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Joint resolution raising all duties 50 al duty of 10 per cent. on goods from per cent. for sixty days, afterwards ex- places west of the Cape of Good Hope), tended to ninety days. . . . . April 29, 1864 May 4, and amended........Dec. 23, 1882
General revision of tariff, increasing Senate reports a tariff bill which is duties passed............June 30, 1864 called up for consideration, Jan. 10; House
Bill passed increasing tariff rates, bill reported by ways and means comMarch 3, 1865, and amended..July 28, 1866 mittee, Jan. 16; both bills discussed and
Transportation in bond of goods des- amended for several weeks; a conference tined for Canada or Mexico, through the committee meets, Feb. 28; after some . United States, provided for by act of resignations and reappointments of mem
July 28, 1866 bers, reports, March 2, accepted in the Convention of woollen manufacturers Senate, 12.30 A.M., March 3, by 32 to at Syracuse ask increased duties. They 31 votes, and in the House at 5.30 P.M., form an alliance with wool-growers, and March 3, by 152 to 116 votes, and signed arrange a tariff which becomes a law by by the President before adjournment, act of...................March 2, 1867 which was after midnight.. March 3, 1883
Duty on copper and copper ore in A bill“ to reduce import duties and creased by act of.......... Feb. 24, 1869 war-tariff taxes," introduced by Mr. Mor
First law distinctly authorizing the ap- rison, is reported in the House, March pointment of special agents of the treas. ll, and defeated by vote of 159 to 155 ury in the customs service, passed
April 15, 1884 May 12, 1870 A bill to reduce tariff taxes, introduced Following a general debate on an act by Mr. Morrison, is lost by vote of the to reduce internal taxes, etc., a new tariff, House, 157 to 140........June 17, 1886 retaining most of the protective features, Mills bill, a measure “ to reduce taxabecomes a law............July 14, 1870 tion and simplify the laws in relation to
Duties removed from tea and coffee the collection of revenue," introduced in after July 1, 1872, by act of.. May 1, 1872 the House by Roger Q. Mills, of Texas,
General act passed reducing duties on chairman of the ways and means comimports and internal taxes. .June 6, 1872 mittee.................... April 2, 1888
All provision moieties to informers re- Mills bill is taken up for discussion, pealed, and the proceeds of all fines, pen- April 17, and debated until July 19, and alties, and forfeitures to be paid into the passes the House by vote of 149 to 14 treasury, by act of........ June 22, 1874
July 21, 1888 Tariff law amended by act of Congress [Referred in the Senate to the finance
Feb. 8, 1875 committee, by whom a substitute was preSalts and sulphate of quinine put on pared, and failed to become a law.] the free-list...............July 1, 1879 A bill “ to equalize duties upon imports
Act creating a tariff commission of nine and to reduce the revenue of the govcivilians appointed by the President to ernment,” introduced by William McKinvisit different sections of the country in ley, Jr., of Ohio.......... April 16, 1890 the interest of tariff revision and report McKinley Customs Administration act
May 15, 1882 approved................. June 10, 1890 Tariff commission, consisting of John McKinley tariff bill passes the House, L. Haves, president, Henry W. Oliver, Jr., May 21; referred to Senate committee Austin M. Garland, Jacob Ambler, Robert on finance, May 23; reported to the P. Porter, John W. H. Underwood, Dun- Senate with amendments, June 18; pass. can F. Kenner, Alexander R. Boet'er, and es Senate with amendments, Sept. 10; William H. McMahon, organizes at the reported by conference committee to Ebbitt House, Washington, D. C., House, Sept. 26: approved by the Presi.
July 6, 1882 dent, Oct. 1, and takes effect Oct. 6, 1890 Report of tariff commission submitted Tariff (Wilson) bill made public to Congress and referred to ways and
Nov. 27, 1893 means committee..........Dec. 4, 1882 Internal revenue bill containing the in
Act passed repealing section 2510 of come-tax reported to the House the Revised Statutes (levying an addition
Jan. 24, 1894
Tariff bill with income tax attached Chairman Dingley, of the committee on passes the House, 204 to 140. . Feb. 1, 1894 ways and means, introduces new tariff
Senate passes tariff bill, 39 yeas (thirty- bill........... ........... Dec. 7, 1896 seven Democrats, two Populists), 34 nays Measure reported from committee on (thirty-one Republicans, two Populists, ways and means.......... March 19, 1897 one Democrat, D. B. Hill)....July 3, 1894 Bill passes the House, 205 ayes to 122
Tariff bill received in the House with nays, twenty-seven not voting 633 Senate amendments; rates increased
March 31, 1897 July 5, 1894 Bill passes the Senate with about 870 House disagreeing, a conference com- amendments, 38 ayes, 28 nays, twentymittee is appointed; the Senate compels three not voting............July 7, 1897 the House to adopt its amendments
House non-concurred in Senate amend.
