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convention in 1860; and governor of Ohio schools and at Ypsilanti Normal School, in 1861. He died in Youngstown, O., in Michigan; admitted to the bar of the Nov. 13, 1868.

Supreme Court of California in 1881; and Todd, CHARLES BURR, author; born in practised there for several years. She Redding, Conn., Jan. 9, 1849; received a wrote Prof. Goldwin Smith and His Satelpublic school education; taught school lites in Congress; Protective Tariff Defor several years; was appointed secre- lusion; Pizarro and John Sherman; and tary of the commission to print the early Railroads of Europe and America. records of New York City in 1895. HisTodd, THOMAS, jurist; born in King publications include History of the Burr and Queen county, Va., Jan. 23, 1765 ; Family; History of Redding, Conn.; Life served in the latter part of the Revolution and Letters of Joel Barlow; Story of the with the Continental army; became a City of New York; Story of Washington, lawyer in 1786; was appointed clerk of the National Capital; Lance Cross and the United States court for the district Canoe in the Valley of the Mississippi of Kentucky, and when it became a State (with Rev. W. H. Milburn); A Brief in 1799 was made clerk of the court of History of New York, etc.

appeals; became chief-justice of the court Todd, CHARLES Scott, military officer; in 1806. He was appointed an associate born near Danville, Ky., Jan. 22, 1791; justice of the United States Supreme graduated at William and Mary College in 1809; was a subaltern and judge - advocate of Winchester's division of Kentucky volunteers in 1812; made captain of infantry in May, 1813; and was aide to General Harrison in the battle of the THAMES (9. v.). In March, 1815, he was made inspector-general, with the rank of colonel ; and in 1817 was secretary of State of Kentucky. In 1820 he was confidential agent to Co. lombia, and in 1841-45 was United States minister to Russia. He died in Baton Rouge, La., May 17, 1871.

Todd, John, military officer; born in Montgomery county, Pa., in 1750; was adjutant-general to Gen. Andrew Lewis in the action of Point Pleasant, Va., in 1774; accompanied DANIEL BOONE (q. v.) on an exploring tour as far as Bowling Green, Ky., in 1775; settled near Lexington, Ky., in 1776; represented Kentucky county in the Virginia legislature in the Court, Feb. 7, 1826, but died in Frankfort, same year; was commissioned colonel in Ky., on the same day. 1777; for two years was commandant ofTohopeka, or Horseshoe Bend, BATTLE the civil government of that county, which AT. In February, 1814, troops from east subsequently was made the State of Il- Tennessee were on the march to reinforce linois. He was killed while leading his Jackson for the purpose of striking a forces against the Indians at the Blue finishing blow at the power of the Creek Licks, Ky., Aug. 19, 1782.

Indians. About 2,000 of them pressed Todd, MARION, lawyer; born in Plym- towards the Coosa, and at the same time outh, N. Y.; educated in Eaton Rapids a similar number from west Tennessee

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were making their way into Alabama. peninsula, near the river, was a village of ('olonel Williams, with 600 regulars, log-huts, where hundreds of canoes were reached Fort Strother on Feb. 6. Other moored, so that the garrison might have troops soon joined them, and the Choctaw the means of escape if hard pushed. They Indians openly espoused the cause of the had an ample supply of food for a long United States. At the close of February, siege. They were about 1,200 in number,

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Jackson found himself at the head of one-fourth being women and children. 5,000 men. Supplies were gathered, and There the Indians determined to defend at the middle of March the troops were themselves to the last extremity. ready to move. Meanwhile the Creeks, To this stronghold Jackson marched, from experience, had such premonitions sending his stores down the Coosa in flat. of disaster that they concentrated their boats; and on the morning of March 27 forces at the bend of the Talla poosa River, he halted within a few miles of the breast. in the northeast part of Tallapoosa county, works at Tohopeka. His spies soon in. Ala., at a place called Tohopeka, or Horse- formed him of the position of the Indians. shoe Bend, a peninsula containing about He sent General Coffee, with all the 100 acres of land. White men from Pen- mounted men and friendly Indians, to sacola and half-bloods hostile to the United cross the river two miles below and take States aided them in building a strong position opposite the village at the foot breastwork of logs across the neck of the of the peninsula. Then he pressed forward peninsula. They pierced it with two rows and planted two cannon within 80 yards of port-holes, arranged in such a manner of the breastworks on the neck, and opened as to expose the assailants to a cross-fire fire upon them. As the small balls were from within. Back of this was a mass of buried in the logs and earth the Indians logs and brush; and at the foot of the sent up a shout of derision and defied their

