sua infra manerium de Clipstone, in precio duorum Florencium xiiij. die Aprilis vs. viijd. et in denariis quos posuit pro dictis Florenciis reasumptis pro anulis inde faciendis ibidem eodem die vjs.

Summa xijs. viijd. Anno x. In oblationibus Domini Regis ad crucem de Gneythe die Paraceues in capella sua apud Eltham xxix. die Marcii vs. et pro eisdem denariis reasumptis pro anulis inde faciendis per manus Domini Johannis de Crokeford eodem die v.

Summa xs. From these two entries it appears that certain coins were offered at the High Altar, that they were afterwards redeemed by an equivalent sum being substituted, and that the money so consecrated was converted into rings. It is true that these entries do not state explicitly for what purpose these rings were to be made, or why they were formed from consecrated metal, but the fact already advanced by Hospinian prevents us from doubting the object to which they were applied. Two circumstances in these entries are rather singular; in the first place the offering made is a trifling one, and in the second place we see that the consecrated coin was redeemed in one instance by a ransom which was not equivalent in intrinsic value to the money originally offered.

Cramp Rings must, therefore, have been very scarce articles if they were formed by no more easy process than that here described. Our ancestors were too fond of charms to tolerate such a monopoly, and rings, possessing equal efficacy against cramps with those mentioned above, were manufactured in no small numbers. This is proved beyond a doubt by the following extract from a medical treatise written in the 14th century. It is the medicine against the Cramp, and is given as it stands in the original.

" For the Crampe. Tak and ger gedire on Gude Friday, at fyfe parische kirkes, fife of the first penyes that is offerd at the crosse, of ilk a kirk the first penye; than tak them al and ga befor the crosse and say v. pater nosters in the worschip of fife wondes,' and bere thaim on the v. dais, and say ilk a day als mekil on the same wyse ; and then gar maks a ryng thar of with owten alay of other metel, and writ with in Jasper, Batasar, Altrapa, l and writ with outen Ih'c nazarenus ; and sithen tak it fra

• Brand's Popular Antiq. edit. Ellis, i. 128.

For an account of the Black Cross of Gneyeth see the Glossary affixed to the Wardrobe Account of Edward I. edited by Topham. € MS. Cott. Nero, C. viii. fol. 209.

d Id. fol. 212. e Cause to be gathered. 1 The five wounds which our Saviour had when crucified. & Cause to be made. These are blundered forms of the names of the three Kings of Cologne. Gext, MAG.-Vol. I.

G

Godd's grace.'

the goldsmyth upon a Fridai, and say v. pater nosters als thu did be fore and vse it alway afterward."

Some of the rings formed according to these instructions, may still be in existence; and, perhaps, the passage quoted may be the means of explaining what has hitherto been misunderstood, or identifying the use of what has been uncertain.

Lord Berners, the translator of Froissart, when at the Court of the Emperor Charles V. as ambassadour from Henry VIII., in a letter dated 21 June, 1518, says to Wolsey, “ If your grace remember me with some crampe-rynges ye shall do a thing much looked for, and I trust to bestow thaym well, with

A letter from Dr. Magnus to Cardinal Wolsey, written in 1526, contains the following curious passage :

“ Pleas it your Grace to wete that M. Wiat of his goodnes sent vnto me for a present certaine Cramp Ringges which I distributed and gave to sondery myne acquaintaunce at Edinburghe, amonges other to M. Adame Otterbourne, who, with oone of thayme, releved a mann lying in the falling sekenes, in the sight of myche people ; sethenne whiche tyme many requestes have been made unto me for Cramp Ringges at my departing there, and also sethenne my comyng frome thennes. May it pleas your grace, therefore, to shew your gracious pleasure to the said M. Wyat that some Ringges may be kept and sent into Scottelande ; whiche, after my poore oppynnyoun shulde be a good dede, remembering the power and operacion of thaym is knowne and proved in Edinburgh, and that they be gretly required for the same cause booth by grete persounages and other."

Andrew Boorde in his Breviary of Health, speaking of the Cramp, has an allusion to the supposed power of the King to expel it. He says that “the Kynges Majestie hath a great helpe in this matter in hallowing Crampe Ringes, and so geven without money or petition.'

