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Columbus dies at Valladolid

First letter of Cortez on the conquest

May 20, 1506 of Mexico to Charles V. of Spain Juan Diaz de Solis and Vicente Yañez

July 10, 1519 Pinzon are on the southeast coast of Panama founded by Pedrariae... 1519 Yucatan .........

.....1506 Montezuma, emperor of the Mexicans, [De Cordova, 1517; Grijalva, 1518; dies.....

....................June 30, 1520 Cortez, 1519.]

Magellan discovers the straits which Waldseemüller's or the “Admiral's " bear his name, and passes into the Pacific map .....

.......... probably 1507 Ocean............Oct. 21-Nov. 27, 1520 First English publication to mention Cortez accomplishes the conquest of America ..........................1509 Mexico ............................1521

Francisco Pizarro reaches Darien..1509 Pizarro sails from Panama for Peru,

Alonso de Ojeda founds San Sebastian, but returns for supplies and repairs the first colony in South America.. 1510

Nov. 14, 1524 Diego Velasquez subjugates Cuba and Francis de Hoces, in command of one founds Havana....................1511 of the ships of Loyasas, discovers Cape Juan Ponce de Leon discovers Florida Horn .......... ............1525

March 27, 1512 Narvaez's expedition to the upper Gulf Vespucci dies at Seville, Spain, aged of California........ .............1527 sixty-one years.......

.....1512 Pizarro enters Peru and destroys the Vasco Nuñez Balboa, crossing the government ....................1531-33 isthmus of Darien, discovers the Pacific Jacques Cartier enters the Gulf of St. and takes possession of it for the King Lawrence and sails to the present site of of Spain, calling it the “ South Sea” Montreal ..

......1534-35 Sept. 25, 1513 Ferdinand de Grijalva's expedition Juan Diaz de Solis discovers the La equipped by Cortez, discovers California Plata........ ..........January, 1516

1534 [He is killed by natives in an attempt Antonio de Mendoza appointed viceroy to land. This river named in 1527 from of Mexico, the first in the New World silver plate possessed by natives.)

1535-50 Spaniards at Darien hear of the em Francisco Orellana explores eastward pire of the Incas................ 1512-17 from Peru, down the Amazon, reaching

Las Casas made “ Universal Protector the ocean (voyage of seven months) of the Indians"....................1516

August, 1541 Francisco Fernandez de Cordova dis. Don Pedro de Valdivia invades and con. covers Mexico. .....................1517 quers Chile........................1541 Vasco Nuñez Balboa executed at Darien Cortez returns to Spain, 1540; and dies

1517 there, aged sixty-two...............1547 Grijalva at Cozumel and Vera Cruz, Las Casas returns to Spain......1547 penetrates Yucatan and names it New Davis discovers the strait that bears his Spain ......... .....1518 name .........

............ 1585 Hernando Cortez sails from Cuba to Falkland Islands discovered by Davis conquer Mexico. ........... Feb. 18, 1519

1692

PRINCIPAL PERSONS CONNECTED WITH THE DISCOVERY OF

AMERICA, AND WHY KNOWN

Columbus, Christopher, born in Genoa voyage of Columbus. Attempts to de. in 1435-45 (?); died in Valladolid, Spain, prive Columbus of the discovery, is baffled May 20, 1506. The discoverer of the New and disgraced.] World (America)...............1492-98 Cabot, John, Venetian, date of birth and

Pinzon, Martin Alonso, Spanish navi. death unknown. In the service of Henry gator, born in Spain in 1441; died in VII. of England, discovers the mainland Spain .............................1493 of North America (supposed coast of ; Commander nf the Pintu in the first Labrador)................June 24, 1497 Vabot, Sebastian, son of John, born in Accompanies Columbus to America, 1493, Venice in 1475 (?), died in London about and during the next fifty years crosses 1557; discoverer of Newfoundland and ex: the Atlantic fourteen times in the interest plorer of North American coast.1498–1517 of the natives. Made “ Universal Protec

Vespucci, Amerigo, born in Florence in tor of the Indians” by the Spanish gov. 1451; died in Spain, Feb. 12, 1512. Ex. ernment .......

