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the people of these Territories for ad. stitution shall, when submitted to Con. mission as States, I was actuated prin- gress, be found to be in compliance with cipally by an earnest desire to afford to the requisitions of the Constitution of the the wisdom and patriotism of Congress United States, I earnestly recommend that the opportunity of avoiding occasions of it may receive the sanction of Congress. bitter and angry dissensions among the The part of California not included in people of the United States.

the proposed State of that name is beUnder the Constitution every State lieved to be uninhabited, except in a sethas the right of establishing and from tlement of our countrymen in the vicinity time to time altering its municipal laws of Salt Lake. and domestic institutions independently A claim has been advanced by the State of every other State and the general of Texas to a very large portion of the government, subject only to the prohibi. most populous district of the Territory tions and guarantees expressly set forth in commonly designated by the name of New the Constitution of the United States. Mexico. If the people of New Mexico had The subjects thus left exclusively to the formed a plan of a State government for respective States were not designed or that Territory as ceded by the treaty of expected to become topics of national agi. Guadalupe-Hidalgo, and had been adtation. Still, as under the Constitution initted by Congress as a State, our ConCongress has power to make all need. stitution would have afforded the means ful rules and regulations respecting the of obtaining an adjustment of the ques. Territories of the United States, every tion of boundary with Texas by a judi. new acquisition of territory has led to cial decision. At present, however, no discussions on the question whether the judicial tribunal has the power of decidsystem of involuntary servitude which ing that question, and it remains for Con. prevails in many of the States should gress to devise some mode for its adjust. or should not be prohibited in that Terri- ment. Meanwhile I submit to Congress tory. The periods of excitement from this the question whether it would be expecause which have heretofore occurred have dient before such adjustment to estabbeen safely passed, but during the inter- lish a Territorial government, which, by val, of whatever length which may elapse including the district so claimed, would before the admission of the Territories practically decide the question adversely ceded by Mexico as States, it appears to the State of Texas, or by excluding it probable that similar excitement will pre would decide it in her favor. In my vail to an undue extent.

opinion such a course would not be expeUnder these circumstances, I thought, dient, especially as the people of this and still think, that it was my duty to Territory still enjoy the benefit and proendeavor to put it in the power of Con- tection of their municipal laws originally gress, by the admission of California and derived from Mexico, and have a mili. New Mexico as States, to remove all oc- tary force stationed there to protect them casions for the unnecessary agitation of against the Indians. It is undoubtedly the public mind.

true that the property, lives, liberties, It is understood that the people of the and religion of the people of New Mexico western part of California have formed a are better protected than they ever were plan of a State constitution, and will before the treaty oi cession. soon submit the same to the judgment Should Congress, when California shall of Congress, and apply for admission as present herself for incorporation into the a State. This course on their part, though Union, annex a condition to her admisin accordance with, was not adopted ex. sion as a State affecting her domestic in. clusively in consequence of any expression stitutions contrary to the wishes of her of my wishes, inasmuch as measures tend- people, and even compel her temporarily ing to this end had been promoted by the to comply with it, yet the State could officers sent there by my predecessor, and change her constitution at any time after were already in active progress of execu- admission when to her it should seem extion before any communication from me pedient. Any attempt to deny to the reached California. If the proposed con: people of the State the right of self

government in a matter which peculiarly spire fidelity and devotion to it, and affects themselves will infallibly be re- admonish us cautiously to avoid any garded by them as an invasion of their necessary controversy which can either rights, and, upon the principles laid down endanger it or impair its strength, the in our own Declaration of Independence, chief element of which is to be found in they will certainly be sustained by the the regard and affection of the people for great mass of the American people. To each other. assert that they are a conquered people Tazewell, LITTLETON WALLER, legis. and must as a State submit to the will lator; born in Williamsburg, Va., Dec. 17, of their conquerors in this regard will 1774; graduated at William and Mary meet with no cordial response among College in 1792; admitted to the bar in American freemen. Great numbers of 1796; member of Congress in 1800–2; them are native citizens of the United member of the commission to treat with States, not inferior to the rest of our Spain for the purchase of Florida in 1819; countrymen in intelligence and patriotism, member of the United States Senate in and no language of menace to restrain 1824-33; and was chosen governor of Vir. them in the exercise of an undoubted ginia in 1834. In 1840 he was the candi. right, substantially guaranteed to them date for the Vice-Presidency on the ticket by the treaty of cession itself, shall ever with James G. Birney. He died in Nor. be uttered by me or encouraged and sus. folk, Va., March 6, 1860. tained by persons acting under my author. Tea. The tea-plant, which played such ity. It is to be expected that in the a conspicuous part in American history residue of the territory ceded to us by just previous to the Revolutionary War, Mexico the people residing there will at was brought to Europe by the Dutch the time of their incorporation into the East India Company, and first appeared Union as a State settle all questions of in Holland. It was nearly 100 years domestic policy to suit themselves.

