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The 13 Original States.

1,308

Swedes..
English

11

| Virginia.......

New York..
Massachusetts .....
New Hampshire.
Connecticut...
Maryland...........
Rhode Island .....
Delaware.........
North Carolina.
New Jersey.. ........
South Carolina ........
Pennsylvania........
Georgia................
Vermont..
Kentucky ..
Tennessee ............
Ohio...............
Louisiana.....
Indiapa........
Mississippi .....
Illinois
Alabama...
Maine ...........
Missouri.....
Arkansas......
Michigan
Florida..
Texas..........

1607 Jamestown ...
161€

New York...
1620 1 Plymouth ...........
1623 Little Harbor....
1633 Windsor....
1631

St. Mary's ...........
1636 Providence
16:38 Wilmington,
1650 Chowan River.
1664 Elizabeth.............
1670 Ashley River.....
1682 Philadelphia..
1733 Savannah .............
1724 Fort Dummer....
1775 Boonesboro...........
1757 Fort Loudon .........
1788 Marietta....
1699 Iberville..
1730

Vincennes....
1716 Natchez ................
1720

Kaskaskia........
1711

Mobije.......
1625 Bristol ......
1764 St. Louis....
1685 Arkansas Post.
1670 Detroit ..............
1565 St. Augustine........
1692 San Antonio........
1833 Burlington .........
1669 Green Bay..
1769 San Diego..
1846

St. Paci...
1811

Astoria .........

French .........

Spanish......

2,120 60,704

8,320 34,000 43,000

68,000 1791 10.212 1792

37.680 1796 45,600 1802 39.964 1812 49,346 1816 38,809 1817 47,156 1818 65.410 1819 60.722 1820 35.000 1821 65,350 1836 62,198 1837 56,451 1845 59,268 1845 274.356 1846 55,045 1848 53,924 1850 188,981 1858 83,531 1859 95,274 1861 81,318 1863 23,000 1864 104.125 1867

175.995 1876 104,500 18-9 70,795 1889 77,650 1889 140.080 1889 69,180 1890

84.800 1990 97.890 ... 1896 84,928

Jowa........

English......
French....
Spanish
Americans..

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English .........
Americans..

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Wisconsin ......
California....
Minnesota ..
Oregon ................

Kansas ................ | West Virginia.........

Nevada........
Nebraska...
Colorado.
North Dakota...
South Dakota........
Montana.........
Washington ....
Idaho.
Wyoming........
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French .............
Americans.....

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1780

Pembina......
1857

Sioux Falls.......
1827 Fort Union...
1845 Tumwater ............
1834 | Fort Hali.
1R34 Fort Laramie.....
1847 | Salt Lake City...........

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On Sept. 9, 1776, the Continental Con- miles. In longitude it extends from the gress resolved “that in all continental most easterly point of Maine, 66° 48' W., commissions where heretofore the words to 125° 20' W., and if Atoo, the most * United Colonies' have been used, the style westerly of the Aleutian Islands, be taken be altered for the future to the United for its western limits, it extends to the States.” This domain now numbers forty. 174th meridian. The population of the five States, six Territories, and one Dis. United States in 1890 was 63,069,756, and trict, and various “ possessions," Hawaii, in 1900 had increased to 76,295,220. This Porto Rico, Philippine Islands, Guam, is exclusive of the Philippine Islands, Wake, and Samoan Islands, etc. The area Hawaii, Porto Rico, Guam, Wake, and of the States is 2,718,780 square miles; of Samoan Islands. The government is a the Territories, 883,490; and of the Dis. representative democracy. Each State has trict, seventy; in all, 3,602,340 square an independent legislature for its local miles. In latitude it extends from Key affairs, but all are legislated for, in na. West, its most southerly point, 24° 33' N., tional matters, by two Houses of Congress; to the forty-ninth parallel of north lati. the Senate, whose members are elected for Inde. From this latitude, on the Pacific six years by the State legislatures, and coast, the territory belongs to Canada the House of Representatives, elected for to 54° 40', where Alaska begins, ex- two years by the people of the different tending to the Arctic Ocean and en- States. Representation in the Senate is by bracing an area of over 577,000 square States, without regard to population; in

the House of Representatives the represen- toral votes as it has Senators and Repre. tation is in proportion to population. The sentatives in Congress. For the general President of the United States is elected history, administration, etc., of the colevery fourth year by electors chosen by the onies and States see under their proper preople, each State having as many elec- heads.