14. LA ernment ..........................1516 plorer of the South American coast

Cordova, Francisco Fernandez de, died

1499–1504 in Cuba in 1518; discovers Mexico and Cabral, Pedro Alvarez de, Portuguese explores the coast of Yucatan.......1517 navigator, died about 1526; the discoverer Grijalva, Juan de, born in Spain; died of Brazil. ......... April 22, 1500 in Nicaragua, Jan. 21, 1527. Explores

Cortereal, Gasper, Portuguese navi. Yucatan and hears of Mexico and Mongator, born in Lisbon..........died 1501 tezuma ...........................1518

[Sails along the coast of North America Cortez, Hernando, Spanish adventurer, and names Labrador; returns to Lisbon born in Spain in 1485; died in Spain, Dec. and sails on his second voyage, 1501, but 2, 1547; conqueror of Mexico.....1519-21 never returns.]

Magellan, Fernando, Portuguese navi. Bobadilla, Francisco, born in Spain, sent gator, born in 1470. Discovers the Strait to Santo Domingo to relieve Columbus, sent of Magellan, which he enters Oct. 21, Columbus and his brother Diego back to 1520, and names, passing through into the Spain in chains. He loses his life by ship- ocean, Nov. 27, 1520, to which he gave the wreck on his return voyage..June 29, 1502 name Pacific. He was killed at one of the

Pinzon, Vicente Yañez; brother of Philippine Islands, by the natives, April 17, Alonso; born in Spain in 1460; died in 1521. Only one of his ships, under Sebastian Spain in 1524. Commands the Niña in del Cano, reached Seville (the first ship to Columbus's first voyage. Discovers Cape circumnavigate the globe)... Sept. 8, 1522 St. Augustine, Brazil, Jan. 20, 1500, and Verazzano, Giovanni de, Florentine the mouth of the Amazon, Jan. 26. Ex: navigator; born near Florence in 1470; plores the east coast of Yucatan.....1506 died either at Newfoundland or Puerto

The western continent is named for him del Rico in 1527. Explores for France by Martin Waldseemüller, a German ge. the North American coast as far north as ographer, in a book printed in...... 1507 New York and Narraganset bays.....1524

Ojeda, Alonso de, Spanish adventurer, Gomez, Esteban, Spanish navigator, born in Spain in 1465; died in Hispaniola born in Spain in 1478 (?); died at sea in in 1515. Accompanies Columbus on his 1530 (?); explores the eastern coast per. second voyage. With Amerigo Vespucci haps as far north as Connecticut....1525 he explored the northern coast of South Ayllon, Lucas Vasquez de, Spanish ex. America in 1499, and established a settle. plorer, died in Virginia......Oct, 18, 1526 ment at San Sebastian..............1510 (Sailing, with three vessels and 600 per

Ponce de Leon, Juan, Spanish soldier; sons, with supplies for a colony, along born in 1460 (?); died in Cuba in 1521. the coast, he enters Chesapeake Bay and The discoverer of Florida, March 27, 1512; attempts a settlement near Jamestown, landing at St. Augustine.... April 2, 1512 where he died. His colonists returned to

Balboa Vasco Nuñez, Spanish adventurer, Santo Domingo in the spring of 1527.] born in Spain, 1475; executed at Darien Pizarro, Francisco, Spanish adventurer; on a charge of treason, 1517; the discover: born in Spain about 1471; assassinated at er of the Pacific Ocean.... Sept. 25, 1513 Lima, Peru, Jan. 26, 1541. The destroyer

Solis, Juan Diaz de, Spanish navigator; of the Peruvian government......1531-33 born in Spain in 1471; died in South Cartier, Jacques, born in St. Malo, America in 1516. Reputed the most ex. France, 1494, died about 1555; the dis. perienced navigator of his time. Discovers coverer of the river St. Lawrence.. 1534-35 the river La Plata, South America,

Almagro, Diego de, Spanish adventurer,

January, 1516 born in Spain in 1463 !?) with Pizarro in [Killed by Indians on that river.) Peru; put to death by Pizarro..July, 1538

Las Casas, Bartholomew, born in Seville, De Soto, Fernando, born in Spain in Spain, in 1474; died in Spain, July, 1566. 1496 (?); died on the banks of the Mig.

sissippi, June, 1542; explorer of the south- 1595; explores the coast of California in ern United States; discoverer of the Mis- 1578–79; first Englishman to sail around sissippi ........................1540–42 the globe, reaching England. ........1580

Coronado, Francesco Vasquez de, died in Davis, John, born in England in 1550; 1542; explorer of the territory north of died on the coast of Malacca in 1605; disMexico, now New Mexico, Arizona, and coverer of Davis's Strait in 1585; of the Colorado ..........

