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spring of 1811, trying to induce them to to the war-path. The wily Prophet, who join his confederacy. He went on a sim- had been told by the British when a comet ilar mission in the autumn, taking with would appear, told the excited multitude him his brother, the Prophet, partly that they would see the arm of Tecumseh, to employ him as a cunning instrument like pale fire, stretched out in the vault in managing the superstitious Indians, of heaven at a certain time, and thus and partly to prevent his doing mischief they would know by that sign when to be. at home in Tecumseh's absence. About gin the war. The people looked upon him thirty warriors accompanied them. His with awe, for the fame of Tecumseh mission, then, was to engage the Indians and the Prophet had preceded them. Teas allies for the British and against the cumseh continued his mission with sucAmericans. The Choctaws and Chicka- cess, but found opponents here and there. saws, through whose country Tecumseh Among the most conspicuous of them was passed, would not listen to him; but the Tustinuggee-Thlucco, the “ Big Warrior." Seminoles and Creeks lent him willing Tecumseh tried every art to convert him ears. He addressed the assembled Creeks to his purposes. At length he said, anfor the first time in the lower part of grily: “Tustinuggee-Thlucco, your blood (the present) Autauga county, Ala., late is white. You have taken my redsticks in October. Soon afterwards, having ad- and my talk, but you do not mean to dressed the Creeks at different points, he fight. I know the reason; you do not approached a great council called by Colo- believe the Great Spirit has sent me. nel Hawkins, United States Indian agent, You shall believe it. I will leave directly at Toockabateha, the ancient Creek cap- and go straight to Detroit. When I get ital, where fully 5,000 of the nation were there, I will stamp my foot upon the gathered. Tecumseh marched with dig. ground and shake down every house in nity into the square with his train of Toockabatcha.” thirty followers, entirely naked, excepting Strangely enough, at about the time their flaps and ornaments, their faces Tecumseh must have arrived at Detroit, painted black, their heads adorned with there was heard a deep rumbling undereagles' feathers, while buffalo tails dragged ground all over the Alabama region, and behind, suspended by bands around their there was a heaving of the earth that waists. Like appendages were attached made the houses of Toockabatcha reel and to their arms, and their whole appearance totter as if about to fall. The startled was as hideous as possible, and their bear- savages ran out, exclaiming: “ Tecumseh ing uncommonly pompous and ceremoni. is at Detroit! Tecumseh is at Detroit ! ous. They marched round and round in We feel the stamp of his foot!” It was the square, and then, approaching the the shock of an earthquake that was felt Creek chiefs, gave them the Indian salu. all over the Gulf region in December, 1812. tation of a hand-shake at arm's-length and At the same time the comet-the blazing exchanged tobacco in token of friendship. arm of Tecumseh — appeared in the sky. So they made their appearance each day These events made a powerful impression until Hawkins departed.

on nearly the whole Creek nation, but That night a council was held in the it did not move the “ Big Warrior” from great round-house. It was packed with his allegiance to the United States. The eager listeners. Tecumseh made a fiery Creeks rose in arms, and in less than two and vengeful speech, exhorting the Creeks years their nation was ruined. to abandon the customs of the pale faces In the War of 1812-15 Tecumseh was and return to those of their fathers; to the active ally of the British, and recast away the plough and loom and cease ceived the commission of brigadier-general the cultivation of the soil, for it was an in the British army. Assisting General unworthy pursuit for noble hunters and Proctor in the battle of the Thames, he warriors. He warned them that the Amer. was slain there, Oct. 5, 1813. Who killed icans were seeking to exterminate them Tecumseh ? was an unsettled, and, at one and possess their country; and told them time, exciting question. It was supposed, that their friends, the British, had sent at the time of the battle on the Thames, him from the Great Lakes to invite them that he was slain by the pistol of Col,

Richard M. Johnson. Indeed, the friends He deserted the Moravians in 1754, and of Colonel Johnson asserted it positively led the Delawares and their allies who as an undoubted fact; and during the resided within the WALKING PURCHASE political campaign when he was a can- (q. v.), Wyoming Valley. In November, didate for the Vice - Presidency of the 1757, a treaty of pacification was conUnited States, the question caused much cluded with Teedyuscung at Easton, Pa., warm discussion. That he killed an Ind- and in the following year a town was laid ian under circumstances which were war- out in Wyoming Valley for him and his ranted was never denied. Two Indian tribe. His house was set afire by an warriors lay dead upon the spot after the enemy while he was asleep, and he was battle, one of whom was believed to be burned to death, April 16, 1763. Tecumseh. They were stripped naked. Teganakoa, STEPHEN, Indian convert; It has been pretty clearly shown that went with his family to the mission of neither body was that of Tecumseh, for Sault St. Louis, where they were baphis was carried away by his warriors. tized. In the fall of 1790, while on a The exasperated Kentuckians mutilated hunting expedition with his wife and anthe supposed body of Tecumseh, and later other Indian, he was taken prisoner by a Kentuckians have recorded, by a sculpt- band of Cayugas and carried to Onondaga,

