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day in festivity and mirth. After dinner to the organization, and from that time Indian dances were performed in front it became a political society. They met of the wigwam, the calumet was again at first in Martling's Long Room, on the smoked, and the company separated. corner of Nassau and Frankfort streets.

Tammany Society, or Columbian Or- In 1800 the society determined to build der, a political organization formed chief. a wigwam, and Tammany Hall was erect. ly through the exertions of William Moo- ed by them on that spot. Many years af. ney, an upholsterer in the city of New terwards they abandoned the old wigwam York, at the beginning of the administra- and made their quarters in a fine buildtion of President Washington. Its first ing on Fourteenth Street, adjoining the meeting was held on May 13, 1789. The Academy of Music. Although the actual society took its name from St. Tammany. membership of the society embraced only The officers of the society consisted of a a few hundred men, it has been able grand sachem and thirteen inferior sa- for many years to control and poll many chems, representing the President and the thousand votes and wield an immense governors of the thirteen States. Besides power in the politics both of New York these there was a grand council, of which City and of the State. Its connection the sachems were members. It was a with the gigantic frauds of the Tweed

ring led to a natural reaction and a temporary check. But it soon recovered its prestige and increased power. See NEW YORK CHRONOLOGY, in this volume.

Tampa, a city, port of entry, and county seat of Hillsboro county, Fla. During the American-Spanish War in 1898 it was one of the rendezvous for the American army when being assembled for the invasion of Cuba. Population (1900), 15,839.

Tampico, a seaport town of Mexico, in the State of Tamaulipas, on the Panuco River, 5 miles from the Gulf of Mexico; was taken possession of by the fleet of Commodore Conner, Nov. 14, 1846, in the early part of the war with Mexico.

Taney, ROGER BROOKE, jurist; born in Calvert county, Md., March 17, 1777; graduated at Dickinson College in 1795; admitted to the bar in 1799. He was of a family of English Roman Catholics who settled in Maryland. At the age of twenty-three he was a member of the

Maryland Assembly; was State Senator TAMMANY HALL

in 1816, and attorney-general of Mary

land in 1827. In 1831 President Jackson very popular society and patriotic in its appointed him United States Attorneyinfluence. Its membership included most General, and in 1836 he was appointed of the best men of New York City. No chief-justice of the Supreme Court of the party politics were tolerated in its meet. United States, to succeed Judge Marshall. ings. But when Washington denounced In 1857 he gave his famous opinion in " self-constituted societies,” in consequence the DRED SCOTT CASE (q. v.), and was an of the violent resistance to law made by earnest upholder of the slave-system. He the secret Democratic societies, at the died in Washington, D. C., Oct. 12, 1864. time of the WHISKEY INSURRECTION (q. Tanner, BENJAMIN, engraver; born in v.), nearly all the members left it, be. New York City, March 27, 1775; removed lieving their society to be included in to Philadelphia, Pa., in 1799, and with his the reproof. Mooney and others adhered brother Henry founded a map-publishing


establishment. He also founded the bank. missioner of Pensions in 1889. On resignnote engraving house of Tanner, Vallance, ing this office he became a pension attor. Kearny & Co., in 1816. Later this enter- ney. prise was abandoned and he founded a Tanner, John, captive; born in Kenblank-check-note and draft publishing con- tucky about 1780. His father laid out a cern. His engravings include Apotheosis farm at the mouth of the Big Miami of Washington; Perry's Victory on Lake River, O. When John was six years old Erie, Sept. 10, 1813; The Launch of the he was captured by an Indian, and after Steam Frigate Fulton; Macdonough'z two years' detention was sold to Net-noVictory on Lake Champlain, and Defeat of kwa, an Ottawa Indian. He lived in the British Army at Plattsburg by General captivity for thirty years, becoming so McComb, Sept. 11, 1814; The Surrender thoroughly accustomed to Indian life that of Cornwallis at Yorktown; America he forgot his own language. He engaged Guided by Wisdom, etc. He died in Balti. in warlike expeditions and married Mismore, Md., Nov. 14, 1848.

kwa-bun-o-kwa (“ the Red Sky of the Tanner, BENJAMIN TUCKER, clergyman; Morning"). Subsequently he went to Deborn of African parents in Pittsburg, Pa., troit, where he met his brother and visitDec. 25, 1835; studied theology in the ed his family. He was then employed Western Theological Seminary; was editor as an interpreter. He was the author of of the Christian Recorder for sixteen & Narrative of the Captivity and Ad. years; founded the African Methodist ventures of John Tanner during Thirty Episcopal Church Review, of which he was Years' Residence among the Indians. He editor for four years. He was ordained died in 1847. bishop in 1888. His publications includeTanoan Indians, a family of North The Origin of the Negro; The Negro in American Indians that were widely scatHoly Writ; The Color of Solomon: What? tered in the middle of the sixteenth cenetc.

