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San Rafael, under the care of the devoted Miss ing for the salvation of their kindred and forWalker. I have been in this school, and feel mer neighbors; and blessed are they who help with her and her pastor, the Rev. Arthur forward a work that has such results and posCrosby, and others on the ground, the great sibilities. And therefore blessed are the Chrisimportance of a permanent meeting-place for tian mothers and daughters of California who the school, and that a Chinese missionary are banded together in organizations, small should be employed, if one can be found, to and great, in congregations, and presbyteries, have general charge of the work here and at and synod, all auxiliary to the Occidental Petaluma and Santa Rosa. Already converts Board, reading, working, giving and praying have been received to the communion of the for the salvation of the Chinese and the world. San Rafael Presbyterian church, and are cared I wish to put in a word in regard to the for by the pastor and elders. But they need abundant labors of the brethren in charge of to be taught by Christian ministers of their the Chinese work on the coast. I have not own nation; and this can be done only by as- seen the Rev. Mr. Condit, of Los Angeles, or sociating the people of neighboring villages the brother at Portland; but I have been with and setting over them pastors or evangelists. the Rev. A. W. Loomis, D.D., and the Rev.
The work is worth all it costs, and would Alexander J. Kerr in San Francisco. They cost if greatly enlarged, because it brings sal- have charge of the work north of Santa Bar. vation to some, and in the aggregate many, bara and south of Portland, and harder-workwho come to our shores.
ing men I have not seen in any department of
ministerial service. Forenoons, afternoons, FAR-REACHING INFLUENCE.
evenings until late hours, find them at work. But viewed in its wider relations, to the sal. They have many things to do for the Chinese vation of many others here and many more in beside teaching them to read and preaching China, it is impossible to exaggerate its im- the gospel to them; and not being promiportance. Christian Chinamen return to their nently before the public, as are pastors of native villages and cities, not merely to see churches, they are hardly thought of as entheir kindred, but to tell them what a Saviour gaged in a great work that taxes their mental they have found. And they do not return in and physical powers to the utmost. And I am vain,
sorry to add that their work, so important in NAM ART, well known on the coast, came itself and all its relations, and blessed of the hither a pagan. He had never heard of Christ, Master, is not popular, and does not command por had he ever seen a person who had any the co-operation of Christian people here as it knowledge of Christianity. The whole village should do. to which he belonged was in the region and SAN RAFAEL, CALIFORNIA, shadow of death. Slowly the light of the gos
May 28, 1887. pel entered his mind and heart, until he saw, believed and was saved.
THE INDIAN QUESTION. Returning to his village after some years, he
REV. T. S. CHILDS, D.D. found a Christian church in it; and there he The number of Indians in our country is espreached to his former neighbors and some of timated at from 250,000 to 300,000. Apart his kindred a whole year; and finally he had from the work of the churches, there are two or the joy of seeing his mother and brother come three prominent organizations whose object is to the knowledge and belief of the gospel. to guard the interests of the Indians. 1. The They desired to confess Christ as their Saviour, Indian Commissioners, of whom Gen. Clinton B. but before the opportunity was given them to Fisk, of New York, is president, and Hon. E. come to the Lord's table, the mob destroyed Whittlesey, of Washington, secretary. These the little chapel and scattered the Christian are government appointments. The work is a people.
branch of the Department of the Interior. The Many witnesses for Christ go home, yearn- commissioners, as a part of their work, purchase, by bid and contract and after careful examina- except that which they own in common, sustion, the yearly supplies of provisions, clothing, tained on this land by government, is believed household goods, farming tools, medicines, etc., to involve permanent pauperism and comparafor the various tribes supplied by the govern- tive savagery. The prevailing sentiment now ment. In this direction their work has been in- among those who adopt this view is in favor valuable in arresting, to a great extent, the of breaking up this whole system as fast as the enormous frauds upon the Indians and the Indians can be persuaded to consent to its disgovernment by former contractors and agents. solution.
