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however, fail to occur to the mind of the we claim the right to exercise a due regard Senate and of the country. Nor do I in. to our own. This government cannot condulge in any vague conjectures of the sistently with its honor permit any such future. The documents now transmitted interference. With cqual, if not greater, along with the treaty lead to the conclu- propriety might the United States demand sion, as inevitable, that if the boon now of other governments to surrender their tendered be rejected Texas will seek for numerous and valuable acquisitions made the friendship of others. In contemplating in past time at numberless places on the such a contingency it cannot be over- surface of the globe, whereby they have looked that the United States are already added to their power and enlarged their almost surrounded by the possessions of resources. European powers. The Canadas, New To Mexico the executive is disposed Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, the islands to pursue a course conciliatory in its charin the American seas, with Texas tram acter, and at the same time to render her melled by treaties of alliance or of a the most ample justice by conventions and commercial character differing in policy stipulations not inconsistent with the from that of the United States, would rights and dignity of the government. It complete the circle. Texas voluntarily is actuated by no spirit of unjust ag. steps forth, upon terins of perfect honor grandizement, but looks only to its own and good faith to all nations, to ask to security. It has made known to Mexico Le annexed to the Union. As an inde- at several periods its extreme anxiety to pendent sovereignty her right to do this witness the termination of hostilities beis unquestionable. In doing so she gives tween that country and Texas. Its wishes, no cause of umbrage to any other power; however, have been entirely disregarded. her people desire it, and there is no slav- It has ever been ready to urge an adish transfer of her sovereignty and inde- justment of the dispute upon terms mutpendence. She has for eight years main ually advantageous to both. It will be tained her independence against all ef- ready at all times to hear and discuss any forts to subdue her. She has been rec. claims Mexico may think she has on the ognized as independent by many of the justice of the United States, and to admost prominent of the family of nations, just any that may be deemed to be so on and that recognition, so far as they are the most liberal terms. There is no deconcerned, places her in a position, with- sire on the part of the executive to out giving any just cause of umbrage to wound her pride or affect injuriously her them, to surrender her sovereignty at her interest, but at the same time it canown will and pleasure. The United States, not compromise by any delay in its action actuated evermore by a spirit of justice, the essential interests of the United States. has desired by the stipulations of the Mexico has no right to ask or expect this treaty to render justice to all. They have of us; we deal rightfully with Texas as made provision for the payment of the an independent power. The war which public debt of Texas. We look to her am. has been waged for eight years has reple and fertile domain as the certain sulted only in the conviction with all means of accomplishing this; but this is others than herself that Texas cannot a matter between the United States and be reconquered. I cannot but repeat Texas, and with which other governments the opinion expressed in my message at have nothing to do. Our right to receive the opening of Congress that it is time the rich grant tendered by Texas is per- it had ceased. The executive, while it fect, and this government should not, have could not look upon its longer continuing due respect either to its own honor ance without the greatest uneasiness, has, or its own interests, permit its course nevertheless, for all past time preserved of policy to be interrupted by the inter a course of strict neutrality. It could not ference of other powers, even if such in- be ignorant of the fact of the exhaustion terference were threatened. The question which a war of so long duration had is one purely American. In the acquisi- produced. Least of all was it ignorant tion, while we abstain most carefully from of the anxiety of other powers to inducs all that could interrupt the public peace, Mexico to enter into terms of reconciliaIX. K


