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and the third just received from New- tion within 9 degrees of the sun, in a ho. castle. The diameter of the outer zone rizontal direction, but that above and beof two of these lenses, is two feet six low the sun the traces disappeared at a inches, and that of the London instru- distance considerably greater. It was ment is three feet. Their focal distance found, in the course of these experiments, is about three feet. By exposure to the that very rough surfaces, as a stone wall, rays of the sun, the lens suddenly melts a gravel walk, a carpet, produced some pieces of copper and other metals placed polarization by reflection; and that the in its focus. The Newcastle lens is plane of polarization in all cases passed made of one piece of highly polished glass. through the point of reflection and the These lenses are about to be removed to source from which the light came. This Gullane-hill, where their effect will be communication gave rise to other obserfully tried along with the light invented vations from other members. by Lieut. Drummond, from the experi.
ROYAL INSTITUTION. ment rooms of the Northern Lighthouse Board.
John Fuller, esq. of Rose Hill, the
founder of the professorship of ElectriASHMOLEAN SOCIETY, OXFORD.
city attached to this establishment, has Feb. 21. Two papers were read, com- conferred upon it another princely bene. municated by J. Duncan, esq. D.C.L.; faction of 3,333l. 68. 8d. three per cent. the first on a supposed letter of Alexan- consols, to found a Professorship of der the Great to Aristotle, descriptive of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology, India; the second, a description of a sin- which is intended to be conferred on Dr. gular instance of a moth case formed in a Roget; and a third sum of 30001. to accucarpet bag.-P. Duncan, esq. of New mulate in the funds, we presume with a College, then exhibited part of the con- view to rebuilding the house. In the whole, tents of a mummy of a crocodile, recently Mr. Fuller has bestowed 10,0001. upon presented to the Museum by Mr. Munro; the Royal Institution; the members were and gave some account of crocodiles, from specially assembled to thank him on the Cuvier and other writers.—Dr. Daubeny 24th of March. exhibited Daniell's pyrometer, and made
KING'S COLLEGE. some observations on the influence of light on animal life ; and concluded by
Major-General Sir H. Worsley has proposing the following query :- Is it just made the munificent donation of reasonable to suppose (with Dr. Edwards) 20001. to King's College, London, for that the singular animal, called the Pro- 'the endowment of an exhibition, to be teus Anguinus, which occurs in the dark applied to the purpose of educating young caverns of Carniola, is a reptile whose
men in that institution, for the office of form bas never been developed, bearing
Missionaries of the Established Church the same relation to some unknown spe
in the East. This gift is in addition to cies which the tadpole does to the frog?
former donations, amounting to 7001.
from the same liberal supporter. CAMBRIDGE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY.
March 3. The Rev. Temple Chevalier described experiments which he had made Eapense of Works and Buildings from on the polarization of light by the sky.
Jan. 5, 1821, to March 31, 1833. The general results were, that light is Paid for ordinary works and repairs, polarized by the clear sky: that the effect and necessary fittings in the old buildings begins to be sensible at points thirty de- (including the several official houses), grees distant from the sun, and that the 14,5661. 13s. 7d.-Paid on account of the greatest quantity of polarized light pro- new buildings of the east and west wings, ceeds from points at ninety degrees dis- 213,0981. 17s. 20.- Estimates of the tance from the sun; a fact which seems probable expense of the north wing now to indicate that the reflection, which oc- proposed to be carried into execution, accasions the polarization, takes place at cording to the plan of Sir Robert Smirke, the surface of two media as nearly as 70,0001. possible of the same density.
Account of old Coins purchased for March 10. Professor Airy gave an ac- the British Museum, between Christmas count of experiments on the polarization 1832 and Christmas 1833-1. Gold coin of light by the sky.. It appeared that the of Rhodes; price 161.-2. A collection light was polarized in a plane passing of 3,012 coins, chiefly Greek and Roman, through the sun, and that the plane of comprising 52 in gold, 1,034 in silver, polarization was not reversed in approach- and 1,926 in brass; price 10001.
