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ed a special session of the legislature at to meet on April 25, 1861, and in a meg. Nashville, Jan. 7, 1861, and in his mes- sage to them he strongly urged the immesage he recited a long list of so-called diate secession of the State. He urged that grievances which the people of the State there was no propriety in wasting time in had suffered under the rule of the na- submitting the question to the people, for tional government. He appealed to their a revolution was imminent. A few days passions and prejudices, and recommended afterwards Henry W. Hilliard, a comamendments to the national Constitution missioner of the Confederate States of favorable to the perpetuation and protec- America, clothed with authority to tion of the slave system. The legislature negotiate a treaty of alliance with Tenprovided for a convention, but decreed nessee, appeared (April 30) and was althat when the people should elect the dele. lowed to address the legislature. He exgates they should vote for “ Convention " pressed his belief that there was not a

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or “No convention”; also, that any true-hearted man in the South who would ordinance adopted by the convention con not spurn submission to the “ Abolition cerning “ Federal relations” should not North," and considered the system of gov. be valid until submitted to the people for ernment founded on slavery which had ratification or rejection. The election was just been established as the only form of held Feb. 9, 1861, and the Union candi- government that could be maintained in dates were elected by an aggregate America. The legislature, in which was a majority of about 65,000; and, by a majority of Confederate sympathizers, aumajority of nearly 12,000, decided not to thorized (May 1) the governor to enter have a convention. The loyal people were into a military league with the Confedgratified, and believed the secession move. erate States, by which the whole military ments in the State would cease.

rule of the commonwealth was to be subGovernor Harris called the legislature jected to the will of Jefferson Davis. It

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and Washington Bar. row, commissioners for the purpose. They negotiated a treaty with the agent of the Confederate States, Henry W. Hilliard, and on the 7th a copy of the treaty was submitted to the legislature. By the treaty the authorities of Tennessee were to “turn over” to the Confederate States "all the public property, naval stores, and munitions of war of which she might then be in possession, acquired from the United States, on the same terms and in the same manner as the other States of the Confederacy.” Already Governor Harris had ordered (April 29, 1861) the seizure of Tennessee bonds to the amount of $66,000 and

$5,000 in cash belong. A CORN-MILL IN EAST TENSESSEE.

ing to the United

States in the hands of was done on May 7. The eighteen mem- the collector at Nashville. At about that bers from East Tennessee (which section time Jefferson Davis, disgusted with the remained loyal) did not vote.

timidity of Governor Magoffin, of KenThe legislature passed an act to sub- tucky recommended the Kentuckians mit to a vote of the people of Tennessee “true to the South ” to go into Tennessee a declaration of independence and an ordi- and there “rally and organize.” nance of secession; also an ordinance for East Tennessee, where loyalty to the the adoption of the constitution of the Union was strongly predominant, was kept Confederate States of America. The gov- in submission to the Confederacy by the ernor was empowered to raise 50,000 strong arm of military power. The peovolunteers " for the defence of the State," ple longed for deliverance, which seemed and, if necessary, to call out the whole near at hand when, in January, 1862, the available military strength of the common- energetic General Mitchel made an effort weath, to be under the absolute immediate to seize Chattanooga. His force was too control of the governor. He was also au- small to effect it, for E. Kirby Smith was thorized to issue bonds of the State for watching that region with a strong Con$5,000,000, to bear an annual interest of federate force. Mitchel asked Buell for 8 per cent.

reinforcements, but was denied. Finally Pursuant to the act of the legislature General Negley, after a successful attack authorizing the governor to take meas- upon Confederates near Jasper, having ures to annex that State to the Con- made his way over the rugged ranges of federacy, the governor appointed Gus. the Cumberland Mountains, suddenly aptavus A. Henry, Archibald 0. W. Totten, peared opposite Chattanooga (June 7).


Towards evening he had heavy guns in entered the magnificent valley of east position, and for two hours he can. Tennessee, their baggage and stores carnonaded the town and the Confederate ried, in many places, by pack-mules. On works near. The inhabitants and Con- his entering the valley 20,000 Confedfederates fled from the town. With a few erates, commanded by GEN. SIMON B. more regiments Negley might have capt- BUCKNER (q. v), fled to Georgia and ured and held the place, and Mitchel could joined Bragg. General Burnside had been have marched into east Tennessee. But joined by General Hartsuff and his comBuell would not allow it. The Confederates mand. Their numbers were swelled by had already evacuated Cumberland Gap junction with other troops. At the mouth voluntarily, and the inhabitants of east of the Clinch River they first had comTennessee were jubilant with hope of de-munication with Colonel Minty's cavalry, liverance. But they were again disap- on Rosecrans's extreme left. At Loudon pointed and compelled to wait.' The cau- bridge General Shackelford had a skirtious Buell and the fiery Mitchel did not mish with Confederates, and drove them work well together, and the latter was across the stream, they burning the soon assigned to the command of the De- magnificent structure, 2,000 feet long. partment of the South.