Aug. 13, 1894 ments; conference committee reported Bill sent to the President Aug. 17, 1894 favorably on majority of Senate amend. Becomes a law without his signature ments; report agreed to; and act ap
Aug. 27, 1894 proved by the President.... July 24, 1897
Tariff Legislation. The question of 1819 came an attempted tariff measure in tariffs in the United States has been a 1820. By 1824 the movement towards disputed point since the very formation higher protection showed itself in the act of the nation. The overthrow of one po- of May 22, in which the average rate was litical party has almost invariably been 37 per cent. Woollen goods, cotton goods, followed by a revision of the tariff. Grad. and iron were main subjects of debate ually through all these changes the two from the early stages of the controversy. great national parties have come to have The tariff of 1824 was protectionist, but a rather settled policy in regard to the in 1828 a tariff was passed which, on ac. tariff. The history of the tariff struggle count of its various eccentricities, re. in the United States is here given. ceived the name of the Tariff of Abomina
The question of raising a sufficient na- tions. · Opposition to this act was very tional revenue was one of the first and bitter in the South, and led to the nulli. most important matters discussed by the fication movement. The law was modified Congress of 1789. The tariff, which was in 1832, and further in 1833 by the compassed on July 4 of that year, was nomi- promise tariff promoted by Henry Clay. nally protective. Specific duties were By this act duties were to be gradually replaced on spirits and fermented liquors, duced to 20 per cent. Parties had again sugar, coffee, tea, and some other articles, crystallized; protection was a Whig docwhile the remaining mass of imports bore trine, together with internal improve. ad ralorem duties averaging about 8772 per ments. See AMERICAN SYSTEM. cent. This tariff of 1789 was largely High protection was revived by the the work of Madison. Protection was not tariff of 1842, in which the duties averin the early years of the republic a party aged about 33 per cent. But in 1846 the measure, or indeed a vital question. Democrats passed the low Walker tariff,
The effect of the restrictive actions of named after the Secretary of the TreasFrance and Great Britain in the Napole. ury, Robert J. Walker. The average rate onic régime and of the embargo, followed was about 25 per cent., and under this law by the War of 1812, was to make the the country continued until 1857, when, United States more dependent on itself with an overflowing revenue, the rate was for manufactures. Soon after the close of still further reduced to about 20 per cent. the war the tariff of April 27, 1816, was From 1846 to 1861, accordingly, there was adopted. The increase of manufacturing an approach to a revenue tariff. The interests was shown in the increasing Morrill tariff, named after the chairman duties, which in the case of cotton reached of the ways and means committee, was 25 per cent. Shortly after the panic of enacted in 1861, having a protection char. acter; the Civil War broke out; expenses provided for free lumber and wool, reduc of government enormously increased; in tion on pig-iron, and abolition of specific 1862 a stringent internal revenue act was duties on cottons. The Democrats were passed. As the war developed, all finan- now practically united on this side, and cial experiments were tried, taxes on in- only 4 out of 169 votes were recorded comes and corporation receipts, on manu. against the bill. It failed in the Repubfactures, also loans, and inconvertible cur- lican Senate. The same year the election iency; in 1864 a tariff bill was enacted for President occurred, with Cleveland which accorded a high measure of protec- and Harrison as opposing champions of tion and produced a large amount of reve- tariff reform and protection respectively. nue. From 1866 to 1872 the internal. The tariff was the main issue, and the revenue taxes were mainly abolished, but Republicans were successful. As Con. a movement towards reforming the tariff gress was also Republican a revision of failed in 1867. In 1870 the duties on the tariff laws was made, and this meas. purely revenue articles were lowered, and ure bore the name of the McKinley tariff, in 1872 tea and coffee were admitted free, from the chairman of the ways and means and the protective duties received a 10 committee. Of this act, passed October, per cent. “ horizontal” reduction. Party 1890, the following features are to be lines were not drawn upon these measures, noted. Under the influence largely, it is although the war tariff's had been passed claimed, of Secretary Blaine, reciprocity by the Republicans. This 10 per cent. re- provisions were inserted when the bill was duction was in 1875 revoked, but the tariff before the Senate. By these provisions was not generally discussed, although re. the President could by proclamation imform bills were introduced in 1876 and pose fixed duties on sugar, wool, tea, 1878.