, bought ing the sun, as had been formerly sug- of H. P. Borell, esq. of Smyrna.-3. gested by M. Arago. Professor Airy Two hundred and ninety-six coins, chiefly found that he could observe the polariza- of Redulf, Eanred, and Athelred, Kings
of Northumberland, and of Vigmund and bers who had not attended, were chosen Eanbald, Archbishops of York, and the Messrs. Lemon, W. C. Taylor, Whittaancient vessel in which the coins were ker, Dilke, and Williams. found, 201., as a remuneration to the sex
MUSICAL FESTIVAL. ton and others who discovered the coins. -4. Six hundred and fifty-nine pennies A grand Musical Festival is to be of William the Conqueror, found at Bos. given in Westminster Abbey next sumworth, near Alresford; cost 501.
mer, under the special patronage of their The total expenditure of the British Majesties. The King has been pleased Museum in 1833, was 19,4841. The to give a donation of 500 guineas towards number of visitors was 210,495.
the funds, and to appoint the following
Noblemen and Gentlemen as directors: TRE LITERARY FUND.
Lord Howe, Lord Saltoun, Lord Belfast, Seventy-six cases have been relieved Lord Denbigh, Lord Burghersh, Lord by this institution during the past year, Cawdor, Sir Andrew Barnard, and Sir by grants amounting to 1,2651. At the B. Stephenson, who have appointed Mr. annual general meeting held March 12, Parry their Assistant Secretary. Sir Sir R. Peel and Sir R. H. Inglis were George Smart, with whom the idea orielected Vice-Presidents in the room of ginated, has been appointed conductor. Sir W. Clayton and Sir John Malcolm, There will be four grand performances, deceased. George Woodfall, esq. was and four public rehearsals, and the orchosen Auditor, in the room of Mr. Sa- chestra will be composed of more than ville Onley, resigned ; and Mr. Amyot 600 performers. The proceeds will be succeeded Mr. Sotheby on the Council. divided amongst the principal Musical To the Committee, in the room of mem- Charities.
barum and his coins, was rather an Feb. 27. Thomas Amyot, Treasurer, sacred symbol.
assumption than an invention of the in the chair.
March 6. H. Hallam, esq. V. P. Mr. William Oldham, of Cressingham,
A. J. Kempe, esq. F.S. A. exhibited near Diss, exhibited a small antiqué drawings by Mr. Jobn Swaine, jun. after groupe, in bronze, found near that place,
some ancient stained glass of the time of in which Cupid was represented as
Henry the Third, remaining in the north mounted on the shoulders of Hercules, window of the old Jerusalem Chamber, in token of having subdued him to his
Westminster. It is more remarkable sway. This, we may remark, is one of for its high antiquity than its designs, the modes of representing the triumph consisting of the following subjects, treated of Omphale over Hercules, adopted on
in the ordinary way, each in a distinct gems and sculptures of the classic age.
oval piece:—the Slaughter of the InThe groupe described, appeared to us
nocents; Decapitation of St. John; Christ to be of Roman workmanship.
walking on the Sea; the Resurrection; George Corner, esq. F. S. A. com
the Ascension; the Descent of the Holy municated some potters' marks on Sa
Ghost; and the Stoning of Stephen. To mian ware lately found in Tooley-street, these is added a piece of the age of and some observations on that portion James the First, now much disarranged, of the Borough of Southwark, called
but which originally exhibited the arms the Gildable manor, within which we un
of Archbishop Williams, when Bishop of derstood Mr. Corner to say that he
Lincoln, and Dean of Westminster; the imagined the ancient limits of the Bur
coat of the Deanery being placed in the gus, or Borough, were confined.
centre, impaling the see of Lincoln on the The reading of the paper by W. Y.
dexter, and his family arms on the sinister Ottley, esq. F. S. A. was continued, in
side. Mr. Kempe took the opportunity which some curious remarks were made
to make some remarks on the history of the on fragments of glass vessels found in the
Jerusalem Chamber, which was erected by catacombs of Rome, marked with the
Abbot Lillington, in the 14th century.
