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just all differences between the English powers on Oct. 18 (N. S.), 1748. By it and the Six Nations, as well as other the treaties of Westphalia (1648), of Nimetribes farther westward and southward. guen (1678–79), of Ryswick (1697), of The governors of Pennsylvania and New Utrecht (1713), of Baden (1714), of the Jersey, Sir William Johnson, Colonel Triple Alliance (1717), of the Quadruple Croghan, and a large number of the Alliance (1718), and of Vienna (1738), Friendly Association were present. Teedy. were renewed and confirmed. It was fonduscung acted as chief speaker, which ly hoped this treaty would insure a peroffended the Six Nations, who regarded manent peace for Europe. It was, howthe Delawares as their vassals; but he ever, only a truce between France and Eng. conducted himself admirably, maintain- land, contending for dominion in America. ed his position finely, and resisted the The English regarded as encroachments wiles of Colonel Croghan and the gov. the erection by the French of about twenernor. This great council continued eigh- ty forts, besides block-houses and trading. teen days. The land question was thor- posts, within claimed English domain. oughly discussed. All causes for misun- So while ACADIA (9. v.) furnished one derstanding between the English and the field for hostilities between the two naIndians were removed, and a treaty for a tions, the country along the lakes and in general peace was concluded Oct. 26, 1758. the Ohio and Mississippi valleys furnished There was another council held at Easton another. in 1761, concerning settlements at Wy T reaty of Ghent. See TREATIES, oming, in which Teedyuscung took an ANGLO-AMERICAN. active and eloquent part. See SUSQUE- Treaty of Guadalupe - Hidalgo. A HANNA SETTLERS.

treaty of peace, friendship, limits, and set. A treaty signed in New York, Aug. tlements was concluded at Guadalupe7, 1790, by Gen. Henry Knox for the Hidalgo, a city of Mexico, Feb. 2, 1848, United States, and Alexander McGillivray between Nicholas P. Trist on the part of and twenty-three other Creek chiefs, pro- the United States, and Don Luis Gonzaga vided for the relinquishment of Georgia Cuevas, Don Bernardo Couto, and Don to claims of an immense tract of land Miguel Atristain on the part of Mexico. belonging to the Creeks south and west It provided for a convention for the proof the Oconee River; the acknowledgment visional suspension of hostilities; for the of the Creeks being under the protection cessation of the blockade of Mexican ports; of the United States; the resignation of for the evacuation of the Mexican capital the Creeks of all pretensions to lands by the United States troops within a north and east of the Oconee River; a month after the ratification of the treaty, mutual exchange of prisoners, and an and the evacuation of Mexican territory agreement for the delivery of an Indian within three months after such evacuamurderer of a white man. A secret ar- tion; for the restoration of prisoners of ticle provided that presents to the value war; for a commission to survey and de. of $1,500 should be distributed annually fine the boundary-lines between the United among the nation; annuities of $100 se- States and Mexico; for the free navigacured to six of the principal chiefs, tion of the Gulf of California and the and $1,200 a year to McGillivray annu- Colorado and Green rivers for United ally, in the name of a salary; also the States vessels; freedom of Mexicans in privilege of importing goods for supply- any territory acquired by the United ing the Indians. These money consid- States; Indian incursions; payment of erations to the leaders were intended to money to Mexico for territory conquered secure their fidelity to the terms of the and held, and of debts due citizens of the treaty.

United States by Mexico; regulation of Treaty, THE HAY-PAUNCEFOTE. See international commerce, and other minor CLAYTON-BULWER TREATY.

regulations about property, etc. Both Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, a treaty governments ratified the treaty. See between Great Britain, France, Holland, MEXICO, WAR WITH. Germany, Spain, and Greece; signed by Treaty of Lancaster. See LANCASTER, the representatives of these respective TREATY OF.




