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ARTICLES ON WHICH THE RATES OF DUTY WERE INCREASED OVER THOSE OF THE ACT OF OCT. 1, 1890_Continueis.

Rates of duty under

Articles

Act of Oct. 1, 1890.

Law of 1891,

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.

Asphaltim and bitumen:

Not dried or advanced...................... Free.........................1 $1.25 per ton.
Dried or advanced..........................

Free.........................

$2.50 per ton. Bauxite or beauxíle, crude........

Free..........

$1 per ton. Chemical glassware, for use in laboratory, 0.8 p. f 45 per cent.....

60 per cent. Plate glass, tiuted, etc., above 16 by 24 ins., and

8c. per sq. It............ 10c. per sq. Il not above 24 by 30 ine.. Plate glass, cast, polished: Not exceeding 16 by 24 ips......

5c. per sq. It.................. 8c. per sq. Blir Above 16 by 24 and not above 24 by

8c. per sq. fl.........

10c. per sq. ft. Plate-glass, cast, polished, silvered: Not exceeding 16 by 24 ins.....

6c. per sq. ft...

11c. per sq. Ito
Above 10 by 24 and not above 24 by 30 ins... 10c. per sq. ft........ 13c. per sq. No
Cylinder and crown glass, polisbed, silvered:
Xot exceeding 16 by 24 ins..................

6c. per sq. ft................

11c. per sq. fte Above 16 by 24 and not above 24 by 30 ins... 10c. per sq. Il.....

13c. per sq. ft. Cylinder and crown glasspolished, silvered,

when ground. obscured, frosted, etc. : Not exreeding 16 by 24 ips.................. 6c. per sq. ft. and 10 per cent. .11c. per sq. ft. and 10 per cent

Above 16 by 24 and not above 24 by 30 ins... 10c. per sq. ft. and 10 per cent. 13c. per sq. ft. and 10 per cent Plate-glass, cist, polished, silvered, wben ground,

obscured, frosted, etc. : Not exceeding 16 by 24 ins......

6c. per sq. ft. and 10 per cent.. 11c. per sq. ft. and 10 per cent Above 16 by 24 and not above 24 by 30 ins...) 10c. per sq. fh and 10 per cent. 13c. per sq. ft. and 10 per cent. Plate glass, cast, polished, unsilvered, when

ground, obscured, frosted, etc. : Not exceeding 16 by 24 ins.. ........ Bc. per sq. ft. and 10 per cept. 8c per eq. ft. and 5 per cert.

Above 16 by 24 and not above 24 by 30 ips... 8c. per sq. ft. and 10 per cent.. 10c. per sq. ft. and 6 per CODE All other manufactures: Paste, manufactures of ....

25 per cent..

45 per cent. Glass, broken, and old glass, etc....... Free......

20 per cent. Manufactures of: Agate.........................

20 per cent..........

50 per cent. Alabaster ......................••••

25 per cent...........
Jet......
Freestone, granite, sandstone, etc.:
Undressed or unmanufactured ......

110. per cu. It................

12c. per cn. ft Hewn, dressed, or polished.....

40 per cent............

60 per cent. Polishing and burnishing stones........

Free.........................

20 per cent. Scissors and shears and blades for the same,

finished or unfinished: Valued at pot more than 50c per dozen .....85 per cent......

16c. per doz. and 15 per cent Valued at more than 50c. and not more

60c. per doz. and 15 per cent than $1 75 per dozen..... Valued at more than $1.75 per dozen.....

75c, per doz. and 25 per cent Tipsel wire, lame or labp.......

Free...........

6c. per lb. M

6c. per lb., etc. ica .......................................

35 per cent.. Chronometers, box or sbip's, and parts thereof... 10 per cent....

40 per cent Watches.................

25 per cent.......... Watcb-cases, movements, etc........... Jewels for use in the manufacture on

Free...............

Free. watches or clocks... Railroad ties.................................

Free......................

20 per cent. Clapboards...................................

$1 per M..