tinuator of the annals of Croyland, Fawhich Mr. Ottley thinks was employed bian, and others, of the death of Henry by the Christians to express the name of the Fourth in this apartment; and on the our Saviour as early as the reign of expressions of the authority first menDiocletian, and that the adoption of it by tioned, “ ad Cantuariam sepultus est," the Emperor Constantine on his la- he noticed the doubt which had been
well-known monogram of Xşıstas R
raised on authority of a MS. extant at historical question it involved, being one Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, whe- of most deep interest and importance, as ther the King was really buried at Can- well as difficulty; but there can hardly be terbury: the MS. stating with the air any other. of the greatest solemnity, from the de. Mr. Kempe's paper concluded by some position of an eye-witness, that the King's account of the spoliation by Cromwell's body, when being conveyed in a small Parliament, of the Regalia, of which the vessel from Westminster to Canterbury, Abbats of Westminster had formerly for interment, was thrown into the been the keepers, and which, in cogThames, between Barking and Graves- nizance of their prescriptive right, deend, by the crew, by reason of a dreadful scending to the Deans of Westminster, tempest which surprised them, and that are still on the eve of a coronation placed the empty coffin was then closed up, co- in the Jerusalem Chamber. In the same vered with its rich pall, carried to Canter- room is suspended the curious original bury, and solemnly interred. Mr. Kempe oil-painting of Richard the Second, for. thought a slight' degree of probability merly in the Abbey Church, from which might attach to the relation, from the Vertue derived his portrait, and of which known superstitious aversion that sailors a more close copy is given by Carter in entertain to having a corpse on sbipboard, bis “ Ancient Sculpture and Painting.” which they think causes disasters to the March 13. Hudson Gurney, esq. V. P. vessel.
J. Y. Akerman, esq. F. S. A. exhiThese observations elicited a highly bited a small square and flat Greek curious statement from Sir Henry Ellis, weight, found in Spain. Round the two as an accompaniment to Mr. Kempe's margins and the edge, are the three words paper, viz. that in August, 1832, the NEPNNOC KAICAPOC CEBACTOC: tomb of Henry the Fourth bad been on one side a small head of Minerva, and privately opened, in order to solve the the letters A ..,.; on the other, the word historic doubt to which Mr. Kempe had orao. alluded. Two coffins were found; the Mr. Diamond exbibited a brass ring smaller one, which is that of Queen Joan, found on the spike of a harrow at Pembury, was undisturbed. The larger was fur- near Tunbridge Wells, about two years ther investigated; on sawing through the since. It has an engraving for a seal, rude outer chest of elm, nothing at first representing the constellation Aries, surappeared but a quantity of hay-bands, and mounted by a comet, and surrounded by a small cross, formed by two twigs tied a Hebrew inscription, divided by stars, ini together. On removing these, the leaden which the word Aaron occurs. shroud or coffin of the King was found, A further portion of Mr. Ottley's and it was determined to cut the lead. paper was read, principally relating to the When this had been done, the King's use of minuscular writing by the Romans. countenance appeared, unchanged except March 20. Mr. Gurney in the chair. in colour; the nose and eye-balls still The reading of Mr. Ottley's paper were prominent, and resisting the touch, was continued, and the Society adjourned and all the teeth perfect, except one. over Easter, to the 10th of April. After a few minutes' exposure to the air, the features collapsed, and the party, having satisfied their curiosity, shortly At the Anniversary Meeting of the after reclosed the coffins and vault, and Society of Autiquaries at Newcastle upon left the royal corpse to that decay which Tyne, on the 5th of February last, (see is the common lot of mortality, but from our last Number, p. 316,) upon the health which the care of those who bad per- of those of the Historians of the county formed the last offices of humanity had and diocese of Durbam, who were present, so long preserved it. We must confess baving been given from the chair, and the that, in our estimation, the idle story of Rev. John Hodgson, the author of the Clement Maidstone was hardly sufficient elaborate History of Northumberland, now to justify this unhallowed investigation; in course of publication, having briefly and it would seem that the parties con- returned thanks, the Rev. James Raine, cerned were of the same opinion, from author of the History of North Durham, the circumstance of its having been kept rose and spoke as follows :a close secret for more than eighteen “ Sir Charles Monck and Gentlemen, months. Nor do we think such inva- My friend, Mr. Hodgson, than whom sions upon the narrow mansions of the there lives not a better man, or a more dead, ought to be countenanced, whether zealous and able antiquary, has very mothe object of untempered curiosity be a destly informed you that be is no orator. King or a Hampden. The case of Charles J, too, must make the same confession. the First was perhaps an exception ; the So little am I accustomed to public speakGENT. Mag. VOL. I.