tury, and were divided into several Tanner, HENRY S., cartographer; born groups which received distinct names from in New York City in 1786; brother of the Spanish discoverers and conquerors. Benjamin Tanner; settled in Philadelphia They occupied nearly all of the valley early in life; returned to New York in of the Rio Grande del Norte, a stretch of 1850. His maps include the New Americ country approximately 230 miles long by can Atlas; The World; Map of the United an extreme width of 100 miles, and ex. States of Mexico; Alap of Philadelphia; tending within forty miles of New Mexico and Map of the United States of Amer. to within 120 miles of Mexico. The ica. He was also the author of Memoir Pueblo of Isleta, in New Mexico, contains on the Recent Surveys in the United the largest population, about 1,000. States; View of the Valley of the Missis. Taos. See TANOAN INDIANS. sippi; American Traveller; Central Travel. Tappan, a village of New York, 24 ler; New Picture of Philadelphia; and miles north of New York City, and 11/2 Description of the Canals and Railroad3 miles west of the Hudson River. Here, of the United States. He died in New on Oct. 2, 1780, MAJ. JOHN ANDRÉ (9. v.) York City in 1858.

was hanged as a British spy. Tanner, JAMES, attorney; born in Tappan, ARTHUR, philanthropist; born Richmondville, N. Y., April 4, 1844; re- in Northampton, Mass., May 22, 1786; received a common school education; en: ceived a common school education; eslisted as a private in the 87th New York tablished himself in business in Portland, Volunteers in 1861; was promoted cor- Me., and subsequently in Montreal, Canporal; took part in the second battle of ada, where he remained until the beginBull Run, and there lost both legs. He ning of the War of 1812. He was the returned to his native State in 1866; founder of Oberlin College, and erected studied law; was appointed to a post Tappan Hall there; endowed Lane Theoin the New York Custom-house; became logical Seminary in Cincinnati; estabdeputy collector under General Arthur; lished a professorship at Auburn Theowas tax collector of Brooklyn in 1877-85; logical Seminary; was one of the found. and was appointed United States Com- ers of the American Tract Society; and

with his brother established the New York and protection; there are no prohibitory Journal of Commerce in 1828 and The duties except on chiccory, shoddy, doctor. Emancipator in 1833. He was the first ed wines, and a few articles of like char. president of the American Anti - slavery acter. Before the adoption of the United Society, to which he contributed $1,000 a States Constitution most of the American month for several years, but withdrew in colonies had systems of taxation on im1840 on account of the aggressive spirit ports. The first acts of the Dutch West manifested by many members towards the India Company with reference to the churches and the Union; and during his colony of New Netherlands provided for later years was connected with a mercan- export and import duties, and specific tile agency which his brother Lewis es. rates were levied on furs and codfish by tablished. He died in New Haven, Conn., act of June 7, 1629. In 1601 the council July 23, 1865.

of Virginia laid an import tax on rum and Tappan, LEWIS, merchant; brother of sugar, and forbade unloading them except Arthur Tappan; born in Northampton, at appointed ports. The government of Mass., May 23, 1788; received a common Massachusetts enacted a general import school education; established himself in tax, November, 1668. Under the confedbusiness with his brother in 1814. Later eration, the Continental Congress made he became interested in calico-print works numerous unsuccessful attempts to induce and the manufacture of cotton; removed the States to join in an import tax for to New York in 1827, and with his brother the common treasury, only succeeding in engaged in the importing trade. In securing, in 1786, an agreement from New 1833 he became deeply interested in the York, granting to the United States ceranti-slavery movement, in consequence of tain imposts, provided the other States which he and his brother at various times did the same. A measure for taxing imsuffered personal violence. He was in- ports, " for the support of the government, volved in the crisis of 1837, and soon after for the discharge of debts of the United withdrew from the firm and established the States, and the encouragement and protecfirst mercantile agency in the country. tion of manufactures,” was introduced in He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., June 21, the House of Representatives of the First 1873.