............1540–42 Falkland Islands....... ..........1592 Frobisher, Sir Martin, born in England Hudson, Henry, born in England; dis. in 1536; died in Plymouth, England, Nov. coverer and explorer of the Hudson River 7, 1594; discovers Frobisher's Strait in the interests of the Dutch, September,

July 21, 1576 1609, and Hudson Bay in 1611. Sent Drake, Sir Francis, born in England in adrift in an open boat by his crew and 1537 (?); died in Puerto Bello, Dec. 27, never heard of afterwards...........1611

UNDER THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS For previous bistory of the Colonies and States see each Slute and Territory separately. Pursuant to arrangements made by com DELEGATES TO THE FIRST CONTINENTAL

CONGRESS-Continued. mittees appointed in the colonies to con

Delegates.
State Representeil.

Credentials fer regarding the interests and safety of

Signed. the colonies, and termed “ committees of 21. James Kinsey .........

22. Jolin De Hart. correspondence," delegates were chosen for 23. Richard Smith | } New Jersey... July 23, 1774 the first Continental Congress, to meet at 24. William Livingston...

25. Stephen Crane..... Philadelphia about Sept. 1, 1774.

26. Hon. Joseph Galloway.
27. Samuel Rhodes....

28. Thomas Mifflin....... First Continental Congress meets at

29. John Morton......... Pennsyl. July 22. 1993 Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia (forty-four 30. Charles Humphreys.. vania ..

31. Edward Bidule....... delegates present, representing all the

32. George Ross ...... States except Georgia and North Caro- 33. John Dickinson......

New Castle, lina; see below)... Monday, Sept. 5, 1774

34. Hon. Caesar Rodney.. Kent, and [Peyton Randolph, of Virginia, presi- 36. Thomas McKean.. Sussex on Aug. 1, 1774

Mr.
36. George Read...

the dent; Charles Thomson, secretary.

Dela

ware .... Thomson remained secretary of the Con- 37. Robert Goldsborough.

38. W Uliam Paca .... tinental Congress from its beginning to

39. Samuel Chase....... Maryland..... June 22, 1774 its close, 1774-89.]

40. Thomas Johnson.....

41. Matthew Tilghman... DELEGATES TO THE FIRST CONTINENTAL 42. Hon. Peyton Randolph CONGRESS.

43. Patrick Henry.......

44. Benjamin Harrison...

Credentials
State Represented.
Delegates.

45. George Wasbington...l}Virginia ...... Aug. 5, 1774

Signed. 46. Richard B'apl....... 1. Maj. Johp Sullivan... New Hamp

47. Edinand Pendleton... 2. Col. Nathaniel Folsom sbire. ...

48. Richard Heuty Lea... 3. Hon. Thomas Cushing

49. Henry Middleton..... 4. John Adams......... Massachu.

50. Christopher Gadsden. June 17, 1774 51. Edward Rutledge ....

South Ca 5. Samuel Adams, ..... sests Bay.)

July 6, 1771

lipa..

62. John Rutledge. 6. Robert Treat Paine... Rhode Island

63. Thomas Lynch..... 7. Hon. Stephen Hopkins and Provi.

54. Richard Caswell.

North Carodence Plan

4 8. Hon, Samuel Ward...?

65. Joseph Hewer.......

lipa ......

Aug. 25, 1794 tations ....

66. William Hooper...... 9. Hon. Eliphalet Dyer.

Delegates mentioned above not present at first Date of day of meeting

Joining. 10. Hon. Roger Sherman. Connecticut... July 13, 1774

Richard Henry Lee...... Virginia ......Sept. 6, 1774 11. Silas Deane. 12. James Duane.......

Thomas Johnson ....... Maryland.... City and 13. Philip Livingston ..

Matthew Tilghman... Maryland..... Sept. 12, “ county of 14. John Jay .......

Henry Wisner....... New York, 15. Isaac Low ......

New York.... Sept 14, " John Alsop.......... and other 16. John Alsop..... July 28, 1774 George Ross....