PRE-COLUMBIAN HISTORY

Buddhist priests visit Fu Sang, sup- and 160 persons (five of them young marposed to be America....... ...... 458 ried women) from Greenland to establish

Hui Shen's account of the Buddhist a colony...........................1007 mission referred to in the Chinese annals (Landing in Rhode Island, he remains for..............

........ 499 in Vinland three years, where he has a son, Iceland discovered by Nadodd, a Norse Snorri, ancestor of Albert Thorwaldsen, rover...

...... 861 the Danish sculptor.) First settlement by Norsemen.... 875 Icelandic manuscripts mention a bishop Grumbiorn sights a western land.. 876 in Vinland in 1121, and other voyages

Land discovered by Eric the Red, and there in 1125, 1135 and............1147 named Greenland .................. 982 Madoc, Prince of Wales, according to

Second voyage from Iceland to Green- tradition, sails westward, and reports the land by Eric...................... 985 discovery of a “pie

....... 985 discovery of a “ pleasant country."..1170 Bjarni sails from Iceland for Green- [The tradition is further that he reland, but is driven south by a storm and turns to this western country with ten sights land at Cape Cod or Nantucket, ships, but is never heard of again.] also at Newfoundland, and returns to [The fullest relation of these discovGreenland......................... 985 eries is the Coder Flatöiensis, written

Voyage of Lief, son of Eric the Red. 1387-95, now preserved in the royal li. He sails in one ship with thirty-five men brary at Copenhagen, found in a monasin search of the land seen by Bjarni.. 1000 tery on the island of Flato, on the west

Touching the Labrador coast, stops near ern coast of Iceland.) Boston, Mass., or farther south, for the Eskimos appear in Greenland.....1349 winter. He loads his vessel with timber; Pizigani's map of the Atlantic.. 1367-73 he returns to Greenland in the spring of Nicolo Zeno with three ships belonging

1001 to Sir Henry Sinclair, Earl of the Orkney [He calls the land Vinland, from its Islands, visits Greenland and possibly grapes.]

Vinland ..........................1394 Thorwald, Lief's brother, visits Vinland Communication with Greenland ceases in 1002, and winters near Mount Hope about .............. Bay, R. I. In the spring of 1003 he sent a Berthancourt settles the Canary islands party of his men to explore the coast,

1402 perhaps as far south as Cape May.

Madeira Islands rediscovered by the Thorwald explores the coast eastward, Portuguese ...

.1418-20 and is killed in a skirmish with the natives These islands previously discovered by (skraelings) somewhere near Boston, 1004 Machan, an Englishman..........1327-78 His companions return to Greenland The “ Claudius Clavus” map, giving the

1005 earliest delineation of any part of America Thorfinn Karlsefne sails with three ships (Greenland) .......................1427

:::............... 1400

ERA OF PERMANENT DISCOVERY Columbus born....... 1435-36 (?) 1445 Marco Polo's travels first printed.. 1477 Visits England and Iceland prior to Columbus in Spain. Announces his

1470 views to Ferdinand and Isabella . . 1485-86 Columbus in Portugal........1470–84 The views of Columbus referred to &

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junto of ecclesiastics, which declares them H e discovers Jamaica, May 3; and Evan. vain and impracticable..........1487-90 gelista (now Isle of Pines) June 13; war Columbus leaves Spain for France with the natives of Hispaniola...... 1494

