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honorably in its armies for forty years, general with the keen eye of suspicion, but the virus which corrupted so many foiled them. He duplicated the orders, noble characters did not spare him. He and sent two couriers with them, by differ, was a native of Georgia, and seems to ent routes. One of them reached Waite have been under the complete control of Feb. 17; but the dreaded mischief had the Confederate leaders. He was placed been accomplished. Twiggs had been cauin command of the Department of Texas tious. He did not commit himself in only a few weeks before the act about writing; he always said, “I will give up to be recorded. A State convention in everything." He was now allowed to Texas appointed a committee of safety, temporize no longer. He had to find an who sent two of their number (Devine excuse for surrendering his troops, conand Maverick) to treat with Twiggs for sisting of two skeleton corps. It was the surrender of United States troops and readily found. Ben McCulloch, the famous property into the hands of the Texas Texan ranger, was not far off with 1,000 Confederates. Twiggs had already shown men. He approached San Antonio at 2 signs of disloyalty. These had been re- A.M. on Feb. 10. He had been joined by ported to the War Department, when armed KNIGHTS OF THE GOLDEN CIRCLE Secretary Holt, in a general order (Jan. (q. v.) near the town. With a consider

able body of followers, he rushed into the town with yells and took possession. Twiggs pretending to be surprised, met McCulloch in the Main Plaza, and there, at noon, Feb. 16, a negotiation for surrender (begun by the commissioners as early as the 7th) was consummated. He gave up to the Confederate authori. ties of Texas all the National forces in that State, about 2,500 in number, and with them all the stores and munitions of war, valued, at their cost, at $1,200,000. He surrendered all the forts in his department. By this act Twiggs deprived the government of the most effective portion of the regular army. When the government heard of it, an order was issued (March 1) for his dis. missal “from the army of the United States for treachery to the flag of his country.” Twiggs threatened, in a letter to the ex-President, to visit Buchanan in person, to call him to account for officially calling him a “traitor.” The betrayed

troops, who, with most of their offiDAVID EMANUEL TWIGGS.

cers, remained loyal, were allowed

to leave Texas, and went to the 18), relieved him from the command in North, taking quarters in Fort Hamilton, Texas, and gave it to Col. Charles A. at the entrance to New York Harbor. Waite. When Devine and Maverick heard General Twiggs was then given an imof the arrival of the order in San Antonio, portant position in the Confederate army, they took measures to prevent its reach- and was for a short time in command at ing Colonel Waite, who was 60 miles dis. New Orleans, resigning towards the close tant; but the vigilant Colonel Nichols, of 1861. He died in Augusta, Ga., Sept. who had watched the movements of the 15, 1862.


Twightwees. See MIAMI INDIANS. Tybee Island, an island off the en.

Twining, WILLIAM JOHNSON, military trance to the Savannah River, belonging officer ; born in Indiana, Aug. 2, 1839; to Chatham county, Ga.; noted as the graduated at the United States Military place where Gen. QUINCY A. GILLMORE Academy, and was commissioned a first (q. v.) erected the batteries with which lieutenant of engineers in 1863; and served he breached Fort Pulaski on Cockspur through the remainder of the Civil War Island, on April 11, 1862. as assistant engineer in the DepartmentTyler, DANIEL, military officer; born of the Cumberland and as chief engineer in Brooklyn, Conn., Jan. 7, 1799; graduof the Department of the Ohio. He was ated at West Point in 1819. In 1828–29 engaged in the invasion of Georgia, in he visited France to study improvements the operations against General Hood's in artillery; and in May, 1834, he rearmy in Tennessee, in the battles at signed and practised civil engineering. Franklin and Nashville, and in the oper. At the breaking out of the Civil War he ations in North Carolina; was made cap- became colonel of the 1st Connecticut tain of engineers in 1868; major in 1877; Volunteers, and soon afterwards brigaand was brevetted major and lieutenant- dier-general of three months' troops. Next colonel of volunteers for gallantry during in rank to General McDowell, he was the war. After the war he served as second in command in the battle of Bull assistant Professor of Engineering at Run. In March, 1862, he was ordered to the United States Military Academy in the West, and commanded a division of 1865–67; chief engineer of the Depart. the Army of the Mississippi. Afterwards ment of Dakota, commissioner for the he was employed in guarding the Upper survey of the United States boundary. Potomac. When the Confederate army inline in 1872-76, and as commissioner of vaded Maryland, in 1863, he was in comthe District of Columbia in 1878 - 82. mand at Harper's Ferry. General Tyler He died in Washington, D. C., March 5, resigned April 6, 1864. He died in New 1882.