Peppsvlvania. " counties in 17. John Herring ....

Joseph Heweg.... I North Caro- * 1 province of 18 Simon Boarum.....

William Hooper......

ling ...... New York.

North Caro 19. Henry Wisuer

Richard Caswell

lina ......
County of
Suffolk in
John Dickinson ...

Pennsylvania.. 20. Col Wiliam Floyd....

July 28, 1774 province of

John Herring...........

New York ... Sep 26 « New York.

Simon Boerum...... New York.... Oct. 1, "

Congress resolves " that in determining North Carolina, April 7, 1775; New questions, each colony or province shall Jersey, May 26, 1775.] have one vote"............ Sept. 6, 1774 Rhode Island colonists seize forty-four

Rev. Jacob Duché opens Congress with pieces of ordnance at Newport prayer.................... Sept. 7, 1774

Dec. 6, 1774 Resolution of Suffolk, Mass., convention Maryland convention enrolls the militia (Sept. 6), “ that no obedience is due to and votes £10,000 to purchase arms any part of the recent acts of Parlia.

Dec. 8–12, 1774 ment,” approved by Congress

New Hampshire freemen seize 100 bar

Sept. 10, 1774 rels of powder and some ordnance at Ports. Congress rejects a plan for union with mouth.....................Dec. 11, 1774 Great Britain, proposed by Joseph Gallo. Benjamin Franklin returns from Eng. way, of Pennsylvania, as intended to perland........................ April, 1775 petuate dependence........ Sept. 28, 1774 Delegates from Georgia to Congress by

Battle of Point Pleasant, west Vir: letter express loyalty, and explain inabil. ginia........

..Oct. 10, 1774 ity to attend...............April 8, 1775 Congress adopts a “ Declaration of First anti-slavery society in the United Colonial Rights," claiming self-government States formed by Quakers of Philadel.

Oct. 14, 1774 phia..................... April 14, 1775 American Association, denouncing for: Battle of Lexington, Mass., at dawn of eign slave-trade, and pledging the signers

April 19, 1775 to non-consumption and to non-intercourse [For the chronological record of the war with Great Britain, Ireland, and the for independence see REVOLUTIONARY WAR, British West Indies, signed by fifty-two in vol. vii.] members of Congress.......Oct. 20, 1774 Letters from England to public officials

" Address to the People of Great Brit. in America, expressing determination of ain," prepared by John Jay, approved by England to coerce the colonies, intercept. Congress..................Oct. 21, 1774 ed at Charleston, S. C..... April 19, 1775

Congress adopts a “Memorial to the Several Anglo-American Colonies ”

Second Continental Congress meets at

Oct. 21, 1774 Independence Hall, Philadelphia A letter to the unrepresented colonies of

May 10, 1775 St. John, N. S., Georgia, and east and [Peyton Randolph, president; Charles west Florida, despatched by Congress Thomson, secretary.]

Oct. 22, 1774 Randolph resigning on account of in Colonies Represented. Delegates. Wher. Chosen. disposition, Henry Middleton, of South Connecticut...

Nov. 3, 1774

Massachusetts...... Carolina, succeeds him as president of Maryland.

Maryland...........

Dec. 8, " Congress...................Oct. 22, 1774 Pennsylvania.

Dec, 15. " New Jersey..

Jan. 24, 1775 " Petition to the King” drawn by John

New Hampshire........

Jan. 25, Dickinson, ordered sent to colonial agents South Carolina.....

Feb. 3.'" Delaware..........

March 16, “ in London by Congress...... Oct. 25, 1774

Virginia ...............

March 2016 Congress adopts “An Address to the North Carolina..

April 6, New York ................

April 22, People of Quebec," drawn by Dickinson

Pennsylvania (additional)..

May 6, Rhode Island......

May 7. " First Continental Congress dissolved; fifty-two days' session (actual session Articles of Union and Confederation thirty-one days)...........Oct. 26, 1774 agreed upon in Congress....May 20, 1775

[Proceedings of first Continental Con Mecklenburg declaration of indepen. gress endorsed by the colonies: Connecti. dence signed...............May 20, 1775 cut, November, 1774; Massachusetts, Dec. John Hancock, of Massachusetts, chosen 5, 1774; Maryland, Dec. 8, 1774; Rhode president of Congress......May 24, 1775 Island, Dec. 8, 1774; Pennsylvania, Dec. (Randolph having resigned on account 10, 1774; South Carolina, Jan. 11, 1775; of ill-health.] New Hampshire, Jan. 25, 1775; Delaware, Congress adopts an “Address to the March 15, 1775; Virginia, March 20, 1775; Inhabitants of Canada "....May 29, 1775

Dec.

