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1934.] Church of Mathieu.--- Gaulisho Coins.

The stoup is of the same material, and probably of the same It is deeply set into the south wall, near the western end, and forma, but small diameter, without any ornament except a few as a finish to its lower part,

In the same part of the church, but nearer to the central line therefore more convenient for the congregation, is another st shallow basin, excavated in the flat top or abacus of an isolated pillar.

The altar, which is two steps above the chancel floor,-the a pulpit and its sounding board of oak,—the confessionals, whic ead, their

proper situation,—the stalls of carved oak, and plain are all of various modern dates, but not worthy of further obse

A statue of the Virgin, as large as life, holding in her hand feial flowers, 46, with the too common had taste of devotees, robes of white, and painted to resemble nature.

Among five or six pictures, in mouldering condition, may b good crucifixion, the gift of a parishioner, who on this occasi taste for the fine arts to a praiseworthy piety, in not sending at Caen, where it would have been more carefully preserved. of this painting is the natural depending position of the Ch inappropriate dancing-master grace displayed in many repres

The churchyard is spacious, but irregular, and surrounded large faras-house, and many cottages. Its principal sculpture those of a succession of the village priests and the lords of th the last of which is one to the memory of Baron Lair, who w of Napoleon, and brother of M. Lair, the senior counsel of Caen, a worthy character, and an intelligent and zealous antic

Yours, &c.

Mr. URBAN,

Camberwell, I send you, herewith, a few drawings of some supposed Gay have recently come into my possession, and which perhap worthy the attention of your readers. They are, I believe, u and it is on that account that I am desirous of placing them never-dying pages of Sylvanus Urban. The general absence o pieces, and, when legends do occur, their being for the mo and unintelligible, has caused this class of coins to be much learned foreigner is at this time engaged in an examination o of Gaul and Britain, and we may, perhaps, at some future p with the result of his researches. Nothing tends to embarrass respecting these coins so much as their difference in wei many of them resemble each other in type and fabric, ti considerably. In a former communication, I alluded to the the ancient British and Gaulish coins to those of the Greeks, a I had seen some barbarous coins which might remind the N parts of the Roman As, and which had obviously been cast ir perhaps, erred in ascribing them to the Gauls; they may some other nation.

No. 1. is an accurate representation of one of these coir strongly resembles some pieces discovered in St. James's since, and which it is said were of iron; but the coin her mixed metal and of extreme hardness, does not contain iro tained by the magnet, yet the mixture of which it is for portions of gold and silver; a circumstance attributable skill in the refining of the metal than to design on the pa Several of these coins were dug up last summer in the GENT. Mag. VOL. I.

2

The stoup is of the same material, and probably of the same date as the font. It is deeply set into the south wall, near the western end; and is of semi-ovoid form, but small diameter, without any ornament except a few plain mouldings, as a finish to its lower part,

In the same part of the church, but nearer to the central line of the nave, and therefore more convenient for the congregation, is another stoup, modern ; a shallow basin, excavated in the flat top or abacus of an isolated small rectangular pillar.

The altar, which is two steps above the chancel floor,—the ambo of deal, the pulpit and its sounding board of oak,—the confessionals, which are at the west end, their proper situation,—the stalls of carved oak, and plain deal benches, are all of various modern dates, but not worthy of further observation.

A statue of the Virgin, as large as life, holding in her hand a bunch of artificial flowers, is, with the too common had taste of devotees, fully dressed in robes of white, and painted to resemble nature.

Among five or six pictures, in mouldering condition, may be noticed a very good crucifixion, the gift of a parishioner, who on this occasion sacrificed his taste for the fine arts to a praiseworthy piety, in not sending it to the museum at Caen, where it would have been more carefully preserved. The chief merit of this painting is the natural depending position of the Christ, without the inappropriate dancing-master grace displayed in many representations on this subject.

The churchyard is spacious, but irregular, and surrounded by the chateau, a large farm-house, and many cottages. Its principal sculptured monuments are those of a succession of the village priests and the lords of the manor; among the last of which is one to the memory of Baron Lair, who was a naval officer of Napoleon, and brother of M. Lair, the senior counsel of the prefecture of Caen, a worthy character, and an intelligent and zealous antiquary.