York City, Nov. 30, 1882.

TYLER, JOHN Tyler, Joun, tenth President of the by them Vice-President of the United United States, from April 4, 1841, to March States in 1840. On the death of Presi. 4, 1845; Whig; born in Charles City dent Harrison he became President (see county, Va., March 29, 1790; graduated at CABINET, PRESIDENT's). He lost the conthe College of William and Mary in 1807; fidence of both parties by his acts during admitted to the bar in 1809. Two years his administration, and was succeeded in afterwards he was elected to the Virginia the Presidential office by James K. Polk, legislature, and was re-elected for five in 1845. All of his cabinet excepting Mr. successive years. In 1816 he was ap. Webster, resigned in 1841, and he left it pointed to fill a vacancy in Congress—and after an important treaty had been conwas twice re-elected-in which he op- cluded and ratified (August, 1842), when posed all internal improvements by the Hugh S. Legaré succeeded him. The last general government, the United States important act of Tyler's administration Bank, a protective tariff, and all restric- was signing the act for the annexation of tions on slavery. He was afterwards in Texas. He had been nominated for the the State legislature, and in December, Presidency by a convention of office-hold1825, was chosen governor of Virginia by ers in May, 1844, but in August, perceivthe legislature, to fill a vacancy. In 1827 ing that he had no popular support, he he became a United States Senator, and withdrew from the contest. In February, was re-elected in 1833, when he was a 1861, he was president of the peace confirm supporter of the doctrine of State vention held at Washington, D. C. He supremacy, and avowed his sympathy died in Richmond, Va., Jan. 18, 1862. with the South Carolina Nullifiers. He Negotiations with Great Britain.-In joined the Whig party, and was elected the following special message President Tyler details the results of several im- spondence, however, had been retarded by portant negotiations with the British various occurrences, and had come to no minister in Washington:

definite result when the special mission of

Lord Ashburton was announced. This WASHINGTON, Aug. 11, 1842. movement on the part of England af. To the Senate of the United States,- forded in the judgment of the executive I have the saisfaction to communicate a favorable opportunity for making an to the Senate the results of the negotia. attempt to settle this long-existing con. tions recently had in this city with the troversy by some agreement or treaty British minister, special and extraordi. without further reference to arbitration. nary.

It seemed entirely proper that if this These results comprise:

purpose were entertained consultation First. A treaty to settle and define should be had with the authorities of the the boundaries between the territories States of Maine and Massachusetts. Leto of the United States and the possessions ters, therefore, of which copies are here. of her Britannic Majesty in North with communicated, were addressed to the America, for the suppression of the Afri. governors of those States, suggesting that can slave-trade, and the surrender of crim. commissioners should be appointed by inals fugitive from justice in certain each of them, respectively, to repair to this cases.

city and confer with the authorities of Second. A correspondence on the sub- this government on a line by agreement ject of the interference of the colonial au- or compromise, with its equivalents and thorities of the British West Indies with compensations. This suggestion was met American merchant vessels driven by by both States in a spirit of candor and stress of weather or carried by violence patriotism, and promptly complied with. into the ports of those colonies.

l'our commissioners on the part of Maine, Third. A correspondence upon the sub- and three on the part of Massachusetts, ject of the attack and destruction of the all persons of distinction and high characsteamboat Caroline.

ter, were duly appointed and commis. Fourth. A correspondence on the sub- sioned, and lost no time in presenting ject of impressment.