N. Y. One of the party said to him that he owed his death to having left his countrymen for the “ dogs of Christians at the Sault.” He answered: “Do what you will with me, I fear neither your outrages nor your fires. I willingly give my life for a God who shed his blood for me.” He was then slowly tortured to death, enduring his agony with fortitude and praying for his torturers.

Teganissorens, an Iroquois Indian chief; born in Onondaga, N. Y.; became a strong ally of the French; was converted to Christianity in 1693; and in the fol lowing year visited Frontenac, the French governor, to whom he proposed the rehabilitation of Fort Catarocouy (Kings. ton), which appeared to Frontenac as a wise policy. He accordingly raised an ex. pedition to carry out the plan which he was soon forced to abandon, owing to orders received from the French Court. Later Teganissorens received both Eng. lish and French agents, to whom he de. clared that he would remain neutral, and

thereafter strongly protested against atJOHNSON'S MONUMENT,

tacks on the English settlers. In 1711 he

gave information to the French that prepaure in marble upon Colonel Johnson's rations were being made in New York, monument, in the cemetery at Frankfort, Boston, and Albany for the invasion of their conviction that he killed the great Canada. He died in Caughnawaga, or chief.

Sault St. Louis, after 1711. Teedyuscung, chief of the Delaware Tehuantepec Ship Railway. Early in Indians; born near Trenton, N. J., about 1881 Capt. James B. Eads, who had won 1700; removed to the forks of the Dela- considerable reputation as an engineer in ware in 1730; received Christian baptism building the great bridge over the Misand the name Gideon from Bishop Cam: sissippi at St. Louis, and also in construct. merhoff, a Moravian missionary, in 1750. ing the system of jetties at the mouth of

[graphic]

that river, obtained from the Mexican of legislation before adjournment, and as government the right to build a ship rail- Captain Eads died March 8 following, way across the isthmus of Tehuantepec. nothing was accomplished with his That government also promised him a scheme. large grant of money and land, and he Telegraph. A telegraph on an im. immediately made application to Con- proved plan was invented by Jonathan gress for further aid to secure the carry. Grant, of Belchertown, Mass., as early as ing-out of the plan. The matter was re- 1799. The inventor set up one of his ferred in the House of Representatives to lines between Boston and Martha's Vinea committee, and this body, Feb. 12, 1881, yard, places 90 miles apart, at which dismade report endorsing the project, and tance he asked a question and received an recommending the passage of a bill pledg. answer in less than ten minutes. Until ing the protection of the United States the perfecting of the electro-magnetic teleto the railway company and guarantee. graph by Professor Morse in 1844, teleg. ing the interest on $50,000,000 of its raphy was carried on by means of conbonds. This report, however, was laid trivances visible to the eye. In 1846 three upon the table by an overwhelming vote, men conducted the entire telegraph busiand thus for the time being the consid- ness in the United States from a dingy eration of the merits of the project was basement in New York City; in 1904 prevented.

there were 200,000 miles of poles and Captain Eads estimated the cost of the cables; 1,155,405 miles of wire; 23,458 railway over the Tehuantepec route, 112 offices; 67,909,973 messages handled; $29,miles in length, at $75,000,000. He 249,390 gross receipts; and $21,361,915 claimed that wherever a canal could expenditures. be built a strong railway for the trans The latest development is in wireless portation of ships could be built for telegraphy. On Feb. 26, 1905, communi. half the cost of the canal. He selected cation was established between Key West, the Tehuantepec in preference to the Florida, and Chicago, and between Key Panama route.