tion with Texas, which, affecting the do- ized government on earth having a volun. mestic institutions of Texas, would oper. tary tender made it of a domain so rich ate most injuriously upon the United and fertile, so replete with all that can States, and might most seriously threaten add to national greatness and wealth, and the existence of this happy Union. Nor so necessary to its peace and safety, that it could it be unacquainted with the fact would reject the offer. Nor are other that although foreign governments might powers, Mexico inclusive, likely in any disavow all design to disturb the rela- degree to be injuriously affected by the tions which exist under the Constitution ratification of the treaty. The prosperity between these States, yet that one the of Texas will be equally interesting to all; most powerful among them had not fail. in the increase of the general commerce ed to declare its marked and decided of the world that prosperity will be sehostility to the chief feature in those rela- cured by annexation. tions and its purpose on all suitable oc- But one view of the subject remains to casions to urge upon Mexico the adoption be presented. It grows out of the proof such a course in negotiating with Texas posed enlargement of our territory. From as to produce the obliteration of that feat- this, I am free to confess, I see no danure from her domestic policy as one of ger. The federative system is susceptible the conditions of her recognition by Mex. of the greatest extension compatible with ico as an independent State. The execu- the ability of the representation of the tive was also aware of the fact that for- most distant State or Territory to reach the midable associations of persons, the sub- seat of government in time to participate jects of foreign powers, existed, who were in the functions of legislation and to make directing their utmost efforts to the ac- known the wants of the constituent body. complishment of this object. To these Our confederated republic consisted orig. conclusions it was inevitably brought by inally of thirteen members. It now conthe documents now submitted to the Sen sists of twice that number, while applicaate. I repeat, the executive saw Texas in tions are before Congress to permit other a state of almost hopeless exhaustion, and additions. This addition of new States the question was narrowed down to the has served to strengthen rather than to simple proposition whether the United weaken the Union. New interests have States should accept the boon of annexa- sprung up, which require the united power tion upon fair and even liberal terms, of all, through the action of the common or, by refusing to do so, force Texas government, to protect and defend upon to seek refuge in the arms of some the high seas and in foreign parts. Each other power, either through a treaty State commits with perfect security to of alliance, offensive and defensive, or the that common government those great inadoption of some other expedient which terests growing out of our relations with might virtually make her tributary to other nations of the world, and which such powre, and dependent upon it for equally involve the good of all the States. all future time. The executive has full Its domestic concerns are left to its own reason to believe that such would have exclusive management. But if there were been the result without its interposition, any force in the objection it would seem and that such will be the result in the to require an immediate abandonment of event either of unnecessary delay in the territorial possessions which lie in the ratification or of the rejection of the pro- distance and stretch to a far-off sea, and posed treaty.

yet no one would be found, it is believed, In full view, then, of the highest public ready to recommend such an abandonment. duty, and as a measure of security against Texas lies at our very doors and in our evils incalculably great, the executive has immediate vicinity. entered into the negotiation, the fruits of Under every view which I have been which are now submitted to the Senate. able to take of the subject, I think that Independent of the urgent reasons which the interests of our common constituents, existed for the step it has taken, it might the people of all the States, and a love of safely invoke the fact (which it conf. the Union left the executive no other aldently believes) that there exists no civil. ternative than to negotiate the treaty. The high and solemn duty of ratifying or re. eral of volunteers in November, 1862; jecting it is wisely devolved on the Sen- and distinguished himself at Fredericks. ate by the Constitution of the United burg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Spott. States.

sylvania, and Cold Harbor. He was breTyler, LYON GARDINER, educator; born vetted major-general of volunteers and main Charles City county, Va., in August, jor-general, United States army, in 1865. 1853; son of President John Tyler; After the war he was assigned to duty in graduated at the University of Vir- the Quartermaster's Department at New ginia in 1875; Professor of Belles-Let York City, San Francisco, Louisville, tres at William and Mary College in Charleston, and Boston. He died in Bos. 1877-78; practised law in Richmond, ton, Mass., Dec. 1, 1874. Va., in 1882–88; elected president of Tyndale, HECTOR, military officer; William and Mary College in 1888. He born in Philadelphia, Pa., March 24, 1821. is the author of The Letters and Times He was not opposed to slavery and had no of the Tylers; Parties and Patronage in sympathy with the expedition of John the United States; Cradle of the Republic; Brown; but when Mrs. Brown was about The Contribution of William and Mary to pass through Philadelphia on her way to the Making of the Union, etc.

