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And that my master slew him.
[Enters the Monument. Romeo! O, pale!-Who else? what, Paris too? And steep'd in blood ?--Ah, what an unkind hour Is guilty of this lamentable chance! The lady stirs. 4
[JUL. wakes and stirs. Jul. O, comfortable friar! where is my lord ? I do remember well where I should be, And there I am:- Where is my Romeo? [Noise within.
Fri. I hear some noise.-Lady, come from that nest Of death, contagion, and unnatural sleep;5 A greater Power than we can contradict Ilath thwarted our intents; come, come away: Thy husband in thy bosom there lies dead ; 6
4 The lady stirs. In the alteration of this play now exhibited on the stage, Mr. Garrick appears to have been indebted to Otway, who, perhaps without any knowledge of the story as told by Da Porto and Bandello, does not permit his hero to die before his wife awakes:
“ Mar. Fun. She breathes, and stirs.
“'Tis very cold, and yet here 's something warm.
“Speak, my Lavinia, speak some heavenly news,
“And tell me how the gods design to treat us. “ Lav. O, I have slept a long ten thousand years.
“ What have they done with me? I'll not be usd thus :
“I'll not wed Sylla; Marius is my husband.” Malone. • 5 and unnatural sleep; Shakspeare alludes to the sleep of Juliet, which was unnatural, being brought on by drugs. Steevens.
6 Thy husband in thy bosom there lies dead;] Shakspeare has been arraigned for departing from the Italian novel, in making Romeo die before Juliet awakes from her trance; and thus losing a hap. py opportunity of introducing an affecting scene between these unfortunate lovers. But he undoubtedly bad never read the Ita. lian novel, or any literal translation of it, and was misled by the poem of Romeus and Juliet, the author of which departed from the Italian story, making the poison take effect on Romeo before Juliet awakes. See a translation of the original pathetick narrative at the conclusion of the play, in a note on the poem near the end, Malone.
And Paris too; come, I 'll dispose of thee
i Watch. [within) Lead, boy :- Which way? Jul. Yea, noise?-ihen I 'll be brief.-0) happy dag
ger! [Snatching Romeo's dagger.9
7 Stay not to question, for the watch is coming;] It has been objected that there is no such establishment in any of the cities of Italy. Shakspeare seldom scrupled to give the manners and usages of his own country to others. In this particular instance the old poem was his guide:
“ The weary watch discharg'd did hie them home to sleep." Again:
“ The watchmen of the town the whilst are passed by,
they spy.” Malone In Much Ado About Nothing, where the scene lies at Messina, our author has also introduced Watchmen; though without suggestion from any dull poem like that referred to on the present occasion.
See, however, Othello, Act I, sc. i, Vol. XVI, in which Mr. Malone appears to contradict, on the strongest evidence, the pre. sent assertion relating to there being no watch in Italy. Steevens.
s churl! drink all; and leave no friendly drop,] The text is here made out from the quarto of 1597 and that of 1599. The first has
Ah churl! drink all, and leave no drop for me! The other:
O churl! drunk all, and left no friendly drop,
To help me after? Malone. Snatching Romeo's dagger. So, in Painter's translation of Pierre Boisteau, Tom. II, p. 244: “ Drawing out the dagger which Romeo ware by his side, she pricked herself with many blowes against the heart.” Steevens.
It is clear that in this and most other places Shakspeare fol. lowed the poem, and not Painter, for Painter describes Romeo's
This is thy sheath; [stabs herself there rust, and let
me die.' T Falls on Romeo's Body, and dies.
Enter Watch, with the Page of PARIS.
burn. 1 Watch. The ground is bloody; Search about the
churchyard: Go, some of you, who e'er you find, attach. ÇExeunt some. Pitiful sight! here lies the county slain ;And Juliet bleeding; warm, and newly dead, Who here hath lain these two days buried.Go, tell the prince,-run to the Capulets, Raise up the Montagues—some others search;2 —
[Exeunt other Watchmen. We see the ground whereon these woes do lie; But the true ground of all these piteous woes, We cannot without circumstance descry.