The commissioners co-operate with the re- The characteristics of the new policy are to ligious and benevolent societies in general and make the Indian a citizen of the United States, special efforts for the benefit of the Indians. with all the responsibilities and obligations of There is much, however, that their very rela- a citizen, to give every man his own land by tion to the government makes it impossible for deed, to lead him thus to self-respect and selfthem to do. Hence
support. This is the object of the well-known 2. We have the Indian Rights Association, “ Dawes bill,” which became a law at the last of which Herbert Welsh, Esq., of Philadelphia, session of Congress. This bill is probably the is secretary. This is an entirely voluntary as- result of more careful and anxious study, in sociation, supported by voluntary contribu- Congress and on the Indian reservation, by its tions. This association, as its name suggests, honored author, than has been given by any interests itself in preventing if possible, or set- one man to the most perplexed and perplexing ting to rights, the "wrongs" of the Indians. Indian question. Its main features areUnhampered by any connection with the gov- 1. To secure by deed to every family a home ernment, it attempts vigorously, if not always
of its own. Each head of a family is to have successfully, prompt relief for the injustice to 160 acres, and each child a less amount. This which tribes and individuals are constantly is to be unalienable for twenty-five years, with subject. It has done an important work, not power in the President to prolong the time if only in immediate results, but in arousing pub- it seems best. This is the division of the land lic attention to the whole subject of justice to “in severalty," as it is termed. And the conthe Indian. These two organizations work in ditions secure it from being alienated by specugeneral harmony.
lators. In addition to these, and differing in policy, 2. To secure to the Indian citizenship, the is the Indian Defence Association, having its same rights and privileges that are given to the headquarters at Washington, with Rev. Dr. colored man and to foreigners. This is to be Byron Sunderland as president. This associa- applied also to all Indians who have with. tion holds that the true policy for the Indians drawn from their tribes and adopted civilized is to keep them permanently separate from the life. whites, retaining for them their strict tribal re- 3. After the division has been made to each lations, with their territory in common, and en- member of a tribe, if there is land remaining, forcing the honest fulfillment of the treaty ob- it or any part of it may, with the consent of the ligations of the government. In some respects tribe, be sold, and the proceeds invested at a this would seem the simplest solution of the fixed rate of interest, to be used " for the eduIndian question. It has special advantages for cation and civilization " of the tribe. missionary work in that it secures a more com- Lands which for special reasons are exempt pact state of the Indian tribes. Schools and from the operation of this act are those occupied churches would seem to be more easily and by the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickamore effectually sustained among them. But saws, Seminoles and Osages, Miamies and Pethe judgment of many of the friends of the In- orias, Sacs and Foxes in the Indian Territory, dians has of late years been drifting to a differ- and the Seneca reservation in New York, with ent conclusion. To keep the Indians perma- certain lands in Nebraska adjoining the Sioux nently in the tribal relation, with no land nation. Some of these are lands on which our church has missions, and it is believed the ex- from $20,000 to $1,200,000. It is not necessary emption is a just one and will work favorably. to claim that the administration has been free
4. The rights of religious societies now occu- from mistakes, to accept the statement of the pying land affected by the bill are guarded by Board of Commissioners as to the attitude of securing to them not over 160 acres in any the President. To a committee that waited tract, as long as so occupied, and on terms that upon him last year, after a full and earnest the Secretary of the Interior shall deem just. conference, he said with evident emotion, “No And no claim of any such society for its relig- matter what we may do in Congress, no matter ious and educational work, under previous laws, what I may do, no matter what may be done is to be changed.
for the education of the Indian, there is nothing Such are the main features of the “ Dawes like the gospel, after all, to elevate the race.” bill." While much is hoped from it, and while Senator Dawes put into it the wisest thought
A valuable and instructive book has been of his own and the wisest judgment he could
issued by the mission press in India, entitled command from others, it is fair to say that he
“ Historical Sketches of the India Missions was not without anxiety as to its practical of the Presbyterian Church in the United working. It would indeed be a wonder if there
States, known as the Lodiana, the Furruk. were found no grave defects in its actual opera- habad and the Kolhapur Missions, from the tion. We shall watch with interest its effects
beginning of the work in 1834 to the time upon our missions. It is not intended to force
of the fiftieth anniversary, in 1884." It will the scheme upon unwilling tribes; but an im
repay perusal by all who are interested in portant fact is that at least 75,000 Indians are India. The Presbyterian Observer says of it, reported by agents as now prepared for the
very justly: change and desiring it.
