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preme and county courts in 1843-45, and mont, at the foot of the Rocky Mountains, Secretary of State in 1853–55. He was a and gave 640 acres of land and $300 to popular lecturer; edited the Green Moun- each colonist there. She contributed largetain Freeman in 1849–50; and was author ly to the purchase of the Vassar College of The Green Mountain Boys; The History telescope; purchased and presented to Conof Montpelier, 1781-1860, etc. He died in gress Francis B. Carpenter's, painting of Montpelier, Vt., June 6, 1868.

the Signing of the Emancipation Proclama. Thompson, David, explorer; born in tion by President Lincoln in the Presence, St. John, England, April 30, 1770; entered of his Cabinet, and for this was granted the employ of the Hudson Bay Company the freedom of the floor. She also conin 1789; later engaged in exploring ex- tributed large sums to the American Aspeditions. On April 27, 1798, he discov. sociation for the Advancement of Science, ered Turtle Lake, from which the Mis- and was made its first patron. She died sissippi River takes its southerly course in Littleton, N. H., July 20, 1899. to the Gulf. He explored the southern Thompson, GEORGE, reformer; born in shore of Lake Superior in 1798; crossed Liverpool, England, June 18, 1804; came the Rocky Mountains in 1807, and explored to the United States at the request of the whole length of Columbia River in William Lloyd Garrison to aid the abo1811; was employed by Great Britain in lition cause; addressed large meetings in surveying and laying out the boundary. the Northern States, and through his efline between the United States and Can- forts 150, anti-slavery societies were formada in 1816–26. He was the author of ed. He was threatened by mobs several Map of the Northwest Territory of the times, and once, when in Boston, escaped Province of Canada, made for the North, death by fleeing in a small boat to an Engwest Company in 1813-14. He died in lish vessel, on which he sailed to England. Longueil, Canada, Feb. 16, 1857.

His visit created much excitement and was Thompson, EGBERT, naval oflicer; born denounced by President Jackson in a mes. in New York City, July 6, 1820; entered sage to Congress. He revisited the United the navy in 1837; was attached to the States in 1851, and again during the Civil South Sea Exploring Expedition, and was War, when a public reception was given in in all the operations of the home squadron his honor at which President Lincoln and in the war with Mexico. In the attacks his cabinet were present. In 1870 a testion Fort Donelson and Island Number Ten monial fund was raised for him by his ad. he commanded one of the iron-clad gun- mirers in the United States and in Eng. boats; also in the attack on Confederate land. He died in Leeds, England, Oct. rams near Fort Pillow. He commanded 7, 1878. the steamer Commodore Macdonough in Thompson, HENRY ADAMS, clergyman; the South Pacific Squadron in 1866-67; born in Stormstown, Pa., March 23, 1837; was promoted captain in 1867, and re- graduated at Jefferson College in 1858, tired in 1874. He died in Washington, and studied theology at the Western Theo. D. C., Jan. 5, 1881.

logical Seminary; was Professor of MathThompson, ELIZABETH, philanthropist; ematics in Otterbein University, O., in born in Lyndon, Vt., Feb. 21, 1821; was 1872-86; candidate for Vice-President on the daughter of Samuel Rowell, a farmer, the Prohibition ticket with Neal Dow in and at the age of nine went out to service. 1880. Her education was chiefly self-acquired. Thompson, Jacob, lawyer; born in While on a visit to Boston in 1843 her re- Caswell county, N. C., May 15, 1810; markable beauty so attracted the attention graduated at the University of North of Thomas Thompson, a millionaire, that Carolina in 1831. Admitted to the bar in they were married within a year. At Mr. 1834, he began the practice of law in Thompson's death the entire income of his Chickasaw county, Miss., in 1835. He was immense estate was left to her. She gave elected to Congress in 1839, and remained large sums of money to the cause of tem- in that body until 1851. For several perance and charity; provided $10,000 for years he was chairman of the committee a thorough investigation of yellow fever on Indian affairs, and he defended his in the South; founded the town of Long- adopted State when she repudiated ber

