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the Confederates on temporary bridges. nulled, and the payment of any debts conGeary crossed at ‘eight o'clock, and, seizing tracted by that government was prohibited a picket-guard of forty men, extended his These proceedings were ratified by the line to the base of the mountain. By people, and WILLIAM G. BROWNLOW eleven o'clock Hooker was striving to drive (q. v.) was chosen governor. In April the Confederates from the mountain; all the legislature ratified the Thirteenth his guns opened at once upon the breast. Amendment to the national Constitution, works and rifle-pits along the steep wood. reorganized the State government, and ed acclivity, and Gross's and T. J. Wood's elected Senators to Congress. The Fourbrigades, sweeping everything before them, teenth Amendment to the national Concaptured the rifle-pits. At the same time stitution having been ratified by the State the troops scaled the heights, driving the in 1866, it was soon afterwards admitted

Confederates from the hollow to a plateau to representation in Congress. The con· well up towards the crest and around stitution of the State was revised early

towards the Chattanooga Valley. At con- in 1870. Population in 1890, 1,767,518; in siderably past noon the plateau was clear: 1900, 2,020,616. See UNITED STATES, ed, and the Confederates were retreating TENNESSEE, in this volume. in confusion towards the Chattanooga Valley. Hooker established his line on the

TERRITORIAL GOVERNOR. easterly face of the mountain; so that, by William Blount, appointed governor of the an enfilading fire, he completely command territory southwest of the Obio.

ry southwest of the Obio.......... Aug. 7, 1790 ed the Confederate defences, stretching

STATE GOVERNORS. across the valley to Missionary Ridge. John Sevier.........assumes office...... March 30, 1796 See CHATTANOOGA CAMPAIGN, THE; Look• Archibald Roane..

Seph, 1801 John Sevier.


William Blount.....


Joseph McMinn....

1815 General Burnside, with the Army of Samuel Houston....

William Carroll.....

1827 the Ohio, had occupied Knoxville, Sept. William Carroll.

1829 23, 1863. The Confederate General Buck

Newton Cannon.....

1835 James K. Polk .....

1839 ner, upon his advance, evacuated east James C. Jones......

1841 Tennessee and

1845 joined Brago at Chat. Aaron V. Brown..... Neil S. Brown.......

1847 tanooga. Early in November, General William Trousdale...

1849 William B. Campbell

1851 Livingstone, with 16,000 men, advanced

Andrew Johnson....

4 1853 against Knoxville. On the 14th he cross. Isham G. Harris.....

66 1857 ed the Tennessee. Burnside repulsed him

Andrew Johnson....

prov., March 12, 1861 W. G. Brownlow....

...... April, 1865 on the 16th at Campbell's Station, thereby DeWitt C. Senter....


John C. Brown...... gaining time to concentrate his army in

1871 James D. Pcrter, Jr..

1875 Knoxville. Longstreet advanced, laid siege Albert S. Marks...

1879 to the town, and assaulted it twice (Nov. A

Alvin Hawkins......

1881 William B. Bate.....

1883 18 and 29), but was repulsed. Meantime Robert L. Taylor.....

1887 Grant had defeated Bragg at Chattanooga,

John P. Buchanan...

1891 Peter Turney........

1893 and Sherman, with 25,000 men, was on the H. Clay Evans.

1895 way to leave Knoxville. Livingstone, com- Robert I.. Taylor ....

1897 Benton McMillin....

1899 pelled to raise the siege, therefore, retired James B. Frazier....

1903 up the Holston River, but did not entirely abandon eastern Tennessee until the

UNITED STATES SENATORS. next spring, when he again joined Lee in


No. of Congress. Virginia.

William Blount....

4th to 5th 1796 to 1797 On Jan. 9, 1865, a State convention as. William Cocke.

4th “ 9th 1796 * 1805 sembled at Nashville and proposed amend. Joseph


1797 1798 ments

Andrew Jackson. to the constitution abolishing Daniel Smith

1798 slavery and prohibiting the legislative Joseph Anderson ....... 6th to 14th 1799 to 1815

Daniel Smith.......

9th “ 11th 1805 "* 1809 recognition of property in man. The mili- Jenkin Whiteside.: 11th “ 12th 1809 1811 tary league with the Confederacy, the George W. Campbell ... 12th “ 13th 1811 « 1814 ordinance of secession, and all acts of the John Williams...........

