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States government the project for the an- 4 miles from Ticonderoga. The whole nexation of the Sandwich Islands. See country was covered with a dense forest, HAWAII.

and tangled morasses lay in the way of Thwaites, REUBEN GOLD, historian; the English. Led by incompetent guides, born in Dorchester, Mass., May 15, 1853; they were soon bewildered; and while in was educated at Yale College; served as that condition the right column, led by editor of the Wisconsin State Journal in Lord Howe, was suddenly attacked by a 1876-86; then became secretary and super- small French force. A sharp skirmish enintendent of the Wisconsin State His- sued. The French were repulsed with a torical Society. He is the author of His loss of 148 men made prisoners. At the. toric Watericays; The Story of Wisconsin; first fire Lord Howe was killed, when the l'he Colonies in 1992-1750; Afloat on the greater part of the troops fell back in Ohio, etc. He was also editor of the confusion to the landing-place. From the Wisconsin Historical Collections (volumes prisoners Abercrombie learned that a reix.-xv.); Chronicles of Border Warfare; inforcement for Montcalm was approachThe Jesuit Relations (73 volumes) ; Ori. ing. He was also told of the strength of ginal Journals of Louis and Claiki (1903); the garrison and the condition of the etc.

fortress; but the information, false and Tibbles, THOMAS HENRY, politician; deceptive, induced him to press forward born in Washington county, O., in 1840; to make an immediate attack on the fort joined in the movement to settle Kansas without his artillery. This was a fatal and make it a free State; became an mistake. The outer works were easily itinerant Methodist preacher, then a taken, but the others were guarded by Presbyterian minister, and subsequently abatis and thoroughly manned. Abera journalist and editor of the Independent crombie ordered his troops to scale the of Lincoln, Neb. He early affiliated with works in the face of the enemy's fire the Populist party and was its candidate (July 8), when they were met by infor vice-president in 1904.

superable obstacles. After a bloody conTicknor, GEORGE, author; born in flict of four hours, the assailants were Boston, Mass., Aug. 1, 1791; graduated compelled to fall back to Lake George, at Dartmouth College in 1807; admitted leaving about 2,000 men dead or wounded to the bar in 1813; professor of modern in the forest. Abercrombie then hastened languages and literature at Harvard to his camp at the head of the lake. The College in 1819-35. His publications in- loss of the French was inconsiderable. clude History of Spanish Literature; the Pitt conceived a magnificent plan for Life of General Lafayette; Report of the the campaign of 1759, the principal feat. Board of Visitors on the United States ure of which was the conquest of all Military Academy at West Point for 1826; Canada, and so ending the puissance of Life of W. H. Prescott; etc. He died in France in America. Abercrombie, who Boston, Mass., Jan. 26, 1871.

had been unsuccessful, was superseded by Ticonderoga, OPERATIONS AT. In the Gen. Sir Jeffrey Amherst in the command summer of 1758 the Marquis de Mont- of the British forces in America in the calm occupied the fortress of Ticonderoga, spring of 1759. The new commander found on Lake Champlain, with about 4,000 men, 20,000 provincial troops at his disposal. French and Indians. General Abercrombie A competent land and naval force was sent personally commanded the expedition de- from England to co-operate with the signed to capture this fortress, and at Americans. The plan of operations against the beginning of July he had assembled Canada was similar to that of Phipps and at the head of Lake George about Winthrop in 1690. A powerful land and 7,000 regulars, nearly 9,000 provincials, naval force, under Gen. James Wolfe, were and a heavy train of artillery. The army to ascend the St. Lawrence and attack moved (July 5) down the lake in 900 Quebec. Another force, under Amherst, bateaux and 125 whale-boats, and spent was to drive the French from Lake Chanthe night at a place yet known (as then plain, seize Montreal, and join Wolfe at named) as Sabbath-day Point. At dawn Quebec; and a third expedition, under they landed at the foot of the lake, about General Prideaux, was to capture Fort

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Niagara, and then hasten down Lake On- was talked of in the Connecticut legislattario and the St. Lawrence to Montreal. ure after the affair at Lexington, and Amherst appeared before Ticonderoga several gentlemen formed the bold design (July 22, 1759) with about 11,000 men. of attempting their capture by surprise. The French commander had just heard, With this view, about forty volunteers by Indian runners, of the arrival of Wolfe set out for Bennington to engage the cobefore Quebec (June 27), and immedi. operation of Ethan Allen, a native of Con. ately prepared to obey a summons to sur. necticut, and the leader of the GREEN render. The garrison left their outer lines MOUNTAIN Boys (q. v.). He readily secon the 23d and retired within the fort, onded their views. They had been joined and three days afterwards, without offer. at Pittsfield, Mass., by Colonels Easton ing any resistance, they abandoned that and Brown, with about forty followers. also, partially demolished it, and fled to Allen was chosen the leader after the Crown Point. That, too, they abandoned, whole party reached Castleton, at twi. and fled down the lake to the Isle aux light, on May 7. Colonel Easton was Noix, in the Sorel. Amherst pursued them chosen to be Allen's lieutenant, and Seth only to Crown Point.