themselves at the seat of the government If this treaty shall receive the ap. of the United States. These commis. probation of the Senate, it will terminate sioners have been in correspondence with a difference respecting boundary which this government during the period of the has long subsisted between the two gov. discussions; have enjoyed its confidence ernments, has been the subject of several and freest communications; have aided ineffectual attempts at settlement, and has the general object with their counsel and sometimes led to great irritation, not advice, and in the end have unanimously without danger of disturbing the exist. signified their assent to the line proposed ing peace. Both the United States and in the treaty. the States more immediately concerned Ordinarily it would be no easy task have entertained no doubt of the valid. to reconcile and bring together such a va. ity of the American title to all the ter- riety of interests in a matter in itself ritory which has been in dispute, but difficult and perplexed, but the efforts of that title was controverted, and the gove the government in attempting to accomernment of the United States had agreed plish this desirable object have been to make the dispute a subject of arbitra. seconded and sustained by a spirit of action. One arbitration had been actu. commodation and conciliation on the part ally had, but had failed to settle the of the States concerned, to which much of controversy, and it was found at the com- the success of these efforts is to be as. mencement of last year that a corre. cribed. spondence had been in progress between Connected with the settlement of the the two governments for a joint com: line of the northeastern boundary, so far mission, with an ultimate reference to as it respects the States of Maine and an empire or arbitrator with authority Massachusetts, is the continuation of that to make a final decision. That corre. line along the highlands to the north

westernmost head of the Connecticut disability. The importance of this privi. River. Which of the sources of that lege, perpetual in its terms, to a country stream is entitled to this character has covered at present by pine forests of great been matter of controversy and of some value, and much of it capable hereafter interest to the State of New Hampshire. of agricultural improvement, is not a The King of the Netherlands decided the matter upon which the opinion of intelli. main branch to be the northwesternmost gent men is likely to be divided. So far head of the Connecticut. This did not as New Hampshire is concerned, the treaty satisfy the claim of New Hampshire. secures all that she requires, and New The line agreed to in the present treaty York and Vermont are quieted to the exfollows the highlands to the head of Hall's tent of their claim and occupation. The Stream, and thence down that river, em- difference which would be made in the bracing the whole claim of New Hamp. northern boundary of these two States by shire, and establishing her title to 100,000 correcting the parallel of latitude may be acres of territory more than she would seen on Tanner's maps (1836), new atlas, have had by the decision of the King of maps Nos. 6 and 9. the Netherlands.

From the intersection of the forty-fifth By the treaty of 1783 the line is to degree of north latitude with the St. Law. proceed down the Connecticut River to rence and along that river and the lakes the forty-fifth degree of north latitude, to the water communication between Lake and thence west by that parallel till it Huron and Lake Superior the line was strikes the St. Lawrence. Recent ex. definitely agreed on by the commissioners aminations having ascertained that the of the two governments under the sixth line heretofore received as the true line of article of the treaty of Ghent; but be. latitude between those points was er tween this last-mentioned point and the roneous, and that the correction of this Lake of the Woods the commissioners, error would not only leave on the British acting under the seventh article of that side a considerable tract of territory here. treaty, found several matters of disagree. tofore supposed to belong to the States of ment, and therefore made no joint report Vermont and New York, but also Rouse's to their respective governments. The first Point, the site of a military work of the of these was Sugar Island, or St. George United States, it has been regarded as Island, lying in St. Mary's River, or the an object of importance not only to es- water communication between Lakes Hutablish the rights and jurisdiction of ron and Superior. By the present treaty those States up to the line to which they this island is embraced in the territories have been considered to extend, but also of the United States. Both from soil and to comprehend Rouse's Point within the position it is regarded as of much value. territory of the United States. The re- Another matter of difference was the linquishment by the British government manner of extending the line from the of all the territory south of the line here. point at which the commissioners arrived, tofore considered to be the true line has north of Isle Royale, in Lake Superior, to been obtained, and the consideration for the Lake of the Woods. The British comthis relinquishment is to inure by the missioner insisted on proceeding to Fond provisions of the treaty to the States of du Lac, at the southwest angle of the lake, Maine and Massachusetts.