The reader is carried over half a century of In reference to the work of the churches, the labor in a single portion of heathendom. He report of the Board of Indian Commissioners, notes its beginning in the landing of Dr. John recently issued, has this significant language: C. Lowrie, the present senior secretary of the “We find no better Indian schools than those Board of Foreign Missions, and in the twenty
seven missionaries who came during the first maintained by the Christian missionary socie
decade of the mission's history. He observes ties, and we believe that all possible encourage- their difficulties and hardships. As he goes ment and aid should be given by the govern- over the record, he is impressed with the progment for the continuance and extension of their
ress, permanence and greatness of the work useful service.” The need of this is emphasized done in the schools established, in the Chrisby the fact that only about one-third of the
tian ideas disseminated, in the foothold gained children of school age among the Indians have
and in the converts made. He rises from the been under instruction even one month for the
review full of gratitude to God for what he has
enabled his self-sacrificing servants to accompast year. But this is a hopeful advance. The
plish, and anticipative of a bright and glorious Indian Commissioners sum up the evidence of future for the field upon which so much prayer the progress of the cause during the past year and labor have been expended. The price of in “the increased attendance upon schools, the
the volume is 75 cents, and it can be had by enlarged membership of churches, the awa
addressing the Rev. Dr. John C. Lowrie, Board kened interest of the people at large in secur
of Missions, 23 Centre Street, New York. ing justice to the Indians, in more liberal legislation by Congress touching their interests,
If the Church would have her face shine she and the wholly sympathetic attitude of the
must go up into the mount and be alone with Executive."
God. If she would have her courts of worship
resound with eucharistic praises she must open It is to be said in this connection that the
her eyes and see humanity lying lame at the appropriations of Congress for Indian educa
temple gates, and heal it in the miraculous tion alone have advanced in about ten years name of Jesus.-Bishop Huntingdon.
ADDRESS DELIVERED BY REV. the year grew smaller, and finally the ad
F. F. ELLINWOOD, D.D., vance reached the old debt, and that began BEFORE THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY AT
to vanish. Meanwhile the Board, always a OMAHA, MAY 25.
model of prudence, had heroically retrenched (Published by request.)
its work to the amount of $23,000; and thus Soon after the rising of the last Assembly between the upper and the nether millstone, the Board of Foreign Missions laid out its the great bugbear was crushed. work for another year. It had a debt, but It is but just to say that there was no it also had faith in God and in the churches. great influx of legacies beyond average It proceeded precisely as the disciples did at years, nor any one princely gift such as the feeding of the multitude. Having no have often been received in the past. great accumulation of bread, scarcely a few The best thing about it is that this large loaves even, it simply began the distribution, amount has come from the great body of the trusting that a divine power would keep up living church. The Sabbath-schools made the supply. The supply has been kept up, an advance of about $15,000, and the and there are a few baskets of fragments
Woman's Board exceeded last year or any left. It was said a long time ago that God previous year by $24,000, reaching a grand sometimes “ chooses things that are not, to total of $248,000. And besides this, indiconfound the things that are," and the way vidual women all over the land were sitting in which we have been enabled, spite of all over against the treasury, watching with dark prophecies, to appropriate hundreds of sensitive interest as the end approached, thousands from an empty treasury is, I and one and another gave quietly $1000, think, a case in point. Seven hundred and and $3000, and finally, as the books were fifteen thousand dollars were pledged, and closing, $5000 was placed by a woman's seven hundred and eighty-four thousand hand as the cope-stone of our mission work have been received. Seven hundred and of 1886 and '87. All honor to the faith eighty for the work and the old debt, and and prayer and liberality of our Christian four thousand with which to set up our women! Yet I must not pass by the many grateful Ebenezer at the close of our first generous gifts of the men,-men who by the half century. Even the heathen are saying, full support of a missionary are setting the “God hath done great things for them.” bright example to a thousand others of The Lord hath done great things for us preaching the gospel by proxy. I will menwhereof we are glad. Our captivity—and tion one who gave his opinion of the debt it was a captivity-is already turned as the business by sending a check for $10,000 for streams in the South, and we have come to himself and his church, and he said, “If the Assembly with doxologies.