Jesse Wharton....... 13tb " 14th 1814 # 1815

14th “ 18th 1816 " 1823 Confederate States government were an. George W. Campbell..... 14th “ 15th | 1816 « 1819

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UNITED STATES SENATORS- Continued. a terrapin. Squibs, epigrams, caricatures,

and songs were levelled against the acts. Name. No. of Congress. Term.

Newspapers and speakers especially conJob Henry Eaton..... 15th to 21st 1818 to 1829 Andrew Jackson...... 18tb " 19th 1823 1825 demned the “land embargo "–the cuttingHugh Lawson White... 19th “ 26th 1825 “ 1840 off trade with Canada. The trade so sudFelis Grundy.........

21st " 25th 1829" 1838 Ephraim H. Foster.... 25th “ 26th 1838 * 1839

denly thrown into confusion by it was Alexander Anderson... 26th " 27th 1840 “ 1841 represented in a caricature by a bewilFelix Grundy.


1839 " 1840 Alfred 0. P. Nicholson... 26th to 28th

€ 1843

dered serpent which had been suddenly Epbraim H. Foster.... 28th " 29th 1843 " 1845 Spencer Jarnagin..... 28th - 30th 1843 1847 Hopkins L Turney ... 29th “ 320 1845 " 1851 John Bell...

30th " 36th 1847 "1859 James C. Jones......

32d 6 35th 1851 1857 Andrew Johnson...... 35th * 38th 1857 € 1862 Alfred 0. P. Nicholson...


1859 • 1861 87th and 38th Congresses vacant. David T. Patterson....... 39th to 41st 1866 to 1869 Joseph S. Fowler...... 39th " 42d 1866 " 1871 William G. Brownlow.... 41st « 44th 1869 1875 Heory Cooper,

42d " 45th 1871 " 1877 Andrew Johnson..

1875 David McKendree Key...

1875 to 1877 James E. Bailey...... 44th to 47th 1877" 1881 Isham G. Harris...... 45th " 54th 1877 · 1897 Howell E. Jackson...... 47th " 49th 1881. * 1886 Washington C.Whittborne 49th “ 50th 1886 + 1888 William B. Bate.........


1888 " Thomas B. Turley...... 541h - 57th | 1897 1901 Edward W. Carmack 57th

I 1901 16

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Tenure-of-office Act. Late in February, 1867, a bill was passed by Congress limiting the powers of the President in

FAC-SIMILE OF A NEWSPAPER CUT, removals from office. It took from the President the power to remove members of stopped in its movements by two trees, his cabinet excepting by permission of the marked, respectively, “Embargo” and Senate, declaring that they should hold “Non-Importation Act.” The wondering office “ for and during the term of the snake is puzzled to know what has hapPresident by whom they may have been pened, and the head cries out, “ What's appointed, and for one month thereafter, the matter, tail ?” The latter answers, subject to removal by and with the consent “I can't get out.” A cock, representing of the Senate.” President Johnson vetoed France, stands by, crowing joyfully. In this bill (March 2), when it was passed the late spring and early summer of 1812 over his veto and became a law.

a very popular song was sung at all gath. Ternay, CHARLES LOUIS D’ARSAC, erings of the Federalists. The following CHEVALIER DE, naval officer; born in Ter- is a copy: nay Castle, near Laudun, France, in 1722; entered the French service in 1738; com

“Huzza for our liberty, boys,

These are the days of our glory manded a squadron in the invasion of

The days of true national joys, Newfoundland in June, 1762; resigned When terrapins gallop before ye! in 1772; and in 1779 was governor of

There's Porter and Grundy and Rhea,

In Congress who manfully vapor, Bourbon and the adjacent islands. He

Who draw their six dollars a day, arrived at Newport, R. I., as commander

And fight bloody battles on paper! of the fleet that brought iroops to Amer

Ah! this is true Terrapin war. ica under Rochambeau, July 10, 1780, and died there, Dec. 15, 1780.

“ Poor Madison the tremors has got,

'Bout this same arming the nation ; Terrapin War. The opponents of the Too far to retract, he cannot War of 1812 denounced the embargo acts

Go on-and he loses his station. in unmeasured terms of scorn and ridi.

Then bring up your "regulars,' lads,

In 'attitude' nothing ye lack, sirs. cule. They called the conflict a “ Terrapin

Ye'll frighten to death the Danads, War”-the nation, by extinguishing com

With fire-coals blazing a back, sirs ! merce, drawing within its own shell like

Oh, this is true Terrapin war!

Area in quare Miles


in 1900.