and thence by the river St. Louis to the The line of boundary, then, from the Rainy Lake. The American commissioner source of the St. Croix to the St. Law. supposed the true course to be to proceed rence, so far as Maine and Massachusetts by way of the Dog River. Attempts were are concerned, is fixed by their own con- made to compromise this difference, but sent and for considerations satisfactory to without success. The details of these pro. them, the chief of these considerations ceedings are found at length in the printed being the privilege of transporting the separate reports of the commissioners. lumber and agricultural products grown From the imperfect knowledge of this and raised in Maine on the waters of the remote country at the date of the treaty of St. John and its tributaries down that peace, some of the descriptions in that river to the ocean free from imposition or treaty do not harmonize with its natural features as now ascertained. “Long the treaty, would, it is obvious, occasion. Lake” is nowhere to be found under that ally intersect islands. The manner in name. There is reason for supposing, how. which the commissioners of the two gov. ever, that the sheet of water intended by ernments dealt with this difficult subject that name is the estuary at the mouth of may be seen in their reports. But where Pigeon River. The present treaty there. the line thus following the middle of the fore adopts that estuary and river, and river or watercourse did not meet with afterwards pursues the usual route across islands, yet it was liable sometimes to the height of land by the various port. leave the only practicable navigable chanages and small lakes till the line reaches nel altogether on one side. The treaty Rainy Lake, from which the commissioners made no provision for the common use of agreed on the extension of it to its ter- the waters by the citizens and subjects of mination in the northwest angle of the both countries. Lake of the Woods. The region of country It has happened, therefore, in a few on and near the shore of the lake between instances that the use of the river in parPigeon River on the north and Fond ticular places would be greatly diminished du Lac and the river St. Louis on the tc one party or the other if in fact there south and west, considered valuable as a was not a choice in the use of channels mineral region, is thus included within and passages. Thus at the Long Sault, in the United States. It embraces a terri. the St. Lawrence, a dangerous passage, tory of 4,000,000 acres northward of the practicable only for boats, the only safe run claim set up by the British commissioners is between the Long Sault Islands and under the treaty of Ghent. From the Barnhardt's Island (all of which belong height of land at the head of Pigeon River to the United States) on one side and the westerly to the Rainy Lake the country is American shore on the other. On the one understood to be of little value, being de hand, by far the best passage for vessels scribed by surveyors and marked on the of any depth of water from Lake Erie into map as a region of rock and water. the Detroit River is between Bois Blanc, a

From the northwest angle of the Lake British island, and the Canadian shore. of the Woods, which is found to be in So, again, there are several channels or latitude 45° 23' 55" north, existing treaties passages of different degrees of facility require the line to be run due south to its and usefulness between the several islands intersection with the forty-fifth parallel, in the river St. Clair at or near its entry and thence along that parallel to the into the lake of that name. In these three Rocky Mountains.

cases the treaty provides that all the ser. After sundry informal communications eral passages and channels shall be free with the British minister upon the sub- and open to the use of the citizens and ject of the claims of the two countries to subjects of both parties. territory west of the Rocky Mountains, The treaty obligations subsisting beso little probability was found to exist of tween the two countries for the supprescoming to any agreement on that subject sion of the African slave-trade, and the at present that it was not thought expe- complaints made to this government withdient to make it one of the subjects of in the last three or four years, many of formal negotiation to be entered upon be- them but too well founded, of the visitatween this government and the British tion, seizure, and detention of American niinister as part of his duties under his vessels on that coast by British cruisers special mission.

could not but form a delicate and highly By the treaty of 1783 the line of divis. important part of the negotiations which ion along rivers and lakes from the place have now been held. where the forty-fifth parallel of north The carly and prominent part which latitude strikes the St. Lawrence to the the government of the United States has outlet of Lake Superior is invariably to taken for the abolition of this unlawful be drawn through the middle of such and inhuman traffic is well known. By waters, and not through the middle of the tenth article of the treaty of Ghent their main channels. Such a line, if ex- it is declared that the traffic in slaves is tended according to the literal terms of irreconcilable with the principles of hu.

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