Yours, &c. PLANTAGENET.

EARLY GAULISH COINS.

MR. URBAN,

Camberwell, Sept. 2, 1833. I send you, herewith, a few drawings of some supposed Gaulish Coins which have recently come into my possession, and which perhaps you will deem worthy the attention of your readers. They are, I believe, unpublished types, and it is on that account that I am desirous of placing them on record in the never-dying pages of Sylvanus Urban. The general absence of legends on these pieces, and, when legends do occur, their being for the most part barbarous and unintelligible, has caused this class of coins to be much neglected; but a learned foreigner is at this time engaged in an examination of the ancient coins of Gaul and Britain, and we may, perhaps, at some future period, be favoured with the result of his researches. Nothing tends to embarrass us in our enquiries respecting these coins so much as their difference in weight; for, although many of them resemble each other in type and fabric, their weight varies considerably. In a former communication, I alluded to the great similarity of the ancient British and Gaulish coins to those of the Greeks, and mentioned that I had seen some barbarous coins which might remind the Numismatist of the parts of the Roman As, and which had obviously been cast in moulds. I have, perhaps, erred in ascribing them to the Gauls; they may possibly belong to some other nation.

No. 1. is an accurate representation of one of these coins which, in type, strongly resembles some pieces discovered in St. James's Park a few years since, and which it is said were of iron; but the coin here given, though of mixed metal and of extreme hardness, does not contain iron, as I have ascertained by the magnet, yet the mixture of which it is formed includes small portions of gold and silver; a circumstance attributable rather to a want of skill in the refining of the metal than to design on the part of the moneyer. Several of these coins were dug up last summer in the neighbourhood of GENT. MAG. VOL. I.

2 M

Boulogne ; but, as I have not heard of the discovery of similar pieces in the interior of France, I am led to conjecture that they were the money of some more northern nation. They are not unlike the rude lumps called Danish Amulets. It is not a little singular that most barbaric coins are struck, whilst these are certainly cast in moulds, and that, too, in the rudest manner. The obverse bears a figure intended to represent a human head; the reverse that of some animal the class and order of which it would puzzle a Linnæus to determine. It is worthy of mention, that in the face of the head, on the obverse, the lips are formed of two dots, after the manner of the early Greek coins. Are these barbarous coins, too, uncouth innitations of the types of a more civilized people ?

No. 2. is of silver, and of tolerable purity,* weighing 66 grains. The obverse presents nothing remarkable : the reverse has a palpable imitation of the Pegasus of Corinth, and bears the letters ro...r. There is little doubt but that this coin is of Gaulish origin.

No. 3. is also of silver, and weighs 30! grains. It is a coin of better execution than the preceding; but evidently struck in Gaul. The female head on the obverse is covered by the lion's skin, and there is a collar round the neck. The reverse has the common badge of the horse at full gallop, and some letters, which, from their ends terminating in dots, are evidently copied from a Greek coin.t

No. 4. is of silver, the size of the Greek tetradrachm, and weighs 100% grains. The obverse appears to bear a human head, although the metal seems to have been too small to receive the whole impression of the die. The hair is arranged in a curious manner. The reverse of this coin is common.

No. 5. is of gold, weighing 884 grains ; and presents, besides the figures of a horse and a human eye, the rude representation of a crab or some other marine animal, from which it may be inferred that this coin was struck by people living on the sea coast, near to which it was found. I have seen no other British or Gaulish coin with this emblem. The piece is cracked at the edges by the force of the punch with which it was struck.

No. 6. is of gold, weighing 593 grains; and a very remarkable coin. The obverse bears a well-executed head; the reverse has the figure of a horse with a wheel beneath, as in the common types, but the reins are held by an eagle : probably a poetical representation of Jupiter, who was one of the Celtic deities.

Nos. 7. and 8. differ from any coins of presumed British or Gaulish fabric that I have yet seen, particularly in weight; the pieces here represented being very thin, and weighing from 7 to 74 grains only. The obverse presents a fullfaced head, strongly resembling that on the early coins of Abydos; but here the resemblance ends: the Greek coins alluded to are very thick, whilst these are almost as thin as a spangle. The reverse bears the common badge of the boar with its bristles raised.