assailants. Coffee, with some Cherokees, they had no heart to make a stand any. swam across the river and seized the boats, where else. with which quite a body of troops were Toledo, a city and county seat of Lucas enabled to cross at once. These burned county, O., near the junction of the the Indian village and approached the Maumee River and Maumee Bay. Its enemy in their rear, but were too few to early name was the Miami of the Lakes, dislodge the Indians. Meanwhile Jackson which in time gave way to that of the had been vainly battering the works on Lady of the Lakes. Long before the the neck with cannon-balls, and he pro- whites settled here the place was a noted ceeded to storm them. In the face of a fishing resort of the Miami Indians. Subtempest of bullets they pressed forward. sequently it became a trading-post. It The leader of the storming-party (Maj. was not till after the victory of General L. P. Montgomery) leaped upon the Wayne at Fallen Timbers that it was posbreastworks and called upon his men to sible for the whites to settle here. Popufollow. He was shot dead, when Ensign lation (1900) 131,822. Sam Houston (afterwards conqueror and Toledo War, a contest regarding the President of Texas, United States Senator, boundary-line between the State of Ohio etc.), who was wounded in the thigh by a and the Territory of Michigan in 1835–37. barbed arrow, leaped down among the Owing to both the State and the Terri. Indians and called upon his companions tory taking possession of a disputed secto follow. They did so, and fought like tion of land, each appealed to President tigers. Their dexterous use of the bayonet Jackson for a settlement of the difficulty. caused the Indians to break their line and He, however, refused to interfere, whereflee in wild confusion to the woods that upon the governor of Ohio called out the covered the peninsula.