$1.50 per M. Shingles...................................

20c. per M................ 25c. per M. Molasses: Testing above 400 and not above $60.... Free............

9c. per gal, Above 56o.

Free..........

6c. per gal, Sugars: all not above No 16, Dutch standard ........ Free ..........

Testing not above 750, 95-100c.

per lb.; for each additional degree, 35-1000c, per lb. ad.

ditional Sngar above No. 16, Dutch standard............

5-10c per !....

1 95-100c per lb. Sugar, maple, and syrup....................

20 per cent.

4c. per lb. Glucose or grape sugar......................

3-4c. per lb....

1 1-2c. per b. Saccharine.....

25 per cent......

$1.60 per ib. and 10 per cent. Orchids, lily of the valley, azaleas, palms, etc.. Free..........

25 per cent. Straw .......

30 per cent........

$1.50 per ton. Fruits preserved in their own juice..

35 per cent. Currants..............................

Free...........

2c. per ib. Oliveg, green or prepared...................

Free.......

20c, per gal. Free. ...........

1-2c, per lb, Orange-8. lemons, and limes....

10c. per ca. Il.....

1c. per ib. Orange and lemon peel. not preserved..

Free.

2c. per b. Cocoaput meat or copra, etc.......

20 per cent........

Dates.............

.............

ARTICLES ON WHICH THE RATES OF DUTY WERE INCREASED OVER THOSE OF THE ACT OF OCT. 1. 1890—Continued

Rates of duty under

Articles.

Act of Oct. 1, 1890.

Law of 1897.

7c, per cu. ft.
25 per cent.
5c. per lb. and 10 per cent.
20. per lb.
18c, per doz.
Estimated 30 per cent,
45 per cent.
$20 per ton.
10c. per sq. yd, and 35 per cent
45 per cent.
10 per cent.
22c. per sq. yd. and 40 per cent
18c. per sq. yd. and 40 per cent
10c. per pack and 20 per cent.
35 per cent.

Pineapples.................

Free.................... Meats, dressed or undressed, etc........

10 per cent.............. Chocolate and cocoa, prepared or manufactured.. 2c. per lb....... Dandelion root, etc., prepared...

11-2c. per Ib.. Ginger-ale or ginger-beer.....

13c. per doz...... Mineral waters, natural....

Free. All other manufactures of cotton not specially

40 per cent............... provided for....... Hemp, tow of.....

$11.20 per ton............ Hemp and jute carpets...

6c. per sq. yd............ All manufactures of other vegetable fibre except

40 per cent....... flax, hemp, and ramie....... Gunny bags and gunny-cloth, old or refuse.. Free....................... Carpets, treble ingrain, 3-ply, etc.......

19c. per sq. yd. and 40 per cent. Carpets, wool, Dutch, and 2-ply ingrain.

14c. per sq. yd. and 40 per cent Cards, playing..............

50c, per pack. Other manufactures of paper....

25 per cent.. Beads of glass, loose, unthreaded .......

10 per cent...... Beads, beaded or jet trimmings, etc.....

35 per cent..... Braids, plaits, laces, willow sheets, etc..

Free........ Coal, anthracite....

Free.... Corks ......

15c. per Ib......... Feathers and downs, crude: Ostrich....

10 per cent.......... All other .......................... Feathers and downs for beds.....

Free......... Haircloth, known as crinoline cloth...

8c. per sq yd... Jewelry ....

50 per cent. Precious stones and imitations of, set, not spel

25 per cent...
cially provided for....
Pearls, set....................
Hides of cattle, raw or uncured, etc.......

Free.........................
Leather:
Bind or belting........

10 per cent................
All leather, not specially provided for.
Coral, manufartures of........

25 per cent...
Spar, manufactures of........
Musical instruinents and parts of :
Metal, chief value ......

45 per cent... Wood, chief value......

35 per cent. Umbrellas, etc., covered with other material tban silk, wool, etc..........

