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You can regard this as a supplemental report, and rejoice with us in their accession. We need as many more.


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REV. T. L. SEXTON, SUPERINTENDENT. I have delayed informing you about the men secured during the Assembly, hoping I might be able to report better things, but I can now say that we have not secured one man. Brother Niles, of Texas, is coming to Nelson, but I had him in hand before I went to Omaha. Since I saw you we have organized in the state ten churches, with an aggregate membership of 190. Four of these organizations are in Omaha and the others are South Sioux City, Imperial, Hastings, Ger., Tobias, Norden and Holdrege.

Dr. Kirkwood, synodical missionary, writes in a similar strain. He says, “ Mr. King is on the ground at Monte Viste. Mr. Collier will be here about the first of next month. We need men for Silver Cliff and Phoenix. I am very much encouraged about our work just now.”



snowy range had greeted the eyes of Gene January.-The evangelization of the great West. ral Fremont or his hardy soldiers, or of the February.-The Indians of the United States. eager gold-seekers that followed him from March.-Home Missions in the older States. the East. Southern Colorado was settled April.- Woman's work.

by Mexicans, and the rural population there May.-The Mormons. June.—The South,

now are largely Spanish-speaking and of July.—The Roman Catholics in our land.

Spanish or Spanish-and-Indian descent; are August.–Our immigrant population.

devout Roman Catholics, so that besides September.—The Mexicans.

our mission work with the feeble EnglishOctober.-The treasury of the board.

speaking churches of southern Colorado, we November.-Our missionaries and missionary

have a distinct and separate work—mission teachers.

schools and mission churches December.—The spiritual condition of the whole


among country.

people. Our missionary labors extend to the same class of people in Arizona and

southern California; so that “the MexiTHE MEXICANS.

cans cover a much larger area than the The topic for consideration and prayer at 121,000 square miles which now define the the Monthly Concert this month is “The limits of New Mexico, and are scattered Mexicans.” As a term “the Mexicans” is through a much larger number of people more comprehensive than New Mexico as than the 140,000 living within those limits. outlined by recent maps or histories. For These people have an interesting history. New Mexico originally embraced the south- The Spanish took possession of their country ern portion of Colorado and the whole of one hundred years before the Pilgrim fathers Arizona.

set their feet on the shores of New England; The early settlement of Colorado was and Santa Fé is the oldest city in the made long before Pike's Peak or the United States. The “ Puritans" and Pil

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grims" of New England, the “ Dutch" of them, we could not restrain ourselves from New York, the “Quakers” of Pennsylva- attempting to do something for the great nia under William Penn, the " Huguenots mixed population. Our church work and further south, and even the cavaliers of Vir- our school work, if they may be spoken of ginia, none of them came for conquest. separately, began at the same time, and They brought no great armies, they built no have kept pace with each other to the pres great forts with arsenals and warlike stores ;

ent day. and while there were some adventurers, But we must give due credit to the Bapmost of them came with their wives and tists, who were in the territory before us and children to make this land their home, and before the war; but during the war their largely seeking first for “freedom to wor- missionaries were all withdrawn, and when ship God," and then they sought to bring the war closed the field at the South among the aboriginal heathen tribes to the Chris- the freedmen was so large and so important tian faith.

that their missionary society abandoned The Spaniards came for conquest and New Mexico work for the work in the gold; and the old fortress of San Marco, at South. Our missionary found some conSt. Augustine, Fla., built entirely by the verts at Laguda that had been members of labor of Indian slaves, marks a strong con- the Baptist church there. We succeeded to trast with all the other colonists, just them and their labors also in Santa Fe. named, who settled along the Atlantic coast. God gave us some other most providential The Spaniards came as soldiers, leaving helpers. The father of our missionary Rowives and children behind them; they over- mero, at Taos, who became possessed of a ran the country with their armies, they dis- Bible and became a convert by reading it, covered the mines they sought, and they gathered around him a little company of made slaves of the natives to work them. believers; and Father Gomez, who sold his