"As to powder and bullet and swords, in the operations against Fort Wagner, For, as they were never intended,

and afterwards in the Army of the James, They're a parcel of high-sounding words,

in its operations against Petersburg and But never to action extended. Ye must frighten the rascals away,

Richmond. From May to December, 1864, In 'rapid descent' on their quarters ; he commanded the 10th Corps; and in Then the plunder divide as ye may,

January, 1865, aided by the fleet of Porter, And drive them headlong in the waters. Oh, this is great Terrapin war !"

he captured Fort Fisher. For this act he

was made major-general of volunteers and Territories of the United States. All brigadier-general, United States army. He the States of the Republic were first afterwards captured Wilmington, N. C., organized as Territories, excepting the and was brevetted major-general. After original thirteen States; Texas, received the surrender of Lee he was in command by annexation; California, admitted di- of Richmond. He was promoted majorrect; and West Virginia, formed from general in 1886, and was retired in 1888. a part of Virginia. There were in Ile died in New Haven, Conn., Dec. 16, 1905:


Terry, SILAS WRIGHT, naval officer;
Date of

born in Kentucky, Dec. 28, 1842; appoint

ed acting midshipman in the Naval Acad. Arizona .... 1863 113.000

122.212 New Mexico..

122.590 195,310 emy in 1858; was engaged in blockading Hawaii,

*1498 6,740 |(1899) 31,019 service on the Atlantic coast in 1861-63; Oklahoma...... 1890 39.030 399,331

in the Mississippi squadron and on the * Annexed.

Red River expedition in 1863–64; and was The Territory of Alaska had been par- present during the naval operations at tially organized; the Indian Territory forts Fisher and Anderson, at the capture was still without a central organization; of Wilmington, and at the fall of Richand the District of Columbia was gov- mond. In January, 1882, while in comerned by commissioners under direct legis. mand of the Marion, he rescued the crew lation of Congress. Of the insular pos of the bark Trinity, which had been sessions, the Philippines were given civil wrecked on Heard Island, in the Indian government in 1902; Porto Rico in 1900; Ocean, in 1880: and in February, while Hawaii in 1900; Guam, Tutuila, Wake, at Cape Town, saved the English ship and other Pacific islands are administered Poonah from total loss by hauling her off by naval officers.

the beach, for which he received the thanks Terry, ALFRED HOWE, military officer; of the government of both Cape Colony born in Hartford, Conn., Nov. 10, 1827; and Great Britain. He was assigned to educated at Yale College; admitted to the the command of the Iowa in 1898; debar in 1848, and practised from 1854 to tached in September, 1899; appointed 1860. He entered the National army as to the command of the navy-yard at Washcolonel of the 2d Connecticut Volunteers; ington, D. C., March 24, 1900, and pro. led the regiment in the battle of Bull moted rear-admiral on the 27th following. Run, retiring in good order when defeat Tesla, Nicola, electrician; born in was certain, hurrying up the rear of the Smiljan, Croatia, Austria-Hungary, in retreat, and saving a large amount of 1857; graduated at the Polytechnic School government property. Returning home in Gratz; later studied philosophy and and raising the 7th Connecticut Volun- languages at Prague and Budapest; came teers, he was attached to the expedition to the United States and was employed to the coast of South Carolina, under Gen. in the Edison works; became electrician W. T. Sherman, and occupied Hilton of the Tesla Electric Light Company, and Head. He assisted in the capture of Port established the Tesla Laboratory in New Royal and Fort Pulaski, and was placed York for independent electrical research, in command of the latter; and during the le invented the rotary magnetic field summer of 1862 had command of the posts embodied in the apparatus used in the and forts on the eastern coast of Florida, transmission of power from Niagara Falls; having been made brigadier-general of new forms of dynamos, transformers, involunteers in March. He led a division duction coils, condensers, arc and incan: descent lamps, and the oscillator combin- communication with his people, but issued ing steam-engine and dynamo, etc. laration of independence, and a provisional president (David G. Burnet) was chosen. On the 27th the command of Colonel Fanning, at Goliad, were massacred in cold blood, and successive defeats of the Texans produced a panic. Houston, meanwhile, in order to scatter the Mexican forces, continually fell back, until he reached San Jacinto. There, at the head of a force of 800 troops, he gave battle (April 21, 1836) to about twice that number of Mexicans, and in the pursuit of them killed 630, wounded 208, and took 730 prisoners. Among the latter, captured the next day, was President Santa Ana. His force was annihilated. The survivors fled westward in terror. The war was practically at an end. The Mexicans did not again invade Texas. Houston was elected president of the republic (September, 1836). The independence of Texas was acknowledged by the United States in March, 1837, but Mexico did not give up her claim to it. See ACQUISITION OF TERRITORY; BENTON, THOMAS Hart.