Enter some of the Watch, with BALTHASAR. 2 Watch. Here's Romeo's man, we found him in the
dagger as hanging at his side; whereas the poem is silent as to the place where it bung, and our author, governed by the fashion of his own time, supposes it to have hung at Romeo's back:
“ And then past deadly fear (for life ne had she care,)
ware.” Malone. 1- there rust, and let me die.] is the reading of the quarto 1599. That of 1597 gives the passage thus:
“1, noise ? then must I be resolute.
“ Rest in my bosom: thus I come to thee." The alteration was probably made by the poet, when he introduced the words,
“ This is thy sheath.” Steevens. 2 Raise up the Montagues,—some others search;-) Here seems to be a rhyme intended, which may be easily restored :
“ Raise up the Montagues. Some others, go.
“ We cannot without circumstance descry.” Johnson. It was often thought sufficient, in the time of Shakspeare, for the second and fourth lines in a stanza, to rhyme with each other.
It were to be wisbed that an apology as sufficient could be of. fered for this Watchman's quibble between ground, the earth, and ground, the fundamental cause. Steevens.
i Watch. Hold him in safety, till the prince come hither.
Enter the Prince and Attendants.
Enter CAPULET, Lady CAPULET, and Others. Cap. What should it be, that they so shriek abroad?3
La. Cap. The people in the street cry-Romeo, Some-Juliet, and some-Paris; and all run, With open outcry, toward our monument.
Prince. What fear is this, which startles in our ears?"
I Watch. Sovereign, here lies the county Paris slain; And Romeo dead; and Juliet, dead before, Warm and new kili’d. Prince. Search, seek, and know how this foul murder
comes. 1 Watch. Here is a friar, and slaughter'd Romeo's man; With instruments upon them, fit to open These dead men's tombs. Cap. O, heavens!-0, wife! look how our daughter
3— that they so shriek abroad?) Thus the folio and the undated quarto. The quarto of 1599 has-that is so shriek abroad.
Malone. 4 What fear is this, which startles in our ears?] The old copies read-in your ears. The emendation was made by Dr. Johnson,
Malone. 5 This dagger hath mista'en,-for, lo! his house
Is empty on the back of Montague,
And is mis-sheathed in my daughter's bosom.] The modern edi. tors (contrary to the authority of all the ancient copies, and without attention to the disagreeable assonance of sheath and sheathed, which was first introduced by Mr. Pope) read:
“ This dagger hath mista'en; for, lo! the sheath
La. Cap. O me! this sight of death is as a bell,
Enter MONTAGUE and Others.
Mon. Alas, my liege, my wife is dead to-night;?
The quarto, 1597, erroneously,
“- this dagger hath mistooke;
“ And it mis-sheathed in my daughter's bosome." If we do not read it instead of is, Capulet will be made to say--The scabbard is at once empty on the back of Montague, and sheathed in Juliet's bosom.
Shakspeare quaintly represents the dagger as having mistaken its place, and “it mis-sheathed, i. e.“mis-sheathed itself” in the bosom of Juliet.
The quarto, 1609, and the folio, 1623, offer the same reading, except that they concur in giving is instead of it.
It appears that the dagger was anciently worn behind the back. So, in The longer thou livest the more Fool thou art, 1570:
“ Thou must weare thy sword by thy side,
“And thy dagger handsumly at thy backe.” Again, in Humor's Ordinarie, &c. an ancient collection of satires, no date:
“See you the huge bum dagger at his backe?" The epithet applied to the dagger, shows at what part of the back it was worn. Steevens.
The words, “ for, to his house is empty on the back of Montague,” are to be considered as parenthetical. In a former part of this scene we have a similar construction.
My reading (is) is that of the undated quarto, that of 1609, and the folio. Malone.
for thou art early up, &c.] This speech (as appears from the following passage in The Second Part of the Downfalt of Robert Earl of Huntingdon, 1601) has something proverbial in it:
“ In you, i' faith, the proverb's verified,
“You are early up, and yet are ne'er the near.” Steevens. 7 Alas, my liege, my wife is dead to-night;] After this line the quarto, 1597, adds,
“And young Benvolio is deceased too." But this, I suppose, the poet rejected, on his revision of the play, as unnecessary slaughter. Steevens.
The line, which gives an account of Benvolio's death, was pro. bably thrown in to account for his absence from this interesting scene. Ritson.