J. STEVENSON.

m

ON THE PROJECTED DEMOLITION OF CHURCHES IN THE CITY OF LONDON.

Mr. URBAN,- am induced to call your readers’ attention to a fact, which to a very great majority of them will be scarcely credible, that at the present moment active preparations are on foot in the City of London to effect the destruction of more than TWENTY OF THE CHURCHES OF THE METROPOLIS. Were I not certain of the truth of this statement, I should feel great hesitation in making an assertion which must to many appear to be begirt with incredibility.

The specious plea of improvement may be advanced to blind the eyes of many respectable individuals, who aware of the excellence of their own conduct, and the purity of their motives, will hesitate to ascribe feelings of an opposite kind to others; but let them pause, and before they suffer themselves to be misled, look well into the workings of a busy meddling faction, which is at this time in active operation, with the ultimate object of overthrowing, not the tithes only, nor the patronage, nor the pluralities, but the Established Church itself.

That the churches which are to be destroyed do not stand in the way of any improvement projected or contemplated, is well known to the advocates of this measure; that not the most remote plea of expediency exists for their destruction, is as certain as the very existence of these churches.—No, the real object for their removal is the injury of the Establishment, an early step towards the overthrow of the Church, and the exaltation of the friends of heresy and irreligion.

The first object of the attack is St. Clement's Church, near the site of the desecrated fane of St. Michael, of which not a stone remains, and amidst the carts and bustle of one of the new fashioned openings to London Bridge, the consecrated ground is lost and extinguished. But that church actually stood in the way of what by some was called an improvement: to say the least, a dif

i MS. Arundel 275, fol. 23b. k MS. Harl. 295, fol. 1196; cited by Ellis, i. 128. I MS. Cott. Calig. B. 11. fol. 112. m Fol. 166, cdit. 4to, 1557, cited hy Brand, i. 128.

ference of opinion existed on the question of its removal; but as to St. Clement's, the new street is so completely clear of its site, that there is actually room for the erection of an entire dwelling, between that edifice and the new road, and so it would appear to every one, if the works in that quarter had been proceeded with.

We shall hear perhaps that the church presents in its exterior features no claims to architectural beauty. This even is not strictly true; but, whatever may be the plainness of the outside, the interior may rank among the finest of Sir Christopher Wren's designs, and the wood work displays a profusion of Gibbon's carvings. I shall not at present enter into a minute description of its architectural character, but will do this at a future opportunity. All I wish to effect at present is to awaken the attention of such of your readers as may possess influence in the Realm, and to excite them to aid and second the exertions of a trusty band of real and tried friends to the Church, who are engaged in the noble work of saving, if possible, the splendid works of Sir C. Wren, and the temples of the Deity, from the hands of faction. If improvement of the City is the object, why is it not effected by the demolition of private houses, and not churches, where the ashes of the dead at least ought to remain sacred,

The consent of the Archbishop and the Bishop of London are necessary to sanction the act of destruction ; but why should the burden be entirely cast on them? Let the friends of religion, the admirers of beauty in the fine arts, and every one who has the least pretension to the character of a man of taste, unite to assist the Dignitaries of the Church in refusing their sanction to the iniquitous measure.

The Clergy must, I am sure, feel at this time the importance of a stand being at once made. If they look on supinely at this attack on the Church, they will find to their sorrow, that the fall of the Cathedral will involve the destruc. tion of the Mitre, and the abolition of Tithes will speedily follow the demolition of the Altar.

Your readers may expect to hear more on this subject, and to be astounded with a list of churches doomed to destruction, the magnitude of which will exceed their utmost apprehensions. Dec. 21, 1833.

Yours, &c.

CHICHELE.

TITLE OF ESQUIRE. Mr. URBAN,—The question proposed in your magazine for November, p. 386, relative to the rules by which the Heralds were guided in allowing or withholding the title of Esquire at their Visitations, can perhaps to a certain extent be satisfactorily answered. The very general application of the title of Esquire, without the slightest reference to the pretensions of persons, is cer. tainly to be reprobated, if it be only for the reason that it has driven the respectable designation of Gentleman into obscurity.

The visiting officers of Arms received certain instructions from the King of Arms whose Province they were deputed to visit, and by which I apprehend they regulated themselves as far as circumstances would permit.