coffee, and hides from other countries, In the campaign of 1880 the Republic whenever the duties imposed by such coun. cans made some use of protection, and the tries on American products shall be Democratic candidate, GEN. WINFIELD deemed unjust. Duties were accordingly Scott HANCOCK (9. v.), referred to it as a laid on imports from Venezuela, Haiti, local issue. In 1882 the Republicans took and Colombia ; reciprocity treaties were up the matter seriously; a tariff commis. negotiated with Brazil, San Domingo, sion was appointed, and in 1883 an act Cuba, and Porto Rico, Jamaica, Barbawas passed; this measure was distinctly does, Trinidad, British Guiana, and sev. protective; some reductions were made in eral States of Central America; also some wool, iron, etc., and the duty on steel rails reciprocity arrangements were made with was reduced from $28 to $17. Almost im- Germany and France. mediately the Democrats gained control Other important features were the reof the House. The Morrison bill of 1884 mission of the duty on sugar, a general in. proposed a “horizontal ” reduction of 20 crease in wool and woollen goods, dress per cent., with free iron ore, coal, and goods, knit goods, linen, plush, velvets, lumber. It was opposed by the Republic etc.; tin plates were protected; the to. cans and defeated, as 41 out of 192 Demo- bacco tax was reduced; there was an incrats antagonized it. Again in 1886 an- crease on barley, eggs, potatoes, a de. other low-tariff bill met the same fate, but crease on some articles, and additions to the number of opposing Democrats had the free list. On the whole the act was fallen to 26 out of 169; free wool, salt, regarded as a high protective measure. and lumber were offered.
It raised considerable Republican opposi. In 1887 the protective contest entered tion, especially in the Northwest. A few on its last phase. The election of 1884 weeks later the Republican party met a had not turned distinctively on the tariff; Waterloo in the elections throughout the but in the December message of 1887 country, and this result was ascribed to President Cleveland devoted his attention the tariff'. In 1893 the Democrats, having entirely to the surplus in the treasury and regained possession of the executive and the cause of tariff reform (see CLEVELAND, both branches of Congress, prepared to GROVER). The following year the Demo- deal with the question. President Cleve. cratic House passed the Mills bill, which land was elected in 1992 largely on this
issue, and the party platform had con- upon sugar, molasses, coffee, tea, and demned the principle of protection. The hides, the product of or exported from such Wilson bill, framed by Chairman Wil. designated country. son, of the ways and means commit. Among other provisions of the McKinley tee, and his associates, was presented to law, the following were especially notethe House at the close of 1893, and pro. worthy: vided for reduction of duties in some Abounty of 2 cents per pound was cases, and of some notable additions to authorized for all sugar grown within the the free list, including wool. On Feb. 1, United States, testing not less than 90° 1894, it passed the House by a vote of 204 by the polariscope; and upon all sugars to 140. Sixteen Democrats voted against testing less than 90° and not less than the bill.
80°, a bounty of 134 cents per pound. It The Wilson bill failed to provide suffi- was estimated that this provision would cient revenue. After the election of Mc- cause an annual expenditure of $7,000,000, Kinley and a Republican Congress in based upon the annual production of sugar 1896, a strong effort was at once made to at the time of the passage of the bill. pass another tariff measure, entitled the All packages or boxes containing arti. Dingley bill. This bill somewhat re- cles of foreign merchandise imported into sembles the McKinley bill, although the the United States must be plainly marked duties proposed were not as excessive.or stamped with the name of the country The duty on wool was restored. The Ding. in which the articles originated. ley bill met with much opposition, but When foreign raw materials have been was passed at the close of July, 1897. made into finished products in this counThis was chiefly due to Western Senators, try and exported, 99 per cent. of the duwho refused to aid the Republican tariff ties paid on such raw materials was replans unless that party would support funded. free-silver legislation.