before the exports were very large or No material inconvenience will result its use became extensive in England and from the want for a short period of a in the English - American colonies. As government established by Congress over early as 1770 the cultivation of the teathe part of the territory which lies east- plant was undertaken in Georgia, and ward of the new State of California ; and from time to time the attempt has been the reasons for my opinion that New Mex- renewed. The imports of tea into the ico will at no very distant period ask for United States in the year ending June admission into the Union are founded on 30, 1904, aggregated 112,898,016 lbs., valunofficial information which, I suppose, is ued at $18,229,310. common to all who have cared to make in- Tea in Politics. Among other articles quiries on that subject.

imported into the colonies upon which a Seeing, then, that the question which duty was laid, in 1767, was tea, the furnow excites such painful sensations in the nishing of which, for England and her country will in the end certainly be set- colonies, was a monopoly of the East tled by the silent effect of causes inde. India Company. In consequence of the pendent of the action of Congress, I again violent manifestation of opposition to submit to your wisdom the policy recom- this method of taxation, and especially mended in my annual message of await. of the serious effects upon British trade ing the salutary operation of those causes, by the operations of the non-importation believing that we shall thus avoid the league, Lord North, then prime minister, creation of geographical parties, and se- offered a bill in Parliament, in the spring cure the harmony of feeling so necessary of 1770, for the repeal of the duties upon to the beneficial action of our political every article enumerated, excepting tea. system. Connected, as the Union is, with He thought, unwisely, that tea, being a the remembrance of past happiness, the luxury, the colonists would not object to sense of present blessings, and the hope paying the very small duty imposed upon of future peace and prosperity, every dic. it, and he retained that simply as a standtate of wisdom, every feeling of duty, and ing assertion of the right of Parliament every emotion of patriotism tend to in- to tax the colonists. It was a fatal mistake. The bill became a law April Six of Snyder's school - mates bore the 2, 1770. The minister mistook the charac- coffin, and nearly 500 school-boys led the ter and temper of the Americans. It was procession. The bells of Boston were not the petty amount of duties imposed, tolled; so, also, were those of the neighfor none of this species of taxation was boring towns. burdensome; it was the principle involved, By smuggling, non-importation, and nonwhich lay at the foundation of their liber- consumption agreements, the tax on tea, ties. They regarded the imposition of ever retained for the purpose of vindicating so small a duty upon one article as much the authority of Parliament, was virtua violation of their sacred rights as if ally nullified at the opening of 1773. Then a heavy duty on tea was imposed. The a new thought upon taxation occurred ministry would not yield the point, and to Lord North. The East India Company a series of troubles followed. Merchants severely felt the effects of these causes, in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, An- and requested the government to take off napolis, and other places agreed not to the duty of 3d. a pound on their tea levied import tea, and there were combinations in America. Already 17,000,000 lbs. had against its use in various places. Before accumulated in their warehouses in Eng. North introduced his repeal bill into Par- land, and they offered to allow the gov. liament the mistresses of 300 families in ernment to retain 6d. upon the pound Boston subscribed to a league, Feb. 9, as an exportation tariff if they would 1770, binding themselves not to drink any take off the 3d. duty. Here was an optea until the revenue act should be re- portunity for conciliation; but the min. pealed. Three days afterwards (Feb. 12) istry, deluded by false views of national the young maidens followed the example honor, would not accede to the proposiof the matrons, and multitudes signed tion, but stupidly favored the East India the following document: “We, the daugh- Company, and utterly neglected the printers of those patriots who have, and do ciples and feelings of the Americans. They now, appear for the public interest, and proposed a bill for the exportation of tea in that principally regard their posterity to America on their own account, without -as such, do with pleasure engage with paying export duty, and it passed May them in denying ourselves the drinking 10, 1773. Agents and consignees were of foreign tea, in hopes to frustrate a appointed in the several colonies to replan which tends to deprive a whole com- ceive the tea, and the ministry congratu. munity of all that is valuable in life.” Jated themselves with outwitting the paViolators of the non-importation agree triots. This movement perfected the nul. ments were sometimes handled roughly. lification of the tea tax, for universal A Boston merchant, Theophilus Lillie, of opposition to its use was manifested. Tory tendencies, continued to sell tea T hose who accepted the office of conopenly, which excited popular indignation. signees of the tea cargoes of the East A company of half-grown boys placed an India Company were held in equal disefligy near his door with a finger upon repute with the stamp-distributers. They it, pointing towards his store. While a were requested to refrain from receiving man was attempting to remove it, he the proscribed article. The request of a was pelted with dirt and stones. Run- public meeting in Philadelphia, Oct. 2, ning into the store, he seized a gun, and 1773, that Messrs. Wharton should not discharged its contents among the crowd. act, was complied with, and their answer A boy named Snyder was killed, and a was received with shouts of applause. lad named Samuel Gore was wounded. Another firm refused, and they were The affair produced intense excitement, greeted with groans and hisses. A public not only in Boston, but throughout the meeting in Boston (Nov. 5) appointed a colonies. The funeral of Snyder was a committee to wait upon the consignees in most impressive pageant. His coffin, in- that town and request them to resign. scribed “Innocence itself is not safe," These consignees were all friends of Govwas borne to Liberty Tree, where an ernor Hutchinson-two of them were his immense concourse were assembled, who sons and a third his nephew. They had thence followed the remains to the grave. been summoned to attend a meeting of the