As regards such instructions upon the point in question, I send you an extract from those issued under the hand of Sir Henry St. George, Clarenceux King of Arms, to Thomas May, Esq. Chester Herald, and Gregory King, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant, his Marshalls and Deputies appointed to visit the Counties of Northampton, Rutland, Leicester, and Warwick, in 1681 and 1682, by virtue of the powers granted to him under a Royal Commission to visit his Province, and which was the last Commission under which any surveys were made by the officers of arms.

" Article 2." “ In the allowance of titles you shall enter the persons whose descents you take, with no other titles but such as they may justly and lawfully bear according to the Law of Arms: and you shall inform the several Knights of His Majesties proclama." tion for registring the times of their respective Knighthoods, and the danger of neglecting the same : and you shall allow the title of Esqr. to these and no other.

1. The heir male of the younger sons of Noblemen. 2. The heir male of a Knight.

3. Officiary Esq". viz. such who are so made by the King by putting on a collar of S.S. or such who are so virtute officii, without that ceremony, as the High Sheriff of a county, and a Justice of the Peace, during their being in office or Commission ; with this caution, that you always enter the said office or qualification in speciall terms.

As for Sergeants at Law, Doctors in Divinity, and dignified Prebends, you shall register them by those titles or qualifications only, but you shall except [accept] them in quality as an Esq".

Barristers at Law you shall enter by that title, but you shall except [accept] them as Gentlemen only, unless otherwise qualified to bear the title of Esq"."

The foregoing extracts will inform your correspondent of the rules observed so late as 1682. Dec. 6.

Yours, &c.

F. E.

RANK OF COLONIAL BISHOFS.IRISH ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOPS.

Mr. URBAN,—Your correspondent J. T. (October, p. 290) waiving the question of right, as clearly untenable, yet claims as a matter of courtesy, the title

'My Lord” for the Colonial Bishops, in virtue of their descent from the Apostles; but were they (the Apostles) so addressed ?-As to J. T.'s difficulty about addressing Bishops otherwise than as Lords, I can see none. As for instance “Doctor Heber,” “Bishop”--the latter is often the mode of addressing a Lord Bishop by persons on terms of sufficient intimacy.

It is a fact not generally known that the Irish Roman Catholic Bishops are always installed as such in the ancient Cathedrals, though now appropriated to Protestant worship. This is effected by stealth, the new R. C. Bishop, &c. obtain admission as visitors merely; and whilst the Verger or Clerk's attention is otherwise occupied, the installation is hastily arranged.

Yours, &c.

T. L. C.

STAGE COACHES.

Mr. URBAN,—The following extracts from old newspapers concerning Stage Coaches in former times may amuse the readers of the Gentleman's Magazine. The first is from “The Norwich Gazette or the Loyal Packet,” dated 1710.

“ Advertisements.—Samuel Bann of Northwalsham, designing to undertake Brewing and Malting, intends to leave off drawing the Stage-coach from Northwalsham to Norwich ; hath a very good and new Coach and Herse, and a very good set of Horse to dispose of, a good Peniworth. 'Tis a very advantageous Stage, and any one as undertakes it will meet with encouragement."

The next is from the same paper.

“Norwich Flying Stage-coach in one day, begins on the 29th of this instant May, and sets out from the Feathers near Tombland, Monday, Wednesday, and Friday to London, and returns Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday from the Green Dragon and Four Swans within Bishopsgate Street in London. Each Passenger is to pay 258. and to carry but 14 Pounds weight. The Coach sets out exactly at two o' Clock. Performed, if God permit, by Tho. Bayly and Tho. Beecroft." The following is from “The Post Man,” dated Nov. 19-21, 1719.

• Nottingham, Derby, Loughborough, and Leicester Stage Coaches continues still to go in Three Days from the Ram Inn in Smithfield every Monday and Thursday, and from the Places above named the same Days, at the usual prices. Performed by John Needham and Tho. Smith."

From “ Crossgrove's News," 1739.

“ Norwich Stage Coach to London, by Bury St. Edmund's in Suffolk, sets out every Wednesday morning from Mr. John Godfrey's, at the Duke's Palace in Norwich, which Coach will continue going and coming some weeks longer in two days from Norwich to London, and from London and Norwich, there being a sufficient quantity of Horses laid upon the road between Bury and London to convey the Passenger in

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