you will advance with your work, if you This result has not been accomplished will advance, you shall have another $10,000 without the use of means. Never was greater next year.” He represents a large class effort made, and never was there a clearer who will give for new and progressive work, proof of the efficacy of prayer. Up to the but will not contribute if we are merely to first of November, the receipts had run hold our ground. God grant us wisdom to $83,000 behind those of last year; but the pursue some medium course between these first Sabbath of that month was observed earnest videttes and those whose different by many churches in our own and other refrain is, “Keep out of debt.” lands as a special day of prayer for mis- I should fail to present our full cause for sions; and thenceforth the work of advance gratitude if I forbore to speak of the kind proceeded. Month by month the deficit of Providence which gives us, in common with other boards, a new mission house. We through the cold of winter and the heat of have a reverence for “23 Centre Street," summer, William Rankin and the Mission though not so much for the place as for the House have remained, though half of New history which it represents. We cannot York had fled. Long live the memory of forget that there has been accomplished the our faithful treasurer, who, I trust, may himfull balf century's work of the Board since self see yet many years of rest and peace. its organization under the General Assem
A NEW HALF CENTURY. bly; that out of that modest little building have gone forth those living impulses which We close a half century of the Board's have blessed so many lands. There has history with thirty-four missions under our been the roll call of the hundreds of noble care, and occupying sixteen different coun. men and women who have honored the tries. There are five hundred missionaries, church and her divine Master on all the male and female, and two hundred and continents of the globe. But it is the work, eighty-nine native preachers of all grades. not the place, that we honor. Our history Into thirty-one languages and dialects used is transferable, and we are quite willing to by us the Scriptures are translated in whole carry our Ark of the Covenant with us into
or in part, and more or less of Christian a land of better promise.
literature has been prepared. We have Through the munificence of a family eight printing establishments, with a yearly memorable in the Presbyterian Church, and issue of many millions of pages. Nine hąsthe special liberality of an honored represent- pitals and twelve dispensaries are carried ative of it, the most ample and commodious on in connection with our work, and proband attractive quarters have been provided ably 40,000 patients are treated. Hundreds for us at a nominal price. In a few months of thousands of dollars' value in real propthe three Presbyterian boards in New York erty is held by the Board in the form of will take joyous possession. What will the churches, residences, colleges, seminaries and new site witness in another half century? primary schools, press buildings, hospitals
There is one change in our outlook that and orphanages. There are three hundred calls for a thoughtful and heartfelt word of and ten organized churches, with a memtributę. Our faithful treasurer, William bership of nearly 22,000, and over 23,000 Rankin, proposes to lay down a service pupils of all grades are in our seminaries which has covered thirty-six years. He has and schools. smitten the rock many times for refreshing Such are the statistics of our force and supplies, but it is not for this that he stops of the appliances with which we make our short of the promised land. He feels that new beginning. Even with lower ratios of the infirmities of age warn him against a gain than we have reached during the past further taxing of his strength, and he pre- few years, we should report fifty years hence fers to transfer his trust to a younger man 730,000 communicants on our mission fields, at a time when the books of his exchequer or above the present number of the church close so grandly.
at home; and with the same ratio, all ProtIn the thirty-six years of his service Mr. estant missions together would then report Rankin has received and disbursed over 32,000,000 of communicants and 120,000,000 thirteen millions, and who in all that time of nominal Christians. It is said as a dishas ever suspected the purloining of a pen- couragement that the population of heathen ny? Through all that long period he has nations has thus far increased far beyond remitted one-fourth of his salary to the the successes of the mission work, and that Board, besides being a generous contributor. is true. But while the world's population As to labor and fidelity to his post he has doubles in a century, the fruits of many been indefatigable in season and out of sea- missions are now doubling every ten years ; son. He is one of those old-fashioned peo- in Japan they double in three years. At ple who do not believe in vacations, and so such ratios of increase, there would, a hun