Treaty of Paris, a definitive treaty excepting by debts or criminal prosecutions. of peace, signed at Paris on Feb. 18, 1763 France ceded to Great Britain the islands (and was soon after ratified) between of Grenada and the Grenadines, with the Great Britain, France, Spain, and Portu- same stipulation as to their inhabitants gal, which materially changed the political as those in the case of the Canadians; the boundaries and aspects of North America. islands of St. Vincent, Dominica, and ToThe acquisitions of Great Britain, both bago to remain in the possession of Eng. from France and Spain, on the continent land, and that of St. Lucia, of France; of North America, during the war then that the British should cause all the fortirecently closed, were most important in fications erected in the Bay of Honduras. their bearings upon the history of the so- and other territory of Spain in that region, called New World. France renounced and to be demolished; that Spain should deguaranteed to Great Britain all Nova sist from all pretensions to the right of Scotia or Acadia, Canada, the Isle of Cape fishing about Newfoundland; that Great Breton, and all other islands in the Gulf Britain should restore to Spain all her and River of St. Lawrence. The treaty conquests in Cuba, with the fortress of gave to the French the liberty of fishing Havana; that Spain should cede and and drying on a part of Newfoundland guarantee, in full right, to Great Britain, and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, at a Florida, with Fort St. Augustine and the distance of 3 leagues from the shores Bay of Pensacola, and all that Spain posbelonging to Great Britain; ceded the sessed on the continent of America to the islands of St. Peter and Miquelon, as a east, or to the southeast, of the Mississhelter for French fishermen; declared sippi River. Thus was vested in the that the confines between the dominions British crown, by consent of rival Euroof Great Britain and France, on this con- pean claimants, the whole eastern half of tinent, should be fixed by a line drawn North America, from the Gulf of Mexico along the middle of the Mississippi River, to Hudson Bay and the Polar Ocean, infrom its source as far as the River Iber- cluding hundreds of thousands of square ville (14 miles below Baton Rouge), and miles of territory which the foot of white from thence by a line drawn along the man had never trodden. middle of this river and of the lakes Treaty of Utrecht, a treaty signed Maurepas and Pontchartrain, to the sea; April 11, 1713, which secured the Protesguaranteed to Great Britain the river tant succession to the throne of England, and port of Mobile, and everything on the the separation of the French and Spanish left side of the Mississippi, excepting the crowns, the destruction of Dunkirk, the town of New Orleans and the island on enlargement of the British colonies in which it is situated, which should remain America, and a full satisfaction from 'to France; the navigation of the Missis. France of the claims of the allies, Eng. sippi to be equally free to the subjects of land, Holland, and Germany. This treaty both nations, in its whole breadth and terminated Queen Anne's War, and secured length, from its source to the sea, as well peace for thirty years. as the passage in and out of its mouth; Treaty of Washington, THE. See that the French in Canada might freely WASHINGTON, THE TREATY OF. profess the Roman Catholic faith, as far Treaty of Westminster. See WESTas the laws of Great Britain would per- MINSTER, TREATY OF. mit, enjoy their civil rights, and retire Treaty with Texas. See Texas. when they pleased, disposing of their Trenchard, STEPHEN DECATUR, naval estates to British subjects; that Great officer; born in Brooklyn, N. Y., July 10, Britain should restore to France the 1818; entered the navy in 1834; promoted islands of Guadeloupe, Marie Galante, lieutenant in 1847; rescued the British Deseada, and Martinique, in the West bark Adieu off Gloucester, Mass., while on Indies, and of Belle-Isle, on the coast of coast-survey duty in 1853–57; served with France, with their fortresses, giving the distinction during the Civil War; comBritish subjects at these places eighteen manded the Rhode Island when that vesmonths to sell their estates and depart, sel endeavored to tow the Monitor from without being restrained on any account, Hampton Roads to Beaufort, N. C. The latter vessel foundered off Cape Hatteras, versity of the South in 1888-1900; acbut Lieutenant Trenchard succeeded in cepted the chair of English Literature at saving the crew; promoted rear-admiral Columbia University in the latter year. in 1875; retired in 1880. He died in New He is the author of English Culture in York City, Nov. 15, 1883.