45 per cent.... Sticks for umbrellas, parasols, or sunshades..... 35 per cent................

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Tarleton, Sir BANASTRE, military offi- ure of General Lee late in 1776. After cer; born in Liverpool, England, Aug. 21, the evacuation of Philadelphia, 1778, he 1754; purchased a commission in the commanded a cavalry corps called the

“ British Legion,” and accompanied the troops that captured Charleston in May, 1780. He was one of Cornwallis's most active officers in the Carolinas and Virginia, in 1780 – 81, destroying Colonel Buford's regiment at Waxhaw Creek. “ Tarleton's quarter” was synonymous with wholesale butchery. He was one of the prisoners at the surrender of Corn. wallis. He published a history of his campaign in 1780–81. He died in England, Jan. 23, 1833. See BUFORD, ABRAHAM.

Ta-ron-tee, or Riviere aux Canards,

SKIRMISH AT. Gen. William Hull cau. SIR BANASTRE TARLETOX.

tiously moved, July 13, 1812, from Sand

wich to attack Fort Malden, 18 miles beBritish army (dragoons). At the begin- low. He sent forward a reconnoitring ning of the Revolutionary War he came party, who returned with information to America, ana was concerned in the capt- that Tecumseh, with his Indians, had

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been lying in ambush near Turkey Creek, iams, and Van Wart; and contains the not far from Amherstburg, and that the home and burial · place of Washington forest was full of prowling barbarians. Irving; the Philipse manor-house, erected There were rumors also that British in 1682; a Dutch church, erected prior to armed vessels were about to ascend the 1699; and a monument to the RevoluDetroit River. Hall ordered his cannon to tionary soldiers of the vicinity, dedicated be placed near the shore and his camp in 1894. fortified on the land side. He sent Mc- Tatham, WILLIAM, author; born in Arthur in pursuit of the Indians in the Hutton, England, in 1752; settled in Virwoods, and Colonel Cass pushed on towards ginia in 1769; served in the Revolutionary the Ta-ron-tee, as the Indians called it, War as a colonel of Virginia cavalry. with 280 men. It is a broad and deep After the war he studied law and was stream flowing through marshes into the admitted to the bar in 1784; settled in Detroit River about 4 miles above Fort North Carolina in 1786; was in England Malden, at Amherstburg, and was then in 1796-1805; then returned to the United approached by a narrow causeway and States. He was the author of Memorial

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spanned by a bridge. At the southern end on the Civil and Military Government of of the bridge was a detachment of British the Tennessee; An Analysis of the State of regulars, Canadian militia, and Indians Virginia; Two Tracts Relating to the under Tecumseh. Cass marched up the Canal Between Norfolk and North Carostream to a ford, crossed it, at sunset lina; Plan for Insulating the Metropodashed upon the enemy, and, after a con- lis by Means of a Navigable Canal, etc. flict of a few minutes, dispersed them and He died in Richmond, Va., Feb. 22, 1819. drove them into the forest. He asked per- Tatnall, JOSIAH, naval officer; born mission to hold the bridge as an important near Savannah, Ga., Nov. 9, 1796; entered point in the march upon Fort Malden, but the United States navy in 1812; rose to his detachment was too weak to face the captain in 1850; first served in the frigate peril of such nearness to the fort, and the Constellation, and assisted in the repulse request was denied. Besides, Hull was not of the British at Craney Island in 1813. then aware of the real strength of the gar. He afterwards served under Perry and rison at Fort Malden, and was not pre- Porter, and was engaged on the Mexican pared to attack it. The affair at the Ta- coast during the war against Mexico. He ron-tee was the first skirmish and victory entered the Confederate service; improin the War of 1812–15.

vised a flotilla known as the Mosquito Tarrytown, a village in Westchester Fleet, and attempted to defend Port Royal county, N. Y., where the Hudson River Sound against Dupont. He commanded at expands and is locally known as Tappan Norfolk when the Merrimac was destroyed, Sea. It was the scene of the capture of and the Mosquito Fleet at Savannah. He Major John André by Paulding, Will. died in Savannah, Ga., June 14, 1871.