January, 1492 Visits various isles and explores their [But is recalled while on his journey.] coasts .........................1495–96

Ferdinand and Isabella arrange with Returns to Spain to meet charges ; Columbus................ April 17, 1492 reaches Cadiz.............June 11, 1496

Columbus sailed on his first expedition Patent from Henry VII. of England to from Palos in Andalusia on Friday, with John Cabot and his three sons three vessels supplied by the sovereigns of

March 5, 1495-96 Spain—the Santa Maria, a decked vessel John Cabot discovers the North Ameri with a crew of fifty men, with Columbus can continent..............June 24, 1497 in command, and two caravels—the Pinta Columbus sails with six ships on his with thirty men, under Martin Alonso third voyage, May 30; discovers Trinidad, Pinzon, and the Niña with twenty-four July 31; lands on terra firma without men, under Vicente Yañez Pinzon, brother knowing it to be a new continent, naming of Martin..................Aug. 3, 1492 it Isla Santa.............. Aug. 1, 1498

Leaves the Canary Islands ..Sept. 6, 1492 Discovers the mouth of the Orinoco Influenced by Pinzon, he changes his

August, 1498 course from due west to southwest

Alonso de Ojeda discovers Surinam,

Oct. 7, 1492 June; and the Gulf of Venezuela. Ame[The original course would have struck rigo Vespucci accompanies him on this the coast of Florida.]

voyage ..................

i ni.................1499 Rodrigo de Triana, a sailor on the Niña, Amerigo Vespucci's first voyage... 1499 discovers land at 2 A.M. Friday

Vicente Yañez Pinzon discovers Brazil,

Oct. 12, 1492 Jan. 20, and the river Amazon.Jan. 26, 1500 Columbus lands on Guanahani, one of Pedro Alvarez de Cabral, of Portugal, the Bahanias; takes possession in the discovers Brazil, April 22, and takes posname of Ferdinand and Isabella of Castile, session of for the King of Portugal and names it San Salvador. Oct. 12, 1492

May, 1500 He discovers Cuba, Oct. 28; and His Gasper Cortereal, in the service of paniola (now Haiti), where he builds a Portugal, discovers Labrador .......1500 fort, La Navidad............ Dec. 6, 1492 Francisco de Bobadilla appointed gov.

Columbus sails for Spain in the Niña, ernor of Hispaniola and leaves Spain the Santa Maria having been abandoned

July, 1500 Jan. 4, 1493 Bobadilla arrests Columbus on his arReaches Palos.......... March 15, 1493 rival at Hispaniola and sends him to Spain

Received with distinguished honors by in irons. He is received with honor at the Spanish Court at Barcelona. April, 1493 Court and the charges dismissed without

Bull of demarcation between Spain and inquiry....................Dec. 17, 1500 Portugal issued by Pope Alexander VI., The first map to show “ America ” is

May 3-4, 1493 Las Casas's........................ 1500 The letter of Columbus to Ferdinand and Columbus sails on his fourth and last Isabella describing his voyage first printed voyage with four caravels and 150 men in Latin ........

......1493 from Cadiz....... ..........May 9, 1502 He sails from Cadiz on his second ex. Discovers the island of Martinique pedition .................. Sept. 25, 1493

June 13, 1502 His fleet consisted of three galleons and Discovers various islands on the coast fourteen caravels, with 1,500 men, besides of Honduras and explores the coast of the animals and material for colonization; Isthmus......... ..........July, 1502 discovers the Caribbee Isles — Dominica, Amerigo Vespucci on the South AmeriNov. 3; Guadaloupe, Nov. 4; Antigua, can coast........ ..............1501-3 Nov. 10; finding his previous settlement Columbus finally leaves the New World destroyed and colony dispersed, he founds for Spain................ Sept. 12, 1504 Isabella in Hispaniola, the first Christian Queen Isabella of Spain dies city in the New World.... December, 1493

Nov. 26, 1504 IX.-L

161

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