5.

16

No 200 osaavaa

Congress adopts a second petition to the Henry Laurens, of South Carolina, King ......................July 8, 1775 chosen president of Congress to succeed

Congress organizes a systematic super- Hancock, resigned on account of ill-health intendence of Indian affairs..July 12, 1775

Nov. 1, 1777 Benjamin Franklin, first postmaster. Gen. John Cadwallader seriously wounds general, establishes posts from Falmouth, General Conway in a duel... Feb. 5, 1778 Me., to Savannah, Ga.......July 26, 1775 Congress prescribes an oath for officers

Congress adopts an “Address to the of the army.............. February, 1778 People of Ireland ”........July 28, 1775 Count Pulaski raises a legion in Mary.

Resolved by Congress, “ That Michael land .............................1778 Hillegas and George Clymer, Esqs., be Sixth Continental Congress adjourns, joint treasurers of the United Colonies" 272 days' session..........June 27, 1778

July 29, 1775 Peyton Randolph died at Philadelphia Seventh Continental Congress meets at

Oct. 22, 1775 Philadelphia...............July 2, 1778 Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense (Henry Laurens, president.]

Jan. 8, 1776 Francis Hopkinson elected treasurer of General Thomas died of small-pox at loans by Congress..........July 27, 1778 Chambly..................June 2, 1778 Territory northwest of the Ohio, occu•

Committee appointed by Congress to pied for Virginia by Major Clarke, is condraw up a Declaration of Independence stituted a county of Virginia by the As.

June 11, 1776 sembly, and named Illinois.. October, 1778 Engrossed declaration signed by fifty. Congress advises the several States to four delegates...............Aug. 2, 1776 take measures for the suppressing of “the

First society of Shakers in the United atrical entertainments, horse-racing, gamColonies reach New York, 1774, and settle ing, and such other diversions as are proat Watervliet, N. Y...... September, 1776 ductive of idleness, dissipation, and gen.

Second Continental Congress (Phila- eral depravity of principles and manners” delphia) adjourns; 582 days’ session

Oct. 12, 1778 Dec. 12, 1776 Delegates from New Jersey sign the

Articles of Confederation. . Nov. 26, 1778 Third Continental Congress meets at John Jay, of New York, chosen presi. Baltimore, Md..............Dec. 20, 1776 dent of Congress..........Dec. 10, 1778 [John Hancock, president.]

Thomas Hutchins, of New Jersey, apVoted in Congress “ that an authentic pointed “ geographer-general of the United copy, with names of the signers of the States” by act of Congress, which office Declaration of Independence, be sent to he holds until his death at Pittsburg, each of the United States”..Jan. 20, 1777 April 28, 1789........ ..........1778

Third Continental Congress (Baltimore) Articles of Confederation signed by adjourns; seventy-five days' session Thomas McKean, of Delaware, Feb. 12, March 4, 1777 and by John Dickinson, of Delaware

May 5, 1779 Fourth Continental Congress meets at Samuel Huntington, of Connecticut, Philadelphia.............. March 4, 1777 chosen president of Congress. Sept. 28, 1779 John Hancock, president.)

Legislature of New York empowers its Fourth Continental Congress adjourns, delegates to cede to Congress a portion 199 days' session.......... Sept. 18, 1777 of its western territory for the common

benefit.................... Feb. 19, 1780 Fifth Continental Congress meets at Bank of Pennsylvania, the first in the Lancaster, Pa., and adjourns; one day's United States, chartered and located at session.................... Sept. 27, 1777 Philadelphia ..............March 1, 1780 [Hancock, president.)

“ Dark Day” in New England

May 19, 1780 Sixth Continental Congress meets at Congress advises States to surrender York, Pa.................. Sept. 30, 1777 their territorial claims to Western land [Hancock, president.)

for the general benefit...... Sept. 6, 1780

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