Warner, of the Green Mountain Boys, was When, in 1775, it became apparent that made third in command. At Castleton war was inevitable, the importance of the Colonel Arnold joined the nartv. He had strong fortresses of Ticonderoga and heard the project spoken of in Connecticut Crown Point, on Lake Champlain, and their just as he was about to start for Campossession, became subjects of earnest con- bridge. He proposed the enterprise to the gultation among patriots. The subject Massachusetts committee of safety, and

was commissioned a colonel by the Pro- place), and beating the door with the vincial Congress, and furnished with means handle of his sword, cried out with his and authority to raise not more than 400 loud voice, “I demand an instant surmen in western Massachusetts and lead render!" The captain rushed to the door, them against the forts. On reaching followed by his trembling wife. He knew Stockbridge, he was disappointed in learn- Allen, and recognized him. “Your ering that another expedition was on the rand ?" demanded the commander. Pointway. He hastened to join it, and claimed ing to his men, Allen said, “I order the right to the chief command by virtue you to surrender.” “ By what authority of his commission. It was emphatically do you demand it?" inquired Dela place. refused. He acquiesced, but with a bad “By the authority of the Great Jehovah grace.

and the Continental Congress !” answerOn the evening of the 9th they were on ed Allen, with emphasis, at the same time the shore of Lake Champlain, opposite flourishing his broadsword over the head Ticonderoga, and at dawn the next morn of the terrified commander. Dela place ing the officers and eighty men were on surrendered the fort and its dependenthe beach a few rods from the fortress, cies, and a large quantity of precisely sheltered by a bluff. A lad familiar with such munitions of war as the colonists the fort was their guide. Following him, needed—120 iron cannon, fifty swivels, they ascended stealthily to the sally-port, two mortars, a howitzer, a coehorn, a large where a sentinel snapped his musket and quantity of ammunition and other stores, retreated into the fort, closely followed and a warehouse full of naval munitions, by the invaders, who quickly penetrated with forty-eight men, women, and chil. to the parade. With a tremendous shout dren, who were sent to Hartford. Two the New-Englanders awakened the sleep- days afterwards Col. Seth Warner made an ing garrison, while Allen ascended the easy conquest of Crown Point. outer staircase of the barracks to the In June, 1777, with about 7,000 men, chamber of the commander (Captain Dela. Lieutenant - General Burgoyne left St.

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RUINS OF PORT TICO DEROGA.

Johns, on the Sorel, in vessels, and moved distant. He took possession of Mount up Lake Champlain. His army was com- Defiance and Mount Hope, the old French posed of British and German regulars, lines, 200 bateaux, several gunboats, an Canadians and Indians. The Gemans were armed sloop with 290 prisoners, besides led by Maj.-Gen. Baron de Riedesel, and releasing 100 American prisoners. He Burgoyne's chief lieutenants were Major- then proceeded to attempt the capture General Phillips and Brigadier - General of Ticonderoga and Mount Independence Fraser. The invading army (a part of opposite, but it was found impracticable, it on land) reached Crown Point, June 26, and abandoned the enterprise and rejoined and menaced Ticonderoga, where General Lincoln. St. Clair was in command. The garrison Tiebout, CORNELIUS, engraver; born there, and at Mount Independence op. in New York in 1777; was apprenticed posite, did not number in the aggregate to a silversmith; studied art in London in more than 3,500 men, and not more than 1795–97; settled in Philadelphia, Pa., one in ten had a bayonet; while the in- where he engraved portraits of Washingvaders numbered between 8,000 and 9,000, ton, Gen. Horatio Gates, John Jav, including a reinforcement of Indians, Thomas Jefferson, and Bishop White. Tories, and a splendid train of artillery. Later he removed to Kentucky, where he There were strong outposts around Ti. died in 1830. conderoga, but St. Clair had not menTiedeman, CHRISTOPHER GUSTAVUS, enough to man them. On the 29th Bur. legal writer; born in Charleston, S. C., goyne issued a grandiloquent proclama. July 16, 1857; graduated at the College tion to the people, and on July 1 moved of Charleston in 1876, and at the New against the fort. He secured important York Law School in 1879; was Professor points near it, and finally planted a bat. of Law in the University of Missouri for tery on a hill 700 feet above the fort, since ten years, and in the New York Univer: known as Mount Defiance. The battery sity for six years. He is the author of there made Ticonderoga absolutely unten. Limitations of Police Powers; Unwritten able, and a council of war determined to Constitution of the United States; M11evacuate it. On the evening of July 5, nicipal Corporations; State and Federal invalids, stores, and baggage were sent Control of Persons and Property, etc. off in boats to Skenesboro (afterwards Tiffin, EDWARD, legislator; born in CarWhitehall); and at 2 A.M. on the 6th the lisle, England, June 19, 1766; emigrated troops left the fort silently, and withdrew to the United States and settled in to Mount Independence across a bridge Charlestown, Va., in 1784; studied med. of boats. Thence they began a flight icine; became a Methodist preacher; resouthwards through the forests of Ver moved to Ohio in 1798; was first goy. mont before daylight. The movement was ernor of the State in 1803-7; served an discovered by the British by the light of unexpired term in the United States Sena building set on fire on Mount Indepen. ate in 1807-9; was commissioner of the dence, and pursuit was immediately be. United States land office in 1812-15; and gun. The Americans lost at Ticonderoga subsequently surveyor · general of the a large amount of military stores and Northwest Territory. The city of Tiffin, provisions, and nearly 200 pieces of artil. O., was named in his honor. He died in lery.

Chillicothe, O., Aug. 9, 1829. While Burgoyne was pressing down the Tilden, SAMUEL JONES, statesman; valley of the upper Hudson towards Al. born in New Lebanon, N. Y., Feb. 9, 1814; bany, General Lincoln, in command of entered Yale College, but his health failed, troops eastward of that river, attempted and he returned home. He finished his to recover Ticonderoga and other posts in studies at the University of New York: the rear of the invaders. On Sept. 13, studied law with Benjamin F. Butler, and 1777, he detailed Col. John Brown with entered upon its practice; became a jour500 men for the purpose. Brown landed nalist, and in 1844 established the Daily at the foot of Lake George, and by quick News in New York City. He soon removements surprised all the posts between turned to the bar and practised his prothat point and Fort Ticonderoga, 4 miles fession with great success. In 1874 he

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