State militia and the governor of MichiBelieving torture awaited every cap- gan Territory took possession of Toledo. tive, not one of them would suffer himself Just as matters were assuming a threat. to be taken or ask for quarter. Some ening phase, Congress decided to admit attempted to escape by swimming across Michigan into the Union as a State, June the river, but were shot by Tennessee 15, 1836, on conditions regarding the sharp-shooters. Others secreted themselves boundary-line which were formally acin thickets, and were driven out and cepted. slain; and a considerable number took Toleration Acts. At a General Court of refuge under the river bluffs, where they Elections, held at Portsmouth, beginning were covered by a part of the breastworks May 19, 1647, for “ the colonie and prov. and felled trees. To the latter Jackson ince of Providence," after adopting many sent a messenger, telling them their lives acts and orders concerning the governshould be spared if they would surrender. ment and for the punishment of crimes, He was fired upon. A cannon brought to it was decreed that “These are the laws bear upon the stronghold effected little. that concern all men, and these are the Then the general called for volunteers penalties for the transgression thereof, to storm it, and wounded Ensign Houston which by common consent are ratified and was the first to step out. Nothing could established throughout the whole colony; be effected until the torch was applied; and otherwise than thus, what is herein and as the Indians rushed out from the forbidden, all men may walk as their conflames they were shot down without sciences persuade them, every one in the mercy. The carnage continued until late name of his God.” This act of toleration in the evening; and when it ended 557 was so broad and absolute that it would Creek warriors lay dead on the peninsula. include Christian, Jew, Mohammedan, Of 1,000 who went into the battle in the Parsee, Buddhist, or pagan. morning, not more than 200 were alive, The General Assembly of Maryland, and many of these were severely wounded. convened at St. Mary's, April 2, 1649, Jackson lost thirty-two killed and ninetyafter enacting severe punishments for nine wounded. The Cherokees lost eighteen the crime of blasphemy, and declarkilled and thirty-six wounded. This blow ing that certain penalties should be broke the proud spirit of the Creeks, and inflicted upon any one who should call another a sectarian name of reproach, known his wants by inarticulate sounds. adopted the declaration that “whereas His performances on the piano were the enforcing of conscience in matters of wonderful and he could reproduce from religion hath frequently fallen out to be memory over 5,000 compositions, includof dangerous consequence in those common- ing the most difficult selections from wealths where it has been practised, and Beethoven, Chopin, Thalberg, Bach, and for the more quiet and peaceable govern- Gottschalk. ment of this province, and the better to Tomahawk, originally a North Ameripreserve mutual love and unity among can Indian war-club, more generally apthe inhabitants, ... no person or persons plied to the war-hatchet which the Indians whatsoever within this province, or the made of stone. After the Europeans had islands, posts, harbors, creeks, or havens formed alliances with the Indians, the thereunto belonging, professing to believe former introduced a new form of tomain Jesus Christ, shall from henceforth be hawk which combined the features of an anyways troubled or molested or discoun- implement of warfare with a tobacco-pipe, tenanced for or in respect of his or her the handle forming the stem. religion, nor in the free exercise thereof, Tomes, ROBERT, physician; born in New within the province or the islands there. York City, March 27, 1817; graduated at unto belonging, nor any way compelled Washington (now Trinity) College in to the belief or exercise of any other re- 1835; studied medicine in Philadelphia ligion against his or her conscience.” This and later at the University of Edinburgh; was an outgrowth of English statutes. returned to the United States and pracOn Oct. 27, 1645, the English House of tised in New York for a few years, and Commons ordered “ that the inhabitants was then appointed surgeon on a vessel for of the Bermudas, and of all other Ameri- the Pacific Mail Steamboat Company, and can plantations now or hereafter plant- made trips between Panama and San ed, should, without molestation or trouble, Francisco. He was United States consul have and enjoy the liberty of conscience at Rheims, France, in 1865-67. He conin matters of God's worship.” In 1647 tributed largely to journals and magaParliament passed another act, allowing zines; and was author of Panama in 1855 ; all persons to meet for religious duties The American in Japan; The Battles of and ordinances in a fit place, provided America by Sea and Land ; The War with the public peace was not disturbed. The the South: A History of the Great AmeriMaryland toleration act (1649) was the can Rebellion, etc. He died in Brooklyn, joint work of Roman Catholics and Prot. N. Y., Aug. 28, 1882. estants. The General Assembly at that To-mo-chi-chi, Creek chief; born in time was composed of eight Roman Cath- Georgia about 1642; met Oglethorpe in olics and sixteen Protestants--three coun- Savannah in friendly conference early in cillors, and five burgesses were Roman 1733. He was then ninety-one years old, Catholics, and the governor (William of commanding person and grave de. Stone), six councillors, and nine burgess- meanor, and though for some reason he es were Protestants. The act did not es- had been banished from the Lower Creeks, tablish absolute toleration, as did the act he had great influence throughout the conof Rhode Island passed two years before, federacy as a brave chief and wise sachem. for it applied only to orthodox Christians, Mary Musgrave, the half-breed wife of a so-called, who accepted the doctrine of South Carolina trader, acted as interpretthe Trinity.