bonds. He was vehemently pro-slavery in Vermont in 1845–48; accepted the chair bis feelings, and was one of the most of Chemistry and Natural History in the active disunionists in his State many University of Vermont in 1851. He was years before the Civil War. He was Sec. the author of Gazetteer of the State of retary of the Interior under President Vermont; History of the State of Ver. Buchanan, but resigned, Jan. 7, 1861, and mont to 1832; History of Vermont, entered into the services of the Confed. Natural, Civil, and Statistical; Guide to eracy. He was governor of Mississippi in Lake George, Lake Champlain, Montreal, 1862-64, and was then appointed Con- and Quebec; Geography and Geology of federate commissioner in Canada. He died Vermont, etc. He died in Burlington, in Memphis, Tenn., March 24, 1885. See Vt., Jan. 19, 1856. PEACE COMMISSION.

Thomson, CHARLES, patriot; born in Thompson, John, author; born in 1777. Maghera, Ireland, Nov. 29, 1729; came to He was the author of articles published in America in 1741; educated by the famous the Petersburg Gazette, and signed “Cas- Dr. Allison, and became teacher in the ca” and “ Gracchus," in which he attacked Friends' school at Newcastle, Del. AfterPresident Adams's administration, and of wards making his home in Philadelphia, letters signed “ Curtiss," which were ad. he was favored with the friendship of Dr. dressed to Chief Justice John Marshall in Franklin, and, taking an interest in the 1798, and later published in book form. labors in behalf of the Indians by the He died in Petersburg, Va., in 1799. Friendly Association, he attended Indian

Thompson, LAUNT, sculptor; born in Abbeyleix, Queen's County, Ireland, Feb. 8, 1833; came to the United States in 1847; studied medicine and later drawing and modelling; and opened a studio in New York in 1858. Among his best-known works are statues of General Sedgwick, Winfield Scott, and Abraham Pierce, and busts of Edwin Booth, Bryant, and General Dix. He was vice-president of the National Academy of Design in 1874. He died in Middletown, N. Y., Sept. 26, 1894.

Thompson, RICHARD WIGGINTON, statesman; born in Culpeper county, Va., June 9, 1809; admitted to the bar in 1834; began practice in Bedford, Ind.: member of Congress in 1841-43 and in 1847–49, and Secretary of the Navy in 1877–81. He resigned in the latter year and became chairman of the American committee of the Panama Canal Com. pany. His publications include History of the Tariff and Recollections of Sixteen Presidents. He died in Terre Haute, Ind., treaties. The Delawares adopted him with Feb. 9, 1900.

a name which signified "one who speaks Thompson, SMITH, jurist; born in the truth.” As he was alighting from a Stanford, N. Y., Jan. 17, 1768; graduated carriage in Philadelphia with his Quaker at Princeton in 1788; Secretary of the bride—the possessor of a handsome fort. Navy, 1818–23; justice of the United une-a messenger came to him from the States Supreme Court, 1823–43. He died Continental Congress, just assembled, sayin Poughkeepsie, N. Y., Dec. 18, 1843. ing, “ They want you at Carpenter's Hall

Thompson, ZODOC, geologist; born in to keep the minutes of their proceedings, Bridgewater, Vt., May 23, 1796; gradu- as you are very expert at that business." ated at the University of Vermont in Thomson complied, and he served in that 1823; was appointed State geologist of capacity almost fifteen years. He was a



thorough patriot, and held the respect and Emerson. His publications include Reconfidence of all his associates. He had sistance to Civil Government; A Week on married, at the age of forty-five, Hannah the Concord and Merrimac Rivers; WalHarrison, aunt of President Harrison. den, or Life in the Woods; The Maine Thomson was an excellent classical scholar, Woods; Cape Cod; Letters to Various and made a translation of the Old and Persons: A Yankee in Canada, etc. He New Testaments. He had gathered much died in Concord, Mass., May 6, 1862. material for a history of the Revolution, Thorfinn, Scandinavian navigator ; born but destroyed it. He died in Lower in Norway; sailed from Norway to GreenMerion, Pa., Aug. 16, 1824.