Again and again the slaves and natives yoke of oxen to buy a Bible, and a few revolted, and at length repulsed the invaders others stood ready to welcome and help us. and regained possession of their country, Here we have 19 Mexican churches and 20 only to be reconquered after repeated efforts ordained preachers and licentiates, of whom of the Spaniards. But at length through 14 are native converts. the growing weakness of Spain the army Our work among this people began at could not be maintained, and was ultimately Santa Fé in the year 1866, when the late withdrawn; but adventurers, deserters and Rev. D. F. McFarland and his wife, the others remained and married Indian wives. latter now so well known for her labors in The present population consists of a few Alaska, planted a church and a school, families of pure Spanish blood, the Pueblo which have continued to this day. Indians who have also kept their blood When the work began there were 86,000 pure, and the mixed population of Spanish people in the territory, of whom 48,836, or and Indian, which is by far the largest por- nearly five-eighths of the whole above ten tion.

years of age, could not read, and 52,220, Catholic priests always accompanied the more than five-eighths of the same age, army, and we cannot but admire their zeal, ould not write. The first assistant in the though we discount its results. Through school work was Miss Gaston, now Mrs. their efforts the people are among the most John Menaul, of Laguna, New Mexico. bigoted Roman Catholics to be found on the Our work has been slow among the Mexcontinent. But when General Grant, as icans, for it is a great task to uplift a whole President, adopted and formulated his people loaded down with illiteracy and su"Peace Policy” for the Indians, assigning perstition; but it has gone steadily forward, different tribes and sections to the different and at no point is it discouraging. With Christian denominations, the Pueblo Indians the increase of northern people and the vere assigned to our church. Laboring for growth of prosperity among the Mexicans,


the prospects brighten, and we have only to making my way to the post-office, on the main hold on to our work and enlarge it to secure street, on which street, higher up, stands the Romstill larger results.

ish church; and on this occasion I met a woman, We have now in all among this people 21 probably between fifty and sixty years of age, schools and 40 teachers, and our work on coming from that church in my direction. I obthe whole is so promising that enlargement

served that her step was quite elastic, and as she of buildings and increased facilities are con- came near I saw that she had some object in her stantly called for. We have thought to arms, about thirty inches in length, and joy seemed abandon some of the less promising fields,

to beam in her face. I approached her with the and thus secure funds for this necessary en

usual salutation, “Buenas dias” (good day). She largement; but we cannot find one that returned the compliment, and, pointing to the object ought to be abandoned. The schools at in her arms, said, “ Este San Francisco " (this is Santa Fé, Las Vegas, Mora, Taos and several

St. Francisco). I added, “Si, y muy bonito" (yes, other places need funds to complete or en

and it is very pretty); for the thing of its kind large their buildings, and various other im- was decidedly ornamental. The woman seemed portant and hitherto neglected places need pleased, and replied, “O si, tu sabes bien” (oh to be occupied at once.

yes, you understand it well); and off she swept down the street, with that sense of delight that

would indicate that the poor benighted creature LAS VEGAS, N. M.