West and a steamer 200 miles east of In the fall of 1881, and in 1882, a New York. corps of engineers were employed in sur Telegraph, SUBMARINE. See ATLANTIC veying this route. However, all Captain TELEGRAPH. Eads obtained from the Forty-sixth or the Telephone, Tue. Chronology of: two subsequent congresses was favorable Robert Hook conveyed sounds to a dig. committee reports. When he was alto. tance by distended wire.............1667 gether worn out with the struggle to Alexander Graham Bell begins his inobtain due recognition for his scheme, the vestigation of electrical transmission and Forty-ninth Congress partially consented reproduction of articulate speech to incorporate his company. A bill was

July, 1874 passed by the Senate Feb. 17, 1887, which Pel constructs an electrical telephone, constituted James B. Eads and some with a diaphragm of gold-beater's skin, eighty other persons named as a body which transmits speech. .......July, 1875 politic under the name and title of the Thomas A. Edison, furnished by Will. Atlantic and Pacific Ship Railway Com- iam Orton, president of the Western Union pany. The stock was not to exceed $100,- Telegraph Company, with a description of 000,000, and when 10 per cent. of the Reis's telephone, begins experiments with stock had been subscribed for and 10 per a view to producing an articulating telecent. thereon paid in cash, a meeting of phone........ ............July, 1875 stockholders was to be held in Wash Elisha Gray files his carcat for an inington or New York for the election of vention “to transmit the tones of the directors. If $10,000,000 of stock was not human voice through a telegraphic cirsubscribed for and 10 per cent. in cash cuit." etc.................. Feb. 14, 1876 paid thereon within two years, the charter Professor Bell publicly explains his -So the bill declared-must expire by method before the American Academy of limitation. This bill did not get through Arts and Sciences of Boston the House, however, being lost in the rush

May 10, 1876

Bell's telephone exhibited at the Cen- ments, till they ground the 36-inch teletennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, Pa. scope for the Lick Observatory, in Cali

June, 1876 fornia, and the son, Alvan G., made the Iron diaphragm first used by Bell 40-inch Yerkes telescope for the observa.

June 30, 1876 tory of the University of Chicago, erected Edison's carbon, loud-speaking telephone at Williams Bay, Wis. The movable part invented .................. January, 1877 of the latter, which turns on the polai

Professor Bell exhibits at the Essex axis, weighs about 12 tons, and the Institute, Salem, Mass., his telephone, clock weighs 11/2 tons. The refracting using a powerful horseshoe magnet, by telescopes of the Naval Observatory, at which a short speech, shouted into a Washington, 33 feet long, and at the similar telephone in Boston, 16 miles Leander McCormick Observatory, Unidistant, is distinctly audible to an au- versity of Virginia, both made by Alvan dience of 600 persons in Salem

Clark & Sons, have a 26-inch aperture.

Feb. 12, 1877 The largest reflecting telescope in the First-known telephone line connects the United States is at Harvard University, office of Charles Williams, electrician, in 28-inch mirror. Other notable telescopes Boston, and his house in Somerville are at Princeton University (Clark, 23

April, 1877 inch); Rochester, N. Y. (Clark, 16-inch); First telephone exchange established in Madison, Wis. (Clark, 15.5-inch); DudBoston, Mass......................1811 Tey, at Albany, ...............1877 ley, at Albany, N. Y. (Fitz, 13-inch);

N. One form of microphone invented by University of Michigan (Fitz, 12.5-inch); Edison .................... April 1, 1877 and Middletown University (Clark, 12.

Experiments begun in Brown Univer- inch). sity by Prof. Eli W. Blake, Prof. John Telfair, Edward, patriot; born in ScotPierce, and others, result in the con- land in 1735; came to America in 1758 as struction by Dr. William F. Channing agent for a mercantile house: resided first of the first portable telephone

in Virginia, then in North Carolina, and

April, 1877 finally settled as a merchant in Savannah Handle telephone, now generally in use, in 1766. An active patriot there, he was made by Dr. Channing and Edson S. on the revolutionary committees, and was Jones, at Providence, R. I.....May, 1877 one of a party which broke open the maga

Glass-plate telephone invented by Hen- zine at Savannah and removed the gunry W. Vaughan, State assayer, Providence, powder in 1775. He served in the Conti. R. I........................June, 1877 nental Congress in 1778, 1780-83, and in Bell telephone patent expires

1786 and 1790–93 he was governor of

March 7, 1893 Georgia. He died in Savannah, Ga., Sept. Telephone company in opposition to the 17, 1807. American Bell Telephone Company organ- Teller, HENRY MOORE, legislator; born ized ..............................1901 in Granger. N. Y., May 23, 1830; edu

Statistics: Miles of wire, 2,983.719; cated at Alfred University, N. Y.; adcircuits, 798,901; stations, 1,525,167; in- mitted to the bar in 1858; settled in struments in use under lease, 3.779,517; Colorado in 1861; major-general of the average daily connections of exchanges, Colorado militia in 1862–64; United 9,876,402; capital of American Bell Tele- States Senator in 1876-82; Secretary of phone Company, $154,179,300.

the Interior in 1882-85; again a DemoReport of Jan. 1, 1905 cratic United States Senator in 1885-91. Telescope. Telescopes were first con- He was then re-elected to the Senate as a structed in the Netherlands about 1608. Republican, but in 1896 withdrew from the In 1853 Alvan Clark, of Cambridgeport, National Republican Convention on acMass., a comparatively unknown portrait- count of its financial policy; and was repainter, after having experimented from turned to the Senate in 1897 as an in1816 in grinding lenses, succeeded in dependent Silver Republican. turning out a glass superior to any made Temperance, ORDER OF THE SONS elsewhere in the world. He and his sons OF. See Sons OF TEMPERANCE, ORDER OF went on making large and larger instru- TIIE.