IX-B

Taussig, FRANK WILLIAM, educator; they were willing to leave their rich town born in St. Louis, Dec. 28, 1859; gradu- and wander into the country as exiles, he ated at Harvard College in 1879; later heartlessly said: “ Alas! the heroes of was made Professor of Political Economy Boston will only leave good houses to at Harvard College. He is the author of wiser men." To the claim of the Ameri. Tariff History of the United States; cans to the right of resistance to oppresSilver Situation in the United States; sion, he exclaimed: "Audacious defiance! Wages and Capital, etc.

The indignation of the English is like that Taxation, EXEMPTIONS FROM. See Ex of the Scythians, who, returning from war, EMPTIONS FROM TAXATION.

found themselves excluded from their own Taxation, PROTEST AGAINST. See houses by their slaves." To the words of ADAMS, SAMUEL.

“A Pennsylvania Farmer” insisting that Taxation no Tyranny, the title of a the Americans complained only of innova. pamphlet written by Dr. Samuel Johnson tions, he retorted: “ We do not put a calf in favor of the taxation schemes of the into the plough; we wait till he is an ox.” British government. It appeared early The ministry bade him erase these lines in 1775, and is one of the most heartless, because they were unwilling to concede intensely bitter, and savagely insolent of that the calf had been spared, and not for all the essays of the day. It was only the its coarse ribaldry. Johnson shamelessly echo of the angry threats and grotesque avowed his bargain by comparing himself, arguments of the stubborn King and venal when he obeyed the commands of the min. minister, and the mad passions of the isters, to a mechanic for whom “his emaristocracy, which were then poisoning the ployer is to decide.” To the assertion that minds of the people of Great Britain with the Americans were increasing in num. unreasoning hatred of the Americans. bers, wealth, and love of freedom, he reJohnson was employed by the ministry in torted: “ This talk that they multiply with this work of inflaming the passiong of the the fecundity of their own rattlesnakes British people to divert their attention dispuses men accustomed to think themfrom the monstrous injustice they were sclves masters to hasten the experiment of inflicting upon their fellow-suhjocts in binding obstinacy before it becomes yet America by oppressing Boston and rob- more obdurate.” He sneered at the teachbing Massachusetts of its charter, and en- ings of the rule of progression which deavoring to make its free people absolute showed that America must in the end ex• slaves to a tyrant's will. The one great ceed Europe in population, and said in deblot upon the names of Johnson and Gib. rision, with no suspicion that he was bon, the historian, is the barter of their uttering a sure prophecy: “ Then, in a consciences for money; for both had ex- century and a quarter, let the princes of pressed sympathy for the Americans up the earth tremble in their palaces!” That to that time. Gibbon had even written was a sad spectacle of an old man prosti. against the ministerial measures. He be. tuting the powers of a great intellect, and came suddenly silent at the time when weakening the prop of his morality, by Johnson's pen was inditing his coarse and aiming such a malignant but utterly feeble ribald paragraphs. To them a writer of a shaft at his kindred in nationality strug. stinging epigram alluded in the line, gling for freedom.

.. Taxes. In the United States taxes for “What made Johnson write made Gibbon dunib."

b." the support of the federal government are With unpardonable malignity he uttered mainly indirect taxes, such as customs ponderous sarcasms and conscious sophis. and excise. The Constitution gives Con. tries as arguments. Pointing at Franklin gress “ power to collect taxes, duties, im(then in England) with a sneer, he spoke posts, and excises, to pay the debts and of him as “a master of mischief, teaching provide for the common defence and genCongress to put in motion the engine of eral welfare of the United States," subpolitical electricity, and to give the great ject to restrictions, no capitation or other stroke the name of Boston."

direct tax to be laid unless in proportion To the declaration of the people of to the census. The first direct tax ($2,Boston that to preserve their liberties 000,000) was levied upon the sixteen