possessed the very gates of heaven. I did not find

out whether she was coming from the church or The Mexican question is a wide subject, and we the saint-maker, but her delight was great. Nor cannot hope to glance at anything more than the is this a phenomenal or isolated case. Similar inoutside of it in one short article. The writer has cidents might be witnessed in the Mexican quarter now been nearly five years among the Mexicans, of our town almost every day, and, alas ! the same intimately associated with them in school and and worse scenes all over this land and on through evangelistic work. And the more I know the peo- old Mexico and through South America for a disple the more I am led to respect them as a kind, tance of thousands of miles and embracing many generous, brave, trustworthy and industrious peo- millions of people. Idolatry pure and simple is ple where they are. But this last qualification in- practiced by these millions of Spanish-speaking volves a great deal, and in one sense is the key to people, beginning here at our own doors in New the whole question at issue; for it is a woeful fact Mexico. I know both from knowledge and obserthat this people are not free, but are a rule the vation that perhaps nine-tenths of the Mexican very slaves of ignorance and superstition. And people of this land, especially the women and the yet even these words (ignorance and superstition) more ignorant men, have no higher ambition than can scarcely give the reader any adequate idea of to have an interest in or the care of a piece of the thick darkness that hangs over the minds of wood carved into what they call a saint. This nine-tenths of the Mexican people; for the evil thing is a business here. The father of one of the has been the work of hundreds of years under brightest and most obliging little boys (Flore Romish craft, and has become almost crass and Montoya) that we had in our mission school last stereotyped in character; and those of us who see winter is a saint-maker, and earns a living for his its direful effects upon the minds and energies of family right here in Las Vegas by carving these the people can only turn our thoughts heavenward pieces of wood (these saints) for the people. Now and exclaim, “How long, O Lord, how long ?” do you ask what can be done for this people to rePractical illustrations are so numerous that a judi- move this slavery, this gross darkness and supercious selection seems almost impossible. To take stition from the land ? I answer, everything can an incident that passed before my eye very re- be done for them. We have the means in God's cently, I give the following: I presume that the providence) right here in their midst, if but some day was a Romish feast day, for these come almost, of our people, like Aaron and Hur, would hold if not quite, every third day in the year. On the up our hands while we apply the means. day in question, which was only last week, I was Do you ask what the means are? We reply,

in the midst of the evil we have the means by which we can effectually break this power and remove the evil. All that we need are the Aarons and Hurs who are willing to sustain us in the work. Who are they? Who are willing to hold the rope while we work in the well? Where are the consecrated hearts who are ready to open their treasures, and, like the magi of old, to cast their “gifts, gold and frankincense,” at the feet of Jesus for this work? Are such hearts in the Presbyterian Church? If so, this field invites their cooperation.


the gospel of Jesus. There is no other remedy. But to bring that home to the people, we find that in many, very many cases we have to educate the people---teach them to read. This, I am sorry to say, is true of men, women and children. Of course there are many, many exceptions, especially among the more enterprising men, who perhaps were able to go as far east as St. Louis to school; but it is still true that a very large proportion of the Mexicans can neither read nor write, and it is just at this point that our mission schools are such a power in this land. These schools are very largely the lever which I regard, under God, as the power that is to open the land to the gospel among these Mexicans; and especially is this true where we can have a boarding department, and thus have the children socially and religiously under our training. Without this last feature much of our strength is thrown away, as I see it, counterbalanced by home associations; but where we get the children entirely under our care, impressions are conveyed which we have reason to believe never leave the children, especially if the schools are under wise management. This last thought I would emphasize. I feel satisfied from experience and observation that the success of our work among the Mexicans in the end depends not so much on the number or kind of our schools as it does on the consecration of our workers and on wise and prayerful management; and with this prayerful element joined to our work in this land, our future success is assured, and the disinthrallment of the Mexicans foregone.

I could write you long and glowing accounts of the advantages that have come to New Mexico already through the channel above described. The parents have confidence in our schools. They are willing to send their children as a rule to us; and not only so, but to my own knowledge they are calling for new schools this fall. Moreover, the children are bright, respectful, industrious, and very much appreciate what is being done for them. I could write at length of the delight of those who have gained their freedom in this way, through education and the acceptance of the gospel of Jesus, from the galling chains of Romish tyranny and superstition; but here I must stop for the present.

The question is so wide that the shell only can be touched in this short article; but here is the Fil in our own land (ignorance and superstition) t our very doors, and here, in God's providence,

Just forty-one years ago the American army, under General S. W. Kearney, entered the territory of New Mexico, and took peaceable possession of it in the name of the United States. The Mexican people are now loyal citizens of our country, and during the civil war bore an active part in the struggle to maintain the honor and integrity of our land. For many years after the American occupation little progress was made in education and civilization. Vast plains and high mountains separated this land from the populous cities and towns of the East. The first railroad entered New Mexico since 1880, and many populous valleys are now far from the railroad and surrounded by lofty mountain ranges. The great mass of the people are very ignorant, and know very little about the world outside of their mountain valley. In the towns along the railway their condition is not improved, as the arrival of Americans has not been any material or intellectual advantage to them.