Sons of Liberty (under Liberty Tree) and destruction of the tea in Boston. AnTesign their appointments. They con other, driven by stress of weather to the temptuously refused to comply; now, in West Indies, did not arrive at New York the presence of the town committee, they for several months afterwards. When it so equivocated that the meeting voted arrived (April 21, 1774) at Sandy Hook, their answer “unsatisfactory and dar. the pilots, under instructions from the ingly affrontive.” Another committee was city committee, refused to bring her up, appointed for the same purpose at a meet and a committee of vigilance soon took ing on the 18th, when the consignees re. possession of her. When the captain was plied: “ It is out of our power to comply brought to town he was ordered to take with the request of the town.” The meet- back his ship and cargo. The consignees ing broke up with ominous silence. The refused to interfere; and meanwhile anconsignees became alarmed and asked other ship, commanded by a New York leave to resign their appointments into captain, was allowed to enter the harbor, the hands of the governor and council. on the assurance that she had no tea on The prayer was refused, and the con- board. A report soon spread that she had signees fled to the protection of the castle. tea on board, and the captain was comAt a meeting held first in Faneuil Hall pelled to acknowledge that he had eighand then in the South Meeting-house teen chests, belonging to private parties, (Nov. 29), a letter was received from the and not to the East India Company. The consignees, offering to store the tea until indignant people poured the tea into the they could write to England and receive harbor, and the captain of the East India instructions. The offer was rejected with tea-ship--with grand parade, a band of disdain. The sheriff then read a procla- music playing “God save the King,” the mation from the governor, ordering the city bells ringing, and colors flying from meeting to disperse. It was received with liberty-poles—was escorted from the cushisses. Then the meeting ordered that two tom-house to a pilot-boat, which took him tea - vessels hourly expected at Boston to his vessel at the Hook, when, under the should be moored at Griffin's Wharf. At direction of the vigilance committee, the the demand of a popular meeting in New vessel was started for England. A teaYork (Nov. 25) the appointed consignees ship (the Dartmouth) arrived at Boston there declined to act, whereupon Governor late in November, 1773, and was ordered Tryon issued an order for the cargo of any by a town-meeting (Nov. 29) to be moored tea-ship that might arrive to be deposited at Griffin's Wharf. It was voted by the in the barracks.