All special taxes and licenses imposed The Wilson tariff was chiefly noted for upon the manufacture of tobacco, cigars, its free-wool (raw) provision, while one and snuff, and upon dealers in them, were of the leading features of the McKinley abolished, thus reducing the tax on manulaw was its reciprocity clause, the text factured tobacco from about 8 cents per of which was as follows:
pound to about 4 cents per pound. This is Section 3. With a view to secure re. the only important change made in the ciprocal trade with countries producing internal-revenue laws. the following articles, and for this pur. On March 18, 1897, a bill to “provide pose, on and after July 1, 1892, when revenue for the government and to enever and so often as the President shall courage the industries of the United be satisfied that the government of any States " was introduced into the House of country producing and exporting sugars, Representatives by Nelson Dingley, Jr., of molasses, coffee, tea, and hides, raw and Maine. The treasury had suffered since uncured, or any of such articles, impose 1893 from yearly deficits, and the finances duties or other exactions upon the agri. had been further deranged by the growing cultural or other products of the United conviction that the currency system was States, which in view of the free introduc. not as perfect as it should be. Many betion of such sugar, molasses, coffee, tea, lieved the aggravating cause to be a want and hides into the United States he may of a sufficient revenue, and the new tariff deem to be reciprocally unequal and un- was framed to produce this revenue. By reasonable, he shall have the power, and raising all existing duties to the rates col. it shall be his duty, to suspend, by procla. lected under the law of 1890, and by submation to that effect the provisions of jecting to duties a large number of arti. this act relating to the free introduction cles, raw materials of industry, imported of such sugar, molasses, coffee, tea, and free under the laws of 1890 and 1894, the bides, the production of such country, for framer of the measure estimated that the such time as he shall deem just; and in new scheme of duties would produce an such case and during such suspension annual revenue of $273,500,000, or nearly duties shall be levied, collected, and paid $50,000,000 more than had been obtained
from customs in any one year since 1867. bounty-paying country. By Section 22 a The measure passed the House, almost discriminating duty of 10 per cent., in without debate, and the Senate finance addition to the duties imposed by law, committee prepared a bill of its own, as a was ini posed on “all goods, wares, or substitute, differing in many important merchandise which shall be imported in particulars from the House measure. Af- vessels not of the United States, or which, ter many conferences the two bodies came being the production or manufacture of to an agreement, and the bill received the any foreign country not contiguous to signature of the President on July 21, the United States, shall come into the 1897. This tariff is one of the most de. United States from such contiguous countailed and extensive ever framed by Con- try.” This section was at first believed to gress. The first two sections enumerate have the unlooked-for effect of imposing 705 articles and classes, of which 463 were a discriminating duty on foreign goods subject to duty. Provision was made in brought into the United States through Section 3 for reciprocity agreements with Canada-a commerce of some importance. such nations or countries as would make The Attorney-General decided that such adequate concessions on the products and was not the effect. A further important manufactures of the United States; but provision was contained in Section 32 perthe list of foreign products on which re. mitting appraising officers, in determin. duction of duty may be made by the ing the dutiable value of imported mer United States was too limited to offer chandise, to take into consideration the much scope for reciprocal agreements. In wholesale price at which such or similar Section 5 the Secretary of the Treasury merchandise is sold or offered for sale in was directed to ascertain the net amount the United States. This permitted “ home of any bounty, direct or indirect, paid by market value” to be considered where a foreign government on the exportation “foreign market value is in doubt." of any article or merchandise, which As the intention of the framers of the amount was to be added to the duty im. act was to go back to the law of 1890, posed on such articles or merchandise im- a comparison is made with the rates im. ported into the United States from the posed by that act:
ART:CLES ON WHICH THE RATES OF DUTY WERE INCREASED OVER THOSE OF THE ACT OF OCT. 1, 1890
Free........................ 30 per 16.
25 per cent.
1-50 per lb.
6c. per lb.
1.40. per lb.
$1 per Ib. 50c per onnce.........
$1 per ounce. $1.32 per gal. and 35 per cent.. $1.32 per gal. and 36 per cent 25 per cent....
30 per cent
All other, not specially provided for.....
and other toilet waters.............
Crude or upmanıfartored, eto .....
Morphia or morphine, etc. .........
Spanish, Indian red, etc..................
Wholly or partially manufactured.........