er. He pledged his unwavering friendTom, popularly known as BLIND Tom, ship for the English, and he kept his musician; born blind, and of negro slave word. A satisfactory treaty was made, parents, near Columbus, Ga., May 25, by which the English obtained sovereign1849. During infancy he gave no sign of ty over the domain between the Savannah intelligence excepting when he heard a and Altamaha rivers, and westward as sound; was afterwards precocious in learn- far as the extent of their tide - waters. ing words, but while he could repeat whole Oglethorpe distributed presents among the conversations that he had heard, words friendly Indians. In the spring of 1734 had no meaning to him, and he made To-mo-chi-chi went with Oglethorpe to England. He was accompanied by his Tonikan Indians, a stock of North wife, their adopted son and nephew, and American Indians belonging politically to five chiefs. They were cordially received the Chicasa Confederacy. About 1700 in England, and were objects of great curi. there were three tribes living respectively osity, for Indians had not been seen in in Avoyelles parish, La., at Tonica Bluffs, that country since Peter Schuyler was on the Mississippi River, and near the there with Mohawks in Queen Anne's junction of the Yazoo and Mississippi reign. They were taken in coaches, each rivers. The second of these tribes was drawn by six horses, to have an inter- noted for its friendship with the French view with the King, arrayed in brilliant colonists, and all of them were skilful English costume—the Creek monarch and warriors. The Tonikans now living are bis queen in scarlet and gold. He made located on the old Avoyelles reservation, a speech to King George and gave him a near Marksville, La. bunch of eagle's feathers, to which a Tonti, HENRI, CHEVALIER DE, explorgracious reply was made assuring the er; born in Gaeta, Italy, about 1650; Indians of English protection. They re- son of Lorenzo Tonti; inventor of the mained four months in England, during Tontine system of association; entered the which time a brother of the Indian queen French army in his youth, and in the died of small-pox. The company were con- French naval service he lost a hand. In veyed to the place of embarkation in the 1678 he accompanied La Salle to Canada, royal coaches, with presents valued at and assisted him in his Western explora$2,000; and the Prince of Wales gave tions, building a fort on the site of Peoria, To-mo-chi-chi's heir a gold watch, with Ill., in 1680. He descended the Missis. an injunction to call upon Jesus Christ sippi to its mouth with La Salle in 1682. every morning when he looked at it. In 1684 he went to the mouth of the MisThey reached Savannah late in Decem- sissippi to meet La Salle, and attempted a ber, 1734. To-mo-chi-chi died Oct. 5, settlement of Europeans in Arkansas. In 1739. At his funeral minute-guns were 1685 he incited a force of Western Indians fired at the battery at Savannah, and to attack the Senecas. Again he went musketry was discharged. He was buried down to the Gulf to meet La Salle, and in the centre of the town, and Ogle. was again disappointed; and in 1699 he thorpe ordered a “ pyramid of stone” went down to meet Iberville, and remainto be erected over his grave. The ed in the Gulf region, dying in Fort St. funeral was attended by the magistrates Louis, Mobile, in September, 1704. and people of Savannah and a train of Toombs, ROBERT, legislator; born in Indians.

Washington, Wilkes co., Ga., July 2, 1810; Tompkins, DANIEL D., statesman; born graduated at Union College, Schenectady, in Fox Meadows (now Scarsdale), N. Y., N. Y., in 1828; studied law at the UniJune 21, 1774; graduated at Columbia versity of Virginia; practised until electCollege in 1795; admitted to the bar in ed to Congress in 1845; was a captain un1797; governor of New York in 1807-16; der General Scott in the Creek War; was elected Vice-President of the United States several years a member of the Georgia in 1816 and 1820. Prior to retiring from legislature; and remained in Congress the governorship of New York he sent a until 1853, when he became United States message dated Jan. 17, 1817, urging that Senator. He was re-elected in 1859. In a day be set for declaring the abolition the Senate, on Jan. 7, 1861, following of slavery in that State. Acting upon his a patriotic speech by Senator Crittenden, wish the legislature set July 4, 1827. He of Kentucky, he said: “ The abolitionists died on Staten Island, N. Y., June 11, have for long years been sowing dragons' 1825.

teeth, and they have finally got a crop Toms River, a village and county seat of armed men. The Union, sir, is disof Ocean county, N. J.; founded in early solved. That is a fixed fact lying in colonial days; formerly contained large the way of this discussion, and men may salt works; was a retreat for privateers as well hear it. One of your confederates in the Revolutionary War; and was burned (South Carolina) has already wisely, by the British, March 24, 1782.

bravely, boldly, met the public danger

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