Early in September a force of ConfederIn August, 1863, General Burnside was ates, under General Frazer, holding Cumassigned to the command of the Army of berland Gap, surrendered to the Nationals, the Ohio, and was ordered to take active and the great valley between the Cumberco-operation with the Army of the Cum land and Alleghany Mountains (of which berland. He had gathered 20,000 men Knoxville was the metropolis), extending near Richmond, Ky., well disciplined and from Cleveland to Bristol, seemed to equipped. They left camp Aug. 21, climb- be permanently rid of armed Confedered over the Cumberland Mountains, and ates. The loyal inhabitants of that region

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received the National troops with open garrison of 600 men under Col. A. C. arms.

Harding, assisted by gunboats. There was After the battle of Stone River, or Mur- a severe engagement (Feb. 3), and at 8 freesboro, the armies of Rosecrans and P.M. the Confederates fled with a loss of Bragg lay confronting each other, the nearly 600 men. Harding lost 156, of former at the scene of the battle and the whom fifty were made prisoners. Late in latter below the Duck River. Bragg's January, Gen. J. C. Davis swept over a main base of supplies was at Chattanooga. considerable space in thirteen days, and In that relative position the two armies captured 141 of Wheeler's men. Later, continued from January until June, 1863. Gen. Earl Van Dorn, with a large mounted Meanwhile detached parties were very ac- force, was hovering near Franklin, below tive in various parts of Tennessee. At the Nashville. Sheridan, at Murfreesboro, and beginning of February (1863), General Colonel Colburn, at Franklin, marched Wheeler, Bragg's chief of artillery, with simultaneously to confront him. Van 4,500 mounted men, with Brigadier-Gen- Dorn was accompanied by Forrest. Col. erals Forrest and Wharton, attempted to burn, with 2,700 men, moved against Van recapture Fort Donelson. The chief object Dorn at Spring Hill, but failed to form of the Confederates there was to interrupt a junction with Sheridan. After a sharp the navigation of the Cumberland River, encounter he was forced to surrender and thus interfere with the transporta (March 5) about 1,300 of his infantry. tion of supplies for Rosecrans's army. The The remainder, with the cavalry, escaped. Confederates failed in their project, for Sheridan, with about 1,800 cavalry, skir. the fort was well defended by a little mished in several places with the Confed.

erates, and finally at Thompson's Station, (q. v.) on an extensive raid in Alabama after a sharp engagement, captured some and Georgia in April and May, which of his antagonists and drove Van Dorn resulted in the capture of the leader and beyond the Duck River. He returned to his men. Murfreesboro with nearly 100 prisoners, Late in November, 1863, GENERAL SHERwith a loss of ten men killed and wounded, MAN (9. 1.) arrived in the neighborhood of On March 18, Col. A. S. Hall with 1,400 Chattanooga. It was imperative that he men was attacked by Morgan, the guerilla, should get his array over the river without and 2,000 men at Milton, 12 miles from being discovered. To draw the attention Murfreesboro. With the aid of Harris's of the Confederates to another quarter, battery, in a three hours' struggle Hall Hooker was ordered to engage them on the repulsed Morgan, who lost 300 or 400 men northern side of Lookout Mountain. His killed and wounded. Early in April, Gen. entire force consisted of approximately Gordon Granger was in command at 10,000 men. The main Confederate force Franklin, building a fort near. He had was encamped in a hollow half-way up the about 5,000 troops. Van Dorn attacked mountain, the summit of which was held him there (April 10) with 9,000 Confed by several brigades. Hooker began the aterates. The latter intended if successful tack on the morning of November 24. to push on and seize Nashville, but he was Geary, supported by Cruft, proceeded to repulsed with a loss of about 300 men. Wauhatchie, crossing Lookout Creek there, Rosecrans sent COL. ABDEL D. STREIGHT the rest of the troops crossing in front of

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