Temperance Reform. Maurice, the lication house, with headquarters at New landgrave of Hesse, founded an order of York, organized........ ..........1865 temperance, Dec. 25, 1600; a total-ab- National Prohibition party organized stinence society existed at Skibbereen, Ire- at Chicago, Ill.......... Sept. 1-2, 1869 land, in 1817; the Sober Society was National Prohibition party nominates formed at Allentown, N. J., in 1805, and James Black (Pa.) for President and this was followed by temperance socie- John Russell (Mich.) for Vice-President, ties organized, one at Moreau, Saratoga who receive 5,608 popular votes....1872 co., N. Y., April 30, 1808; another at Blue-ribbon movement begun by FranGreenfield, N. Y., in 1809; and another at cis Murphy, of Maine..............1873 Hector, N. Y., April 3, 1818. The Massa Woman's temperance crusade begins in chusetts Society for the Suppression of Hillsboro, 0.............. December, 1873 Intemperance was instituted at Boston, National Woman's Christian TemperFeb. 5, 1813; but temperance reform as an ance Union organized. . Nov. 18-20, 1874 organized movement began Feb. 13, 1826, Women's international temperance conwhen the American Society for the Pro- gress in Philadelphia, Pa..June 12, 1876 motion of Temperance was organized at International temperance congress in the Park Street Church, Boston, Mass. Philadelphia, Pa........June 13-14, 1876 Drs. Justin Edwards, Woods, Jenks, and Department of scientific temperance Wayland, and Messrs. John Tappan and in public schools created in connection S. V. S. Wilder were prominent in it. with the Women's Christian Temperance

The following is the chronology of the Union ............................1880 chief events in the temperance movement World's Christian Temperance Union in America:

organized by Frances E. Willard...1883 First women's temperance society or- John B. Gough dies in Philadelphia ganized in Ohio, close of............1828

Feb. 17, 1886 New York State and Connecticut State Law for compulsory temperance edutemperance societies organized......1829 cation in public schools passed by Con

Congressional Temperance Society organ- gress for District of Columbia and the ized at Washington, D. C.... Feb. 26, 1833 Territories................May 17, 1886

First national temperance convention Frances E. Willard, president of the meets at Philadelphia ; 440 delegates from Women's Christian Temperance Union, and twenty-two States...... May 24-27, 1833 founder of the World's Christian Tem.

Order of Sons of Temperance organized perance Union, dies in New York City in New York............ Sept. 29, 1842

Feb. 18, 1898 John B. Gough signs the pledge at Wor. See PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS for Pro. cester, Mass................ Oct. 31, 1842 hibition candidates, 1880-1904.

Father Mathew visits the United States; Temperance Societies. French traders arriving in New York on the Ashburton; engaged extensively in the sale of intoxi. he is welcomed at the Irving House as the cating liquors to the Indians in Canada. guest of the city............July 2, 1849 The Jesuit missionaries opposed the traffic

Maine liquor law passed. .June 2, 1851 with all their power, as it was not only

Order of Good Templars formed in New injurious to the Indians, but interfered York State........................1851 seriously WIU

.......1851 seriously with the labors of the missionFather Mathew sails from Philadelphia aries. The wealthy traders managed to on the Pacific for Ireland after an ex• interest the governor-general in their be. tended tour throughout the United States half, also the King's counsel, on the pre

Nov. 8, 1851 text that the traffic was necessary to John B. Gough makes a two years' tour secure the good-will of the Indians. It of England, delivering his first address in was asserted that the evils of it were imExeter Hall, London...... Aug. 2, 1853 aginary or much exaggerated. For once,

World's temperance convention in Met- however, philanthropy triumphed over ropolitan Hall, N. Y... Sept. 6-10, 1853 sordid interest. The Bishop of Quebec

Spirit rations in the navy of the United went to France in 1678, and obtained a States abolished after...... Sept 1, 1862 royal decree prohibiting the traffic under National Temperance Society and pub- heavy penalties.

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