to claim the body of her husband after Tyler, Moses Cort, clergyman; born in his execution, Tyndale took the risk of Griswold, Conn., Aug. 2, 1835; graduated escorting her, and not only became the at Yale College in 1857; studied theology object of insults and threats, but was shot at Yale and Andover; Professor of English at hy an unseen person. A number of at the University of Michigan in 1867- Southern newspapers declared that the re81; ordained in the Protestant Episcopal mains of John Brown would never be reChurch in 1883; Professor of American turned to his friends, but a "nigger's" History at Cornell University from 1881 body would be substituted. When the autill his death. His publications include thorities offered the coffin to Tyndale he History of American Literature during declined to accept it till it was opened the Colonial Period; Manual of English and the remains identified. When the Literature; Life of Patrick Henry; Three Civil War broke out Tyndale was made Men of Letters; The Literary History of major of the 28th Pennsylvania Volun. the American Revolution; and Glimpses teers, with which he participated in of England, Social, Political, and Literary. thirty-three different engagements. He He died in Ithaca, N, Y., Dec. 28, 1900. was promoted brigadier-general of volun.

Tyler, RanSOM HEBBARD, author; born teers in November, 1862, and brevetted in Leyden, Mass., Nov. 18, 1813. He was major-general of volunteers in 1865. district attorney and county judge for Tyner, JAMES NOBLE, lawyer; born in Oswego county, and editor of the Oswego Brookville, Ind., Jan. 17, 1826; received Gazette. In addition to numerous books an academic education; admitted to the and articles on legal subjects he wrote a bar in 1857, and practised in Peru, Ind.; series of sketches of the early settlers member of Congress, 1869-75; assistant in Oswego county. He died at Fulton, Postmaster-General and Postmaster-GenN. Y., Nov. 27, 1881.

eral in 1875-82; assistant attorney-general Tyler, ROBERT OGDEN, military officer; for the Post-office Department in 1889born in Greene county, N. Y., Dec. 22, 93 and 1897-1903; and delegate to the 1831; graduated at the United States postal congress in 1878 and in 1897. Military Academy in 1853; and was ag- Tyng, EDWARD, naval officer; born in signed to frontier duty. In April, 1861, Massachusetts about 1683; commanded the he accompanied the expedition for the re. Massachusetts in the Cape Breton expedi. lief of Fort Sumter and was present dur. tion in 1745, and captured the French ing its bombardment on May 17. In man-of-war Vigilante of sixty-four guns. August of that year he organized the 4th He died in Boston, Mass., Sept. 8, 1755. Connecticut Volunteers, and was made its Tyrker, the German foster-father of colonel. Under his leadership it became Leif the Scandinavian, whom he accomone of the most efficient regiments in the panied in the expedition from Iceland to army. He was appointed brigadier.gen. the land south of Greenland in the year 1000. While exploring the neighborhood prior to 1743; Discourse on the 200th Tyrker reported the discovery of vines Anniversary of the Birth of William loaded with grapes, which caused Leif to Penn; Report on the Arctic Exploracall the country Vinland.

tions of Dr. Elisha K. Kane, etc. He Tyson, JACOB, legislator; member of the died in Montgomery county, Pa., June 27, House of Representatives from New York, 1858. 1823 to 1825, and member of the New Tytler, PATRICK FRASER, historian; York State Senate from Richmond county born in Edinburgh, Scotland, Aug. 30, in 1828.

1791; was educated at the University of Tyson, Job Roberts, lawyer; born in Edinburgh; admitted to the bar in ScotPhiladelphia, Pa., Feb. 8, 1803; admitted land, but devoted himself to biographical to the bar in 1855–57. He was the au- and historical researches; and wrote Sir thor of Essay on the Penal Laws of Walter Raleigh; An Historical View of Pennsylvania; The Lottery System of the the Progress of Discovery on the NorthUnited States; Social and Intellectual ern Coasts of America, etc. He died in State of the Colony of Pennsylvania Great Malvern, England, Dec. 24, 1849.

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