sa me meeting that the “owner be directed When news reached America that tea- not to enter the tea-ship at his peril”; ships were loading for colonial ports, the and the captain was warned not to suffer patriots took measures for preventing the any of the tea to be landed. Two other unloading of their cargoes here. The tea-ships that arrived there were served Philadelphians moved first in the matter. in the same way, and suffered outrage, A At a public meeting held Oct. 2, 1773, in fourth tea-vessel, bound for Boston, was eight resolutions the people protested wrecked on Cape Cod, and a few chests of against taxation by Parliament, and de- her tea, saved, were placed in the castle nounced as “an enemy to his country” by the governor's orders. About twenty whoever should " aid or abet in unloading, chests brought in another vessel, on prireceiving, or vending the tea.” A town- vate account, were seized and cast into meeting was held in Boston (Nov. 5), at the water. In Charleston a cargo was which John Hancock presided, which landed, but, being stored in damp cellars, adopted the Philadelphia resolutions, with was spoiled. See Boston TEA PARTY. a supplement concerning remissness in ob- Technology, INSTITUTES OF, a noteworserving non-importation and non-consump- thy feature of the educational progress tion agreements, but insisting upon a in the United States in recent years is strict compliance with them in the future. the great attention that is being paid A tea-vessel, bound for Philadelphia, was to the education of the young in technical stopped (Dec. 25) 4 miles below that city, lines. The institutes of technology are ininformation having been received of the stitutions wholly distinct from the agri. IX.-0

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cultural and mechanical colleges that northern branch of the upper Wabash), have been established in the various among the Delawares and Miamis. There States and Territories under provisions throughout 1809 the Prophet attracted of two acts of Congress. The latter, large numbers of Indians, when military while providing special instruction in exercises were interspersed with religious agriculture, also give courses to a mummeries and warlike sports. These limited extent in manual training. Tech- military exercises, and an alleged secret nical institutes also differ from what are intercourse of the brothers with the known as manual training-schools, the British traders and agents, had drawn latter affording instruction in a few branches of industry dependent on hand work. The usual course in the purely technical institutions includes civil, mechanical, and electrical engineering, foundry work, modelmaking, wood and metal turning, and mechanical drawing, in addition to the French and German languages, chemistry, and other necessities for a professional technical career. At the end of the schoolyear 1902 there were in the United States forty-three institutes of technology, having a total of 1,434 professors and instructors; 18,990 students in all departments; 12 fellowships; 1,193 scholarships; 494,981 bound volumes, and 140,312 pamphlets in their libraries; scientific apparatus valued at $3,510,219; grounds and buildings valued at $24,001,683; productive funds aggregating $14,454,783; and total income, $4,796,613.

In 1905 much of an extraordinary demand for graduates of the leading insti. tutes of technology was directly traceable to the remarkable development of the manufacturing interests of the country.

Tecumseh, an Indian warrior, chief of upon the Prophet and his brother the susthe Shawnees; born in Old Piqua, near picions of Harrison, the governor of the Springfield, O., about 1768; was one of Indian Territory and superintendent of the boldest and most active of the braves Indian affairs. With consummate du. who opposed Wayne (1794-95), and was plicity, the Prophet, visiting Harrison at at the treaty of Greenville. As early as Vincennes, allayed his suspicions by as1804 he had begun the execution of a suming to be a warm friend of peace, his scheme, in connection with his brother, sole object being to reform the Indians “ The Prophet,” for confederating the and to put a stop to their use of whiskey. Western Indians for the purpose of ex. Not long afterwards, a treaty made with terminating the white people. He made several tribes by Harrison was denounced use of the popularity of his brother as a by Tecumseh, and serious threats were prophet or medicine-man, whose influence made by him. Harrison invited the had been very great over large portions of brothers to an interview at Vincennes the Delawares, Shawnees, Wyandottes, (August, 1810), when the latter appeared Miamis, Ottawas, Pottawattomies, Kicka- with many followers and showed so much poos, Winnebagoes, and Chippewas. It hostility that the governor ordered him was among the more remote tribes that a and his people to quit the neighborhood. greater part of his converts were obtained. Tecumseh went among the Seminoles In the summer of 1808 the Prophet re. in Florida, the Creeks in Alabama and moved his village to Tippecanoe Creek (a Georgia, and tribes in Missouri in the

[graphic]

TECUMSEH.

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