Congress, by James Madison, April 8, Tarbox, INCREASE Niles, author; born 1789. From this dates tariff legislation in East Windsor, Conn., Feb. 11, 1815; in the United States. graduated at Yale College in 1839; studied theology and became pastor of a Congre

CHRONOLOGY, gational church in Framingham, Mass., in Congress passes first tariff act, to con1844; later was made secretary of the tinue in force until June, 1796, combining American College and Education Society specific duties on some articles and ad vaof Boston. His publications include The lorem on others, equivalent to an 81% per Curse, or the Position Occupied in History cent. ad volorem rate, with drawback, ex: by the Race of Ham; Life of Israel Put. cept 1 per cent. of duties, on all articles nam, Major-General in the Continental exported within twelve months, except disArmy: Sir Walter Raleigh and His Colony tilled spirits other than brandy and in America, etc. He died in West Newton, geneva, signed by Washington Mass., May 3, 1888.

July 4, 1789 Tariff. The tariff is a tax levied upon Act of Congress passed to regulate the exports or (especially) imports. A duty collection of duties. Each collection dis. was early collected by Moslem rulers at trict to lie within a State. Providing for the Spanish port Tarifa, whence the collectors, deputy collectors, naval orlicers, modern name, on goods passing through surveyors, weighers, measurers, gaugers, the Strait of Gibraltar. The word as used and inspectors. Ad valorem duties to be in the United States was adopted from the estimated by adding 20 per cent, to the English tariffs, which before the reign of actual cost thereof if imported from the Queen Elizabeth were prohibitory, and Cape of Good Hope or any place beyond, since used as a source of revenue. In the and 10 per cent. if from any other country. United States the tarif is for revenue Duties to be paid in cash if under $50; if over, might be secured by bond to run from 88 to 54, and the Senate by 25 to 7, and four to twelve months, with 10 per cent. becomes a law............ April 27, 1816 discount for prompt payment

Act passed deferring the time of reduc.

July 31, 1789 tion of tariff on woollens and cottons Act laying duties on importations ex- until 1826, and raising the duty on bar tended to North Carolina, Feb. 8, and to iron from $9 to $15 per ton Rhode Island. ............June 14, 1790

April 20, 1818 Act of July 4, 1789, repealed, and new Resolutions introduced in Congress for law enacted raising duties to equal an the abolition of drawbacks, and bills to 11 per cent. ad valorem rate

shorten long credits on importations, to

Aug. 10, 1790 tax auction sales of imports, and to colTariff'rate raised to equal 131, per lect duties in cash debated, but fail to becent., by act of............May 2, 1792 come laws...................... 1819-22

Additional duties levied on imports, Auction system, by which foreigners particularly tobacco, snuff, and refined shipped goods to the United States, undersugar, by acts of........ June 5-7, 1794 valuing them in the invoice, for which

Tariff on brown sugar, molasses, and the auctioneer gave bonds and immediately tea increased............. March 3, 1797 sold for what they would bring, is rem

Duty on salt increased from 12 to 20 edied by deterrent legislation, which be-cents by act of..............July 8, 1797 gan in 1818 and concluded in act of First elaborate act of Congress for tak

March 1, 1823 ing possession of arriving merchandise, Tariff bill with average rate of 37 per and levying and collecting duties

cent. duties, after a debate of ten weeks,

March 2, 1799 passes the House by vote of 107 to 102. Additional duties imposed on wines, The Senate adds amendments which the sugar, molasses, and such articles as have House rejects. The difference is settled paid 10 per cent...........May 13, 1800 by a committee of conference, and bill

Two and one-half per cent. ad valorem passes Senate by 25 to 22, approved imposed on all importations in American

May 22, 1824 vessels, and 10 per cent. in foreign vessels, National convention, called by the Penn. in addition to existing rates, for a fund sylvania Society for the Promotion of to protect commerce and seamen against Manufactures and Mechanic Arts at Harthe Barbary powers, commonly called the risburg, adopts resolutions in favor of “ Mediterranean fund”.... March 27, 1804 more protection on iron, steel, glass, wool,

All tariff duties increased 100 per cent., woollens, and hemp........July 30, 1827 and 10 per cent. additional on goods im Tariff bill, based on recommendation of ported in foreign ships......July , 1812 Harrisburg convention, introduced in Con

Double war duties continued until June gress......................Jan. 31, 1828 30, 1816, and after that day an additional New tariff, with a 41 per cent. rate, duty of 42 per cent. until a new tariff favored by Daniel Webster, is debated shall be formed............. Feb. 5, 1816 from March 4 to May 15; passed by

A. J. Dallas, Secretary of the Treasury, House, 109 to 91; Senate, 26 to 21, and reports to Congress on the subject of a approved....