I believe the most hopeful missionary fields among the Mexicans are in these secluded mountain valleys. Here we find very few Americans. Of the ten thousand people who live in Taos county, not more than two hundred are Americans or foreigners. During the last fifteen years there has been a great change for the better in this territory, Schools have been established and improved in the most retired regions, the gospel has been preached, and the Bible distributed extensively. The results are visible, and encourage the friends of a better education and of the pure gospel of Christ. The children learn to read and

write and gain useful knowledge, as also higher than the Apaches, who roam over the mountand better ideas of life and its object, in our ains and live by robbery. mission schools. Many of them gain a knowl- The American people are debtors to the edge of the truth as it is revealed in the word Mexicans. We have received the word of of God. The parents become interested when God, and it is our duty to teach those who they see the great improvement in the educa- have been deprived of this priceless gift of God tion and morals of their children. The people, for so many years. We are welcomed to their old and young, want to know the truths of the homes, and have countless opportunities to do gospel, and listen with attention to us when we them good. We should improve these, and tell them of the love of God and of the Sav- not leave this people to become the prey of a iour. The Bible is to many of them a new and godless civilization, which may soon enter unknown book. The old, old story” is new these mountain valleys and blight our fond to many of them. There is still a great deal hopes of better things. New Mexico is nearly of ignorance and superstition among the peo- three times as large as the state of New York, ple. The Roman Catholic Church holds many and has a population of about one hundred of them in its grasp. The people generally and forty thousand. Its natural resources are want to be emancipated from the yoke of very great, and in a few years more it will be a Rome, and hundreds and thousands take no large and prosperous state like Colorado, just interest in Romish rites and ceremonies. They north of us. The climate is milder and as will receive and read tracts and any religious good as that of the Centennial State, and must reading we can furnish them. Those who can- attract a large immigration in coming years. not read ask their friends to read aloud to them. The Mexican people treat American missionaries and teachers with a great deal of

TRINIDAD, N. M. respect and kindness. They recognize us as

NOTES FROM SOUTHEASTERN COLORADO. friends and benefactors, and many feel and ex

The boom has reached southeastern Colorado. press their gratitude to our Board of Home

There is now and has been for several months a Missions for what has been done for them.

heavy influx of immigration into this part of the Most of the people are poor in this world's

state from Kansas and Missouri. The eastern goods, and for that reason are not able to aid

counties are rapidly filling up with a substantial with money ; but many will do all they can to

class of farmers, and no less than three towns have promote the cause of Christ among their own

been built up, as by enchantment, in one county people. The Mexicans are a mixed race. Very

within the last six months. It is remarkable how many of the best families have Indian blood

fast towns do grow in all the western states when in their veins. A prominent Mexican gentle

once started. man, speaking on this subject, told me that the

Southern Colorado now has its Boston, Cleveland difference in the color and habits of the Mex

and Indianapolis. This corner of the state and icans and Pueblo Indians was so slight that in

it is no small corner either, embracing the three many cases it would not be noticed. Many large counties of Las Animas, Huerfano and CoMexicans dressed in Indian costumes would be

nejos-is rapidly awaking to a sense of its great considered as Indians of pure blood. The agricultural and mineral importance; and if the Mexican people generally have good natural growth of the last few months shall prove to be capacity, and have shown a strong desire for an index of what is yet to come, there can be improvement. They are not a worthless and but one opinion as to what will be the future idle people, as some Americans have repre

of southern Colorado, sented them. To know them, it is necessary to learn their language and customs and gain make up the largest part of the population in these their sympathy and friendship by kindness. counties, and were the pioneers in this part of the Many who speak ill of them have taken an country. The word Mexican is not euphonious to opposite course, and report them as no better English ears, and yet it has a good ring to it. It



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