Virginia; Southern Statesmen of the old Trent, THE. On Nov. 7, 1861, James Régime; Robert E. Lee; Authority of M. Mason, of Virginia, Confederate envoy Criticism, etc. to Great Britain, and John Slidell, of Trenton, a city and capital of the State Louisiana, accredited to France, em- of New Jersey; originally settled under barked at Havana in the British mail the name of Yeffalles of ye De la Ware. steamer Trent for England. The United A number of members of the Society of States steamship San Jacinto, Captain Friends, including Mahlon Stacy, purWilkes, was watching for the Trent in chased land here in 1680, and large plan. the Bahama channel, 240 miles from Ha- tations were bought by Judge Trent in vana, Captain Wilkes having decided, on 1715, which caused the settlement to be his own responsibility, to seize the two called Trent Town. The place was cre. Confederate envoys. The San Jacinto met ated a borough town by royal charter in the Trent on the forenoon of Nov. 8, sig. the middle of the eighteenth century, and nalled her to stop in vain, and then fired the town became the State capital in 1790. a shot across her bow. Her captain un. After the Revolutionary War the Conti. willingly allowed Mason and Slidell, with nental Congress once met here. The city their secretaries, to be taken aboard the is best known historically because of the San Jacinto. Captain Wilkes reached decisive battle fought here (see TRENTON, Boston on Nov. 19, and the two ministers BATTLE OF). The event has been comwere confined in Fort Warren. This memorated by a memorial shaft erected seizure was received with favor in the at the old Five Points, and surmounted United States, but Great Britain de. by a statue of Washington directing his manded from the government at Wash: troops. “ ington a formal apology and the immedi Trenton, BATTLE OF. Late in December, ate release of the prisoners, Lord John 1776, Washington's army, by much exerRussell instructing the minister, Lord tion, had increased to nearly 6,000 men. Lyons, at Washington, Nov. 30, 1861, Lee's division, under Sullivan, and some that unless a satisfactory answer were regiments from Ticonderoga under Gates, given within seven days he might, at his joined him on the 21st. Contrary to discretion, withdraw the legation and re- Washington's expectations, the British, turn to England. This despatch was re- content with having overrun the Jerseys, ceived on Dec. 18; on the 19th Lord Lyons made no attempt to pass the Delaware, called on Mr. Seward, and in a personal but established themselves in a line of interview an amicable adjustment was cantonments at Trenton, Pennington, made possible by the moderation of both Bordentown, and Burlington. Other corps diplomats. On Dec. 26 Mr. Seward trans- were quartered in the rear, at Princeton, mitted to Lord Lyons the reply of the New Brunswick, and Elizabethtown; and United States, in which the illegality of so sure was Howe that the back of the the seizure was recognized, while the satis- “rebellion” was broken that he gave faction of the United States government Cornwallis leave to return to England, was expressed in the fact that a principle and he was preparing to sail when an unfor which it had long contended was thus expected event detained him. Washington accepted by the British government. knew that about 1,500 of the enemy, Mason and Slidell were at once released, chiefly Hessians (Germans), were sta. and sailed for England Jan. 1, 1862. See tioned at Trenton under Colonel Rall, who, MASON, JAMES MURRAY; SLIDELL, JOHN; in his consciousness of security and conWILKES, CHARLES.

tempt for the Americans, had said, " What Trent, WILLIAM PETERFIELD, educator; need of intrenchments? Let the rebels born in Richmond, Va., Nov. 10, 1862; come; we will at them with the bayonet.” graduated at the University of Virginia He had made the fatal mistake of not in 1884; Professor of English at the Uni- planting a single cannon. Washington felt

strong enough to attack this force, and at eral Lee, with wilful disobedience refused twilight on Christmas night he had about the duty, and turning his back on Wash2,000 men on the shore of the Delaware at ington, rode on towards Baltimore to inMcConkey's Ferry (afterwards Taylors. trigue among Congressmen against Gen. ville), a few miles above Trenton, prepar. PHILIP SCHUYLER (q. v.). Ice was forming to cross the river. He rightly be- ing in the Delaware, and its surface was lieved that the Germans, after the usual covered with floating pieces. The current carouse of the Christmas festival, would was swift, the night was dark, and towards be peculiarly exposed to a surprise, and midnight a storm of snow and sleet set in. he prepared to fall upon them before day. It was 4 A.M. before the troops in marchlight on the morning of the 26th.

ing order stood on the New Jersey shore, With him were Generals Stirling, boats having been hurriedly provided for Greene, Sullivan, Mercer, Stephen, and their passage. The army moved in two

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Knox, commanding the artillery. Ar- columns-one, led by Sullivan, along a rangements were made for a similar move- road nearest the river; the other, led by ment against the cantonments below Tren- Washington and accompanied by the other ton, the command of which was assigned generals, along a road a little distance to to General Gates; but that officer, jealous the left. It was broad daylight when they of Washington, and in imitation of Gen- reached Trenton, but they were undis.

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