....May 19, 1828 general tariff of increased duties

[This became known as the “ Tariff of

Feb. 13, 1816 Abominations." South Carolina protested Mr. Lowndes, of South Carolina, reports against it as unconstitutional, oppressive, a bill from the committee on ways and and unjust. North Carolina also pro. means to regulate duties on imports and tested, and Alabama and Georgia denied tonnage................. March 12, 1816 the power of Congress to lay duties for

Taritr bill opposed by Mr. Webster and protection.] most of the Eastern States, and by John Duties on coffee, cocoa, and tea reRandolph, and supported by Messrs. Clay, duced by act of May 20; on molasses and Calhoun, and Lowndes. Among other salt by act................May 29, 1830 provisions was one for the gradual reduc- Secretary of the Treasury Ingham, in tion of the tax on cotton and woollen his report, advocates “home” valuation goods. Act passes the House by a vote of in place of “foreign,” the current value

of goods in the United States to be the “Force bill ” or “Bloody bill,” to en. dutiable value............Dec. 15, 1830 force the collection of duties, passed by

National free - trade convention meets Congress................March 2, 1833 in Philadelphia............ Sept. 30, 1831 Nullification acts repealed by South

National protection convention meets Carolina...............March 18, 1833 in New York............Oct. 26, 1831H ome league formed to agitate for high George McDuffie, representative from duties



............................1841 South Carolina, from committee on ways A general tariff act, with average rate and means, reports a bill proposing ad of duty about 33 per cent., and dropping ralorem duties for revenue only

the principle of “home valuation," is

Feb. 8, 1832 passed.................. Sept. 11, 1841 John Quincy Adams reports a bill re Tariff law passed containing the muchpealing the act of 1828, and reducing controverted and litigated “ similitude duties on coarse woollens, iron, etc. section” (sec. 20), imposing duties on

May 23, 1832 non-enumerated articles which may be Tariff bill retaining the protective feat. similar in material, quality, texture, or use ures of the tariff of 1828, but reducing to any enumerated article. .Aug. 30, 1842 or abolishing many taxes, is reported. It Tariff bill passes the House by a vote reduced the tax on iron, increased that of 114 to 95, and the Senate by the caston woollens, made some raw wools free, ing vote of the Vice-President, George M. and left cotton unchanged. Duties of Dallas. Average rate of duty 2512 per less than $200 to be paid in cash without cent.....................July 30, 1846 discount, law to take effect March 3, Warehouse system established by act 1833; approved ............July 14, 1832 of Congress............... Aug. 6, 1846

Representatives from South Carolina Robert J. Walker introduces the syspublish an address on the subject of the tem of private bonded warehouses, which tariff, urging resistance. ...July 15, 1832 is confirmed by act of Congress Convention meets in Columbia, S. C.,

March 28, 1854 Nov. 19, and calls on the legislature to Free-trade policy declared in the platdeclare the tariff acts of 1824 and 1828 form of the Democratic party at Cincinnull and void in that State, and to pro- nati.......... ............June 6, 1856 bibit the collection of duties there after Tariff act passed lowering the average Feb. 1, 1833; law passed.. Nov. 24, 1832 duty to about 20 per cent. . March 3, 1857

Secretary of the Treasury, in his report, Republican Convention at Chicago recommends a reduction of duties to the adopts a protective-tariff platform requirements of revenue.... Dec. 5, 1832

May 17, 1860 President proclaims intention to en- Tariff bill, raising the tariff of 1857 force the laws............ Dec. 11, 1832 about one-third, introduced in the House

Mr. Verplanck, from the committee on by Mr. Morrill, passed and approved, ways and means, reports a bill providing March 2, 1861; goes into effect for the reduction of duties in the course

April 1, 1861 of two years to about one-half

Amended tariffact raising duties

Jan. 8, 1833 passed.................... Aug. 5, 1861 “ Compromise Tariff bill ” introduced Act passed increasing tariff on tea, by Mr. Clay............. Feb. 12, 1833 coffee, and sugar.......... Dec. 24, 1861

House strikes out Mr. Verplanck's bill Act passed raising tariff duties tempeand substitutes Mr. Clay's, which de- rarily...................July 14, 1862 clares its object to be “to prevent the Act passed “to prevent and punish destruction of the political system, and frauds upon the revenue," etc., which to arrest civil war and restore peace and provides that all invoices of goods be tranquillity to the nation.” It provides made in triplicate, one to be given the for a gradual reduction in duties, and for person producing them, a second filed in “ home valuation," all duties to be paid the office of the consular officer nearest in cash. Passed by vote of 118 to 84 in the place of shipment, and the third the House, and 29 to 16 in the Senate, and transmitted to the collector at the port of approved ................ March 2, 1833 entry......... ......... March 3, 1863

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