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people that keep equipages. It is a common humour among the retinue of people of quality, when they are in their revels, that is, when they are out of their masters' sieht, to assume in a humorous way the names and titles of those whose liveries they wear.
My obscurity and taciturnity leave me at liberty, without scandal, to cline, if I think fit, at a common ordinary, in the meanest as well as the most sumptuous house of entertainment. Falling in the other day at a victuallinghouse near the house of peers, I heard the maid come down and tell the landlady at the bar, That my lord bishop swore he would throw her out at window, if she did not bring up more mild beer, and that niy lord duke would have a double mug of purl. My surprise was increased, in hearing loud and rustic voices speak and answer to each other upon the public affairs, by the names of the most illustrious of our nobility; till of a sudden one came running in, and cried the house was rising. Down came all the company together, and away; the alchouse was immediately filled with clamour, and scoring one mug to the marquis of such a place, oil and vinegar to such an carl, three quarts to my new lord for wetting his title, and so forth. It is a thing too notorious to mention the crowds of servants, and their insolence, near the courts of justice, and the stairs towards the supreine assembly, where there is an universal mockery of all order, such riotous clamour and licentious confusion, that one would think the whole nation lived in jest, and there were no such thing as rule and distinction among us.
ON THE EMPLOYMENT OF TIME.
We all of us complain of the shortness of time, saith Seneca, and yet have much more than we know what to do with. Our lives, says he, are spent either in doing nothing at all, or in doing nothing to the purpose, or in doing nothing that we onght to do. We are always complaining our days are few, and acting as though there would be no end of them. That noble philosopher has described our inconsistency with ourselves in this particular, by all those various turns of expression and thought which are peculiar to his writings.
I often consider mankind as wholly inconsistent with itself in a point that bears some affinity to the former. Though we seem grieved at the shortness of life in
gen neral, we are wishing every period of it at an end. The minor longs to be at age, then to be a man of business, then to make up an estate, then to arrive at honours, then to retire. Thus, although the whole life is allowed by every one to be short, the several divisions of it appear long and tedious. We are for lengthening our span in general, but would fain contract the parts of which it is composed. The usurer would be very well satisfied to have all the time annihilated that lies between the present moment and next quarter-day. The politician would be contented to lose three years in his life, could he place things in the pos ture which he fancies they will stand in after such a revolution of time. The lover would be glad to strike out of his existence all the moments that are to pass away before the happy meeting. Thus, as fast as our time runs, we should be very glad in most parts of our
lives that it ran much faster than it does. Several hours of elic day hang upon our hands, nay we wish away whole years; and travel through time as through a country filled with many wild and empty wastes, which we would fain hurry over, that we may arrive at those several little settlements or imaginary points of rest which are dispersed up and down in it.
If we divide the life of most men into twenty parts, we shall find that at least nineteen of them are mere gaps and chasms, which are neither filled with pleasure nor business. I do not however include in this calculation the life of those men who are in a perpetual hurry of affairs, but of those only who are not always engaged in scenes of action; and I hope I shall not do an unacceptable piece of service to these persons, if I point out to them certain inethods for the filling up their empty spaces of life. The methods I shall propose to them are as follow.
The first is the exercise of virtue, in the most general acceptation of the word. That particular scheme which comprehends the social virtues may give employment to the most industrious temper, and find a man in busine-3 more than the most active station of life. To advise the ignorant, relieve the needy, comfort the afflicted, are duties that fall in our way almost every day of our lives. A man has frequent opportunities of mitigating the fierceness of a party ; of doing justice to the character of a deserving man; of softening the envious, quieting the angry, and rectifying the prejudiced; which are all of them employments suited to a reasonable nature, and bring great satisfaction to the person who can busy himself in them with disa cretion. There is another kind of virtue that may find em8
ployment for those retired hours in which we are altogether left to ourselves, and destitute of company and conversation ; I mean that intercourse and communication which
every reasonable creature ought to maintain with the great Author of his being. The man who lives under a habitual sense of the divine presence keeps up a perpetual cheerfulness of temper, and enjoys every moment the satisfaction of thinking himself in company with his dearest and best of friends. The time never lies heavy upon him: it is impossible for him to be alone. His thoughts and passions are the most busied at such hours when those of other men are the most unactive. He no sooner steps out of the world but his heart burns with devotion, swells with hope, and triumphs in the consciousness of that presence which every where surrounds bim; or, on the contrary, pours out its fears, its sorrows, its ap- , prehensions, to the great supporter of its existence.
I have here only considered the necessity of a man's being virtuous, that he may have something to do; but if we consider further, that the exercise of virtue is not only an amusement for the time it lasts, but that its influence extends to those parts of our existence which lie beyond the grave, and that our whole etera. nity is to take its colour from those hours which we here employ in virtue or in vice, the argument redoubles upon us for putting in practice this method of passing away our time.
When a man has but a little stock to improve, and has opportunities of turning it all to good account; what shall we think of him if he suffers nineteen parts of it to lie dead, and perhaps employs even the twen-: tieth to his ruin or disadvantage ? · But because: the mind cannot be always in its fervours, nor strained up
19 call bonest people names; for that bears very hard on some of those rules of decency which you are justly famous for establishing. They may find fault, and correct speeches in the senate, and at the bar; but let them try to get themselves so often, and with so much eloquence, repeated in a sentence, as a great orator doth frequently introduce me.
"My lords ! (rays he) with humble submission, That that I say is this; that, Tbat that that gentleman bas advanced, is not That that he should have proved to your lordships. Let those two questionary petitioners try to do thus with their Whos and their Whiches.
What great advantage was I of to Mr. Dryden in his Indian Emperor,
You force nie still to answer you in That, to furnish out a rhyme to Morat! And what a poor figure would Mr. Bayes have made without bis Egad, and all That! How can a judicious man distinguish one thing from another, without saying This bere, or That there ? And how can a sober man, without using the erpletives of oaths (in which indeed the rakes and bullies have a great advantage over others), make a discourse of any tolerable length, without That is ; and, if he be a very grave man indeed, without That is to say? And how instructive as well as entertaining are those 11-tal expressions in the mouths of great men, Such things as That, and The like of That !
• I am not against reforming the corruptions of speech you mention, and own there are proper seasons for the introduction of other words besides That; but I scom as much to supply the place of a Woo or a Which at every turn, as they are unequal always to fill mine; and I expect good language and civil trcat