States, pro rata, in 1798. Subse- to retailers, sales at auction, carriages, quently the tax was levied in 1813, stamped vellum, parchment, and paper 1815, 1816, and 1861. That of 1861 ($20,- after June 30.............. April 6, 1802 000,000) was refunded, March 2, 1891. Act passed imposing duties of 1 per According to rulings of the Supreme cent. on sales at auction of merchandise, Court, Congress has no power to levy and 25 per cent. on ships and vessels, on duties on exports, and the restriction licenses to distillers of spirituous liquors; upon direct taxation does not apply to and on sugar refined within the United an income tax. The systems and rates of States.....................July 24, 1813 State, county, and municipal taxation are Act passed imposing duties on licenses numerous and constantly changing, but to retailers of wines, spirituous liquors, the taxes are direct, and are levied upon and foreign merchandise, and on notes of the assessed value of real estate and per. banks, etc., bonds and obligations dissonal property. According to the SINGLE- counted by banks, and on certain bills TAX (q. v.) theory, advocated by HENRY of exchange................ Aug. 2, 1813 GEORGE (9. v.) and others, taxation should Direct tax of $3,000,000 imposed on be solely on land value, exclusive of im- States by counties.......... Aug. 2, 1813 provements. The development of the pres. Duties laid on carriages and harness, ent system of federal taxation is shown except those exclusively employed in hus. below:

bandry....................Dec. 15, 1814 Duties laid upon spirits distilled with Fifty per cent. added upon licenses to in the United States from foreign and retailers of wines, etc., and 100 per cent. home material, March 3, 1791, followed on sales by auction......... Dec. 23, 1814 by an act further regulating these du Direct tax of $6,000,000 laid upon the ties and imposing a tax on stills United States annually......Jan. 9, 1815

May 8, 1792 Internal-revenue tax of $1 per ton imExecution of the above laws leads to posed on pig-iron; 1 cent per lb. on the whiskey insurrection in Pennsylvania nails; also tax on candles, paper, hats,

1794 umbrellas, playing-cards, boots, tobacco, Duties imposed on licenses for selling leather, etc., and an annual duty on wines and foreign distilled spirituous liq. household furniture, and gold and silver ors by retail; 8 cents per lb. on all watches, by act............Jan. 18, 1815 snuff manufactured for sale within the Internal-revenue tax on gold and silver United States; 2 cents per lb. on sugar and plated ware, jewelry, and paste-work refined within the United States; and manufactured within the United States specific duties as follows: On every

Feb. 27, 1815 coach, $10 yearly; chariot, $8; phaeton, Direct tax of $19,998.40 laid on the $6; wagons used in agriculture or trans- District of Columbia annually, by act portation of goods, exempt by act

Feb. 27, 1815 June 5, 1794 Acts of Jan. 18 and Feb. 27, 1815, reDuties laid on property sold at auction pealed.................... Feb. 22, 1816

June 9, 1794 Act of Jan. 9, 1815, and Feb. 27 repealTaxes on snuff repealed and duty laid ed, and direct tax of $3,000,000 laid on on snuff-mills............March 3, 1795 the States, and direct tax of $9,999.20 Duties on carriages increased by act laid on the District of Columbia May 28, 1796

March 5, 1816 Duties laid on stamped vellum, parch. Duties on household furniture and ment, and paper by act......July 6, 1797 watches kept for use removed by act Direct tax of $2,000,000 laid, proportion

April 9, 1816 ed among the States.......July 14, 1798 Acts of July 24, 1813. and Aug. 2, Dec.

Act to establish a general stamp-office 15 and 23, 1814, repealed .... Dec. 23, 1817 at seat of government. ... April 23, 1800 Act passed allowing States to tax public Duty on snuff-mills repealed

Jands of the United States after they are

April 24, 1800 sold by the United States..Jan. 26, 1847 Repeal of act taxing stills and domestic Direct tax of $20,000,000 laid annually, distilled spirits, refined sugar, licenses and apportioned to the States by act of

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