land with two vessels in 1006. In the -Thomson, ELIHU, electrician; born in same year he organized an expedition to Manchester, England, March 29, 1853; sail for Vinland, which consisted of 160 graduated at Central High School in men and women and three vessels. They 1870; appointed Professor of Chemistry were driven by wind and current to what in Central High School in 1870; connectis probably Newfoundland. They next ed with the Thomson-Houston and Gen- reached Nova Scotia, and in looking for eral Electric companies for the past the grave of THORVALD (q. v.) are suptwenty years. Mr. Thomson has patented posed to have sailed along the coast of many hundreds of inventions bearing New England. After passing Cape Cod upon electric welding, lighting, heating, two scouts were landed, who spent three and power. He was made an officer of the days searching the country to the southLegion of Honor by the French govern- west, and then returned, bringing some ment in 1889. See ELECTRICITY.

ears of wheat and bunches of grapes. Thoreau, HENRY DAVID, author; born They spent the winter at what is either in Concord, Mass., July 12, 1817; gradu. Nantucket or Martha's Vineyard, where ated at Harvard College in 1837; became they constructed booths, and during the

spring cultivated the land and explored the country. Thorfinn then sailed for what is probably Mount Hope Bay and there founded a settlement. Here they first met the Eskimos, who then inhabited the country, and carried on a considcrable trade with them. In the fall of 1009 a son was born to Thorfinn, who was in all probability the first child of European parents born within the present boundary of the United States. In the following winter the natives became hostile, and after combating them for some time Thorfinn returned to Norway, where he arrived in 1011, and was received with great honors. He died in Glæmbæland, Ireland, after 1016.

Thornton, SIR EDWARD, diplomatist; born in London, England, July 17, 1817; graduated at Cambridge University in 1840; was appointed minister to the United States in December, 1867; member of the joint high commission on the Alabama claims in 1871; member of the ar

bitration board of the American and MexiHENRY DAVID THOREAU.

can claims commission in 1873; and of

the board to arrange the boundaries of a lecturer and writer, and was strongly Ontario in 1878. He was transferred from opposed to slavery; was an intimate Washington to St. Petersburg in May, friend of Bronson Alcot and Ralph Waldo 1881,


Thornton, JAMES SHEPARD, naval he signed the Declaration. He was made officer; born in Merrimac, N. H., Feb. 25, chief-justice of the county of Hillsboro, 1826; entered the navy as midshipman and judge of the Supreme Court of the in 1841; served in the sloop John Adams State. He was in both branches of the during the Mexican War; became a passed legislature, and in the council in 1785. midshipman in 1846; and resigned from He died in Newburyport, Mass., June 24, the navy in 1850. He was reinstated in 1803. 1854; promoted master in 1855; and lieu Thornton, SETH BARTON, military tenant in 1855; served during the Civil officer; born near Fredericksburg, Va., War in the brig Bainbridge; was execu- in 1814; served in the Seminole War as tive officer of the flag-ship Hartford ; pro- second lieutenant of United States Dramoted lieutenant · commander in 1862; goons, becoming first lieutenant in 1837 had charge of the gunboat Winona in the and captain in 1841; had command of a engagements at Mobile; executive officer of squadron in the Mexican War and exthe Kearsarge in the fight with the Ala- changed the first shots with the enemy at bama off Cherbourg, and for his gallantry La Rosia, April 25, 1846, in which enin this action was given a vote of thanks gagement he was severely wounded and and advanced thirty numbers in his rank. captured with the greater part of his He served in the navy-yard at Portsmouth, force. At the close of Scott's campaign, N. H., in 1866–67; promoted commander in while leading his squadron in advance of 1866; and captain in 1872. He died in Worth's division at the village of San Germantown, Pa., May 14, 1875.