Nos. 9. and 10, are of the same fabric, though of different type to the preceding. The only object upon them worthy of remark is what appears to be a rude representation of a Caduceus. It is possible that these pieces were not issued in Gaul,

No. 11. Of this coin I can give no explanation, for I am ignorant of the place of its discovery, and forget how it came into my hands. I know not whether to attribute it to the Saxons, the French kings of the first race, or to the Danes. It bears a strong resemblance to the well-known Skeattæ, but the metal is of a baser quality. The head is imitated from those on the coins of

Pliny mentions the skill of the Gauls in plating on copper. Some specimens of this art have descended to us in forged Gallic coins of copper, plated with silver and tin. I have one of these pieces now lying before me.

† Some of the silver coins of the time of J. Cæsar and Augustus bear letters of this description ; but the money of the Gauls, as I have before said, is imitated from that of the Greeks. From the style of the tirst imperial denarii, it is evident that they were the work of Greek artists.

the Lower Empire, and the letters XPIE (I take the cross as intended for the Greek X.) may probably form a part of the name of Christ, which occurs so often on the barbarous coins of the Byzantine tyrants. A reference to the plates in Banduri will justify this opinion. Its weight is 153 grains.

J. Y. A.

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QUÆSTIONES VENUSINÆ. No. I.
Romæ nutriri mihi contigit, atque doceri,
Iratus Graiis quantum nocuisset Achilles.
Adjecere bonæ paulo plus artis Athenæ ;
Scilicet, ut possem curvo dignoscere rectum,

Atque inter sylvas Academi querere verum.—2 E. ii. 41–45. It has been disputed whether, in the 44th verse, Horace might not intend geometrical science, rather than moral philosopy. Much may be said on both sides ; and, amidst conflicting probabilities and plausible objections, it might seem difficult to demonstrate the truth of either position.

Rectum,says Sanadon against Dacier, “is always understood in a moral sense.” But where, it may be replied, do you find in the Augustan age curvum so signifying? Pravum is always the opposite to rectum, in Tully especially.

Again, “Horace could not enter the school of Plato without geometry: μηδείς αγεωμέτρητος εισίτω.” But he had learned that, amongst other branches of knowledge, in his boyhood at Rome. And the authority of Quintilian assigns teneris ætatibus instruction in the elements of geometry.

Then, too, Horace declares that Homer gave better lessons in moral wisdom than the professed teachers of it :

Qui, quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, quid non,

Plenius ac melius Chrysippo et Crautore dicit.—1 E. ii. 3, 4. Now, we know that he had read the Iliad before he left Rome and went to Athens.” But it is Horace the man, who says that of himself a long time after at Præneste : Horace, the boy, had read Homer for the Greek and the poetry, just as other boys did.

Lastly, “Horace had well learned the distinctions of right and wrong from his father. Sic me Formabat puerum dictis.”—1 S. iv. 120–1.

True, for practical purposes suficiently : but his father referred him to philosophy for the rationale of it all.

Sapiens, vitatu quidque petitu

Sit melius, caussas reddet tibi. U.S. vv. 115, 6. Thus, to and fro, the ball of controversy might be kept up, without victory declaring for either side. Luckily enough, however, a single line from Persius supplies the desideratum, which, to my mind, settles the question at once. The imitation, indeed, of Horace's diction by that Satirist is one of the most curious facts in critical literature; although Casaubon, perhaps, as Koenig remarks, has pursued it with too minute a severity.

The following verse, then, even without the context, abundantly suffices to prove the one point necessary: the application of the epithet curvus to morality, in the very sense which Horace (in that a novator, be it added), had himself affixed to the word.

Haud tibi inexpertum curvos deprendere mores.-Sat. iii. 52. The dispute, I think, may now be considered as decided finally. Sanadon, therefore, on the whole, was right against Dacier; and yet the judicious Gesner might truly say : Non absurde putat Dacerius, geometriæ elementa hìc intelligi, sine quibus nemo tum apud Academicos philosophabatur.” But, when he adds, “ Sanadonus his jam Romæ Flaccum esse imbutum existimat,” his oversight deserves to be corrected. It was Lambinus who made that observation, and not Sanadon. Lambinus's very able note shall be given here in his own words : it is now demonstrably just.

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