RECORDS OF THE BISHOPRIC OF DURHAM.
ing, that it would be an easier task for me queror to Henry VIII., consisting of not to write a long article for our Transac- merely one such document under each tions, than to satisfy my feelings in thank. reign, but of many; of a similar series of ing you in suitable terms for the hearty deeds and seals (splendid in execution), of manner in which you bave been pleased archbishops of York and bishops of Durto drink my health, in connection with ham for the same period; of deeds and that of my brother historian, and for your seals of almost every see and monastery, cordial wishes of success to us in our to- not only in England, but in Scotlavd and pographical pursuits. To the title of an Ireland, and of an immense mass of docuantiquary I certainly venture to lay some ments proceeding from laymen of every claim;
but I very honestly confess to you rank, from the prince to the peasant, that, when I consider the advantages and during the five first centuries after the facilities of access to unpublished, and in Conquest. Of this latter class, many apmany instances unexplored records, which pear to have been deposited here as in a I have possessed, I can only look upon place of safe custody, during the wars bemyself as an idle antiquary at the best. tween the Houses of York and Lancaster. A brief enumeration of a few of these fa- Their owners, doubtless, died on the field cilities and advantages may not be unin- of battle, during that long and memorable teresting to many whom I have the ho- period of internal strife, and for some reanour to address; but, at all events, it will son or other they were never reclaimed. be peculiarly suitable to the occasion There is also a box of very valuable oriwbich has called us together, and will ginal letiers, chiefly during the fourteenth prove the charge which I have made and fifteenth centuries, many of them against myself, of remissness in my voca- from kings or members of the royal fation.
mily; some of them upon matters of ge" In the first place—in the LIBRARY of heral interest; and to most of them cothe Dean and Chapter of Durham,(of which pies of the answers are preserved. I need I have the honour to bear the key, and not enlarge upon the light which such doin which it will at all times afford me cuments as those I have been enumerating great pleasure to receive you or any of must of necessity cast, not only upon the your friends, on purposes of literature or private history of individuals of name and curiosity,) to pass by the numerous manu- fame, but upon the public history of the scripts, many of them far above a thou- kingdom. To the northern topographer sand years old, which have no peculiar they present an inexhaustible mine of pretendency to illustrate our public or local cious stores; and to the public historianhistory, but which afford, nevertheless, to the inquirer into our ancient manners, so many excellent specimens of the arts and customs, and laws-they can supply of writing and illuminating at their early abundant matter, not less new than valu. period; there are here presented the able. It is from this repository, most united topographical treasures of Hunter, liberally thrown open to him, that Mr. Randall, and Allan, men who devoted Surtees has enriched his History of Durtheir long lives to the illustration of the bam, with matter to which he was the first the county and diocese of Durham; and topographer who ever enjoyed an unli., each, in his time, gave permanency to
mited access. From this repository are many a valuable record now lost or de- engraved all the splendid seals with which stroyed, This rich collection of topo
that book is embellished; and the guargraphical lore, liberally purchased by the dians of these treasures have the satisfacChapter at different times, has lately been tion of knowing that their names will go catalogued for the purposes of reference, down to posterity, in close connection and is accessible under certain proper rules with the most magnificent specimens of and conditions, with which he who is in- county topography of which England can fluenced by right motives and a public pur- boast, and of which they have been the pose will find it easy to comply. I say no- chief promoters. But with the Treasury thing of the inspiration which an antiquary I have not yet done. Here is also premust feel upon contemplating the nume- served an immense collection of yearly rous collection of Roman altars and in- rolls of receipts and expences, not only scriptions which the Library contains, or of the more important functionaries of the of the assistance wbich he may receive in convent, from a period anterlor to the year his studies from the valuable printed books 1300, but of all its inferior officers, includof which it can boast, but proceed to ing annual returns of a similar nature, from
“ The TREASURY; a treasury indeed, all the cells scattered over the north of of stores so varied, that I find it no easy England, which were accountable to Dur. matter to give even a brief outline of its ham as the mother church. Nothing can