Augustin, he was shot dead. Thornton, JOHN WINGATE, historian; Thorpe, FRANCIS NEWTON, author; born born in Saco, Me., Aug. 12, 1818; gradu- in Swampscott, Mass., April 16, 1857; ated at the Harvard Law School in 1840; studied at Syracuse University and at the was admitted to the bar and practised in University of Pennsylvania Law School; Boston; was one of the originators of the was fellow Professor of American ConNew England Historic-Genealogical So- stitutional History at the University of ciety. His publications include Lives of Pennsylvania in 1885–98. He is the author I suac Heath and John Bowles, and of of The Government of the People of the Rev. John Eliot, Jr.; The Landing at Cape United States; Franklin and the Uni. Anne, or the Charter of the First Perma- versity of Pennsylvania; The Story of the nent Colony on the Territory of the Massa- Constitution; The Government of the chusetts Company, now Discovered and State of Pennsylvania; The Constitution First Published from the Original Manu- of the United States, with Bibliography; script; Ancient Pemaquid and Historic A Constitutional History of the American Review; Peter Oliver's Puritan Com- People, 1776-1850; The Constitutional monwealthReviewed; The Pulpit of the History of the United States in 1765-1895; American Revolution, or the Political Ser. and A History of the United States for mons of the Period of 1776, with an Intro- Junior Classes. duction, Notes, and Illustrations; Colonial Thorpe, THOMAS Bangs, author; born Schemes of Popham and Gorges; The His- in Westfield, Mass., March 1, 1815; retorical Relation of New England to the ceived a collegiate education; settled in English Commonwealth, etc. He died in Louisiana in 1836 and devoted himself to Saco, Me., June 6, 1878.

literature; served in the Mexican War Thornton, MATTHEW, a signer of the and was promoted colonel for meritorious Declaration of Independence; born in Ire- services. His publications include The land in 1714; came to America in early Big Bear of Arkansas; Our Army of the life; was educated at Worcester, and be- Rio Grande; Our Army at Monterey; A came a physician in New Hampshire. Voice to America; Scenes in Arkansaw; He was in Pepperell's expedition against Reminiscences of Charles L. Elliott, etc. Louisburg in 1745 as a surgeon; presided He died in New York City in October, over the New Hampshire Provincial Con- 1878. vention in 1775; and was a short time a Thorvald, Ericsson, navigator; born delegate to the Continental Congress, in Scandinavia in the tenth century. In çaking his seat in November, 1776, when 1002 he selected a crew of thirty men and sailed westward. He is supposed to have the mouth of the Sorel. A British force reached what is now the coast of Rhode to jk post at Three Rivers. General Sulli. Island, and to have wintered near the van sent General Thompson with Pennpresent site of Providence. In the spring sylvania troops, led by St. Clair, Wayne, of 1003 he sailed southward and westward and Irvine, to attack the British there. and anchored near what is supposed to be Thompson was badly beaten, and he and Cape Alderton. Here were sighted three Irvine, with 150 private soldiers, were canoes containing nine savages, eight of made prisoners. This disaster discouraged whom were slain. The ninth escaped, and Sullivan, and he was compelled to abanon the following night brought back a don Canada. large number of Eskimos, who appeared Thurman, ALLEN GRANBERY, states.

man; born in Lynchburg, Va., Nov. 13, 1813; prac. tised law in Chillicothe, 0., and became eminent at the bar; was a life-long Democrat. In 1845-47 he represented Ohio in the national House of Representatives, and in 1851-55 was a judge of the State Supreme Court. In 1867 he was the candidate for governor in opposition to Rutherford B. Hayes, and the campaign was close and exciting, though Hayes won. During two terms, 1869 to 1881, Thurman was a member of the United States Senate, where he served on the judiciary committee and on the electoral commission of 1877, and was a leader of the party and an authority on constitutional questions. He had been a candidate for the Presi. dential nomination, and in 1888 he accepted the second place on the ticket

with Grover Cleveland. In to have lived in the tenth century much the election Cleveland and Thurman were farther south than in later times. These defeated by Harrison and Morton. Senator natives, after discharging a shower of ar- Thurman died in Columbus, O., Dec. 12, 1895. rows on the Scandinavians, fled. During Thurston, LORRIN A., diplomatist; the attack Thorvald received an arrow born in Hawaii; studied law in Columbia wound of which he died. After burying College in 1880–81; practised in Honolulu, him at Cape Alderton his crew returned where he also published the Daily Bulletin to Rhode Island, and in 1005 sailed for in 1884; elected to the legislature in 1886; Greenland.

prominent in the reform movement of Three Rivers, BATTLE OF. When a 1887; minister of the interior in 1887-90; large British and German force began to member of the House of Nobles in 1892arrive in the St. Lawrence (May, 1776) 98; and was chairman of the commission the Americans retreated up the river to appointed in 1893 to present to the United

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