orders to them through subordinates. He Test Oath. See Oaths.

was unable on account of old age to go Tetinchoua, Miami Indian chief; was to the mouth of Lake Superior, where all met by the French traveller Nicolas Rer- the country bordering on the lakes was rot, at Chicago, in 1671, and is described formally claimed by the French, but deleby him as a great chief, having had con- gated the Pottawattomies to act for him. trol of about 4,000 warriors. He was con. It is said that FATHER CLAUDE DABLON stantly guarded night and day by forty (q. v.) met him and his 3,000 Miamis in men, and scarcely ever had any personal 1672, but made no converts.

TEXAS, STATE OF Texas, STATE OF. The first European sions, and in 1765 there were not more settlement made in Texas was by La than 750 white inhabitants in Texas. Salle, in 1685, by accident. In 1689 Cap- Texas was a part of the Spanish provtain De Leon, a Spanish officer, was sent ince of Mexico which had declared itself to drive out the French. He found them independent of Spain. In 1824, when a scattered, and the next year he returned considerable number of colonists from with 110 men and some friars, and on the the United States were there, the Mexican site of a fort built by La Salle, on Mata- government united Coahuila, previously a gorda Bay, established a Spanish mission. separate state, with Texas, and placed A Spanish governor, with troops, was a Mexican as governor over the united

states. He treated the Americans there with great injustice, and some of them, engaged in a revolution, were compelled to retreat into the United States in 1827. In 1830 Bustamente, who had made himself dictator of Mexico, issued a decree forbidding the people of the United States to enter Texas as colonists. The American settlers in Texas then numbered about 20,000, and in 1833 they held a convention, determined to separate Texas from Coahuila, prepared a State constitution, and requested Santa Ana, then at the head of the government of Mexico, to admit them

as a separate State of the republic. Col. oss

STEPHEN F. AUSTIN (q. v.), representing the American colonists, went to Mexico,

where Santa Ana detained him until 1835; STATE SEAL OF TEXAS.

during which time-keeping the Texans

quiet by promises of compliance with their sent thither in 1691, but Indian hostilities desires—he prepared to occupy the country and menaces of famine caused the settle- with his troops. A committee of safety ment to be abandoned in 1693. In 1714 was created in Texas, which assumed govthe French again attempted to plant ernmental powers. The people armed. settlements in Texas, under the direction A skirmish took place with some Mexiof Crozat, of Louisiana. Soon afterwards cans, near Gonzales, Oct. 2, 1835, and other (1715) Spanish missions were planted at battles followed. On Nov. 9 a provisional various points in the present domain of government was formed in a delegate con. Texas; the name of “New Philippines " vention, called the “ Consultation," and a was given to the country, and a governor- governor and lieutenant-governor were general was appointed. The Indians chosen. slaughtered the people at some of the mis. At the same time SAMUEL HOUSTON

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Annexation of Teras.—The Southern people were anxious to have the State of Texas annexed to the United States, and such a desire was a prevailing feel

ing in that sovereign State. The propSAM HOUSTON.

osition, when formally made, was op

posed by the people of the North, be(q. v.), of Tennessee, who had settled in cause the annexation would increase the Texas, was chosen commander-in-chief of area and political strength of the slave the forces, and Austin was sent as com- power, and lead to a war with Mexico. missioner to the United States. After But the matter was persisted in by the San Antonio de Bexar was captured (Dec. South, and, with the approbation of Presi10), the entire Mexican force was driven out of Texas, and on the 20th a declara. tion of independence was adopted, and issued at Goliad, by Capt. Philip Dimitt and others. Santa Ana, with a well-provided army of 7,500 men, set out for the recovery of Texas. He invested the ALAMO (q. v.), a strong fort near San Antonio, with 4,000 men, and, after bombarding it eleven days, carried it by storm. It was garrisoned by about 170 men, under Capt. · W. B. Travis. The whole garrison was

MEXICANS massacred (March 6) by order of Santa Ana-only one woman, a child, and a servant were saved. “Remember the Alamo!” was a Texan war - cry after that. The Mexicans lost, in the attack, 1,600 men. On March 1 a convention issued a dec. MAP OF THE BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO.


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TEXANS Bili sa



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