ntents. I think of an unbroken series exceed the accuracy with which these doof royal charters, with perfect seals, ex- cuments are drawn up; and certainly, notending from the time of William the Con- thing can exceed the minute and valuable information which they afford, whether in There is, for instance, a long series of dea statistical or philological point of view. positions on the subject of the rebellion Setting aside the interest wbich they are of the earls of Westmoreland and Northcapable of exciting in the mind, by letting umberland in 1569, which have never yet us at once into all the private bistory and seen the light; and there are depositions amusements of the most opulent and dig- which, in their date and minuteness, at nified body of ecclesiastics in the kingdom, once take us back three centuries, and for the long period of two centuries and place us at once in the very centre of the a half before the Reformation, they fur- domestic privacy and virtues of the fami. nish us not only with the price of corn and lies to which they refer. To the infinite cattle, and the leading conveniences and credit of the officers of the Consistory necessaries of life, but they descend to the Court, there has been no period within cost of even the most trifling articles. So the last twenty years, (I speak from perminute are they in their statements, that I sonal and grateful experience, long becould undertake to ascertain from them fore I became officially connected with not only the price of an ox or a bushel of it,) when he who had a public and not corn, but the cost of any one article of a private object in view, was called upon domestic consumption, however appa- to pay one farthing for the information of rently trifling, in any given year of the which he stood in need ; and it gives me period over which they extend. I have great pleasure to state, for your inforspoken of the philological information mation, that the same liberality is perwbich these rolls afford, and upon this severed in to its fullest extent. point I must for a moment dwell. They In the LIBRARY OF Bishop Cosin, at profess to be kept in Latin, and so they which we next arrive, are preserved the are; but in almost every line, especially manuscript collections of Mickleton and under the head of disbursements, there is Spearman, in upwards of a hundred vosuch an admixture of the genuine English lumes (I speak from memory), abounding • words and phrases of their day, used appa- with the most valuable topographical inrently in consequence of the difficulty of formation relative to the counties of Durexpressing in Latin those words and pbrases bam and Northumberland; for the pur(in many instances peculiar to the north), chase of wbich, at a considerable price, that their value becomes enhanced in a and for a comprehensive Catalogue of twofold degree, by the light which they their contents, compiled by Sir Henry throw upon our mother tongue, at a time Ellis, at his expense, the memory of the when there is a great lack of such sterling late Bishop of Durham will always be information. I have already brought to justly dear to the northern historian, for light from this repository, by the kind whose especial use they were brought permission of the Chapter, the Account back to Durham, by that munificent paRolls of the priory of Holy Island. Those tron of local and general literature. The of the Proctor of Norbam, and the officers manuscripts which this library previously of the monastery of Coldingham, are now possessed are not numerous, but among engaging my attention; and to all of these them may be found two of the highest loI confidently refer for the truth of my cal interest; the first, the original, for such statements.
I verily believe it to be, of Symova Du“In the ConsIsTORY Court, to which we NELMENSIS, a book which deserves to be next come, and with which I have the ho- printed in its literatim state, as it now nour to be officially connected, are pre- stands, not only as a very valuable speserved the wills, inventories, administra- cimen of the contractions in use at that tions, and marriage-bonds of this diocese, early period, but as a test to which the from an early period, together with a very various editions of this most important valuable series of depositions taken in author may be applied. It might probably matters ecclesiastical, from the reign of appear, that serious mistakes have been Mary downwards. Here, again, are do- made by his different editors, in their cuments of immense value to the local elongation of bis words ; but at all events, historian, abounding with information re- be this as it may, at the present day, when lative not only to the genealogy, but to the we have type ad annessim, I, for one, habits, and feelings, and manners—to the should be delighted to see Symeon under very virtues and vices of our ancestors; his own hand. An edition of this chaand wbile, on this latter head, there is racter, and from this self-same MS., was much in the books of deposition, espe- in contemplation a few years ago, under cially, which may be charitably left to all the encouragement which the name slumber in the volumes in which it is con- and sanction of the late Bishop of Durtained, there is much which, under a ham conld give : but his death put a careful hand, might be brought forth with stop to the proceeding. The second, a advantage, in illustration of the public and very early transcript of the Philobiolon private history of the north of England. of Richard Bury, Bishop of Durham, and