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either with lob-worms, brandlings, &c. is thus : if you bait with one worm, put your hook into him somewhat above the the middle, and out again a little below the middle; having so done, draw your worm above the arming of your hook : but note, yon must enter the hook at the tail of the worm, and not at the head ; then, having drawn him above the arming of your hook before-mentioned, put the point of your hook again into the very head of the worm, till it come near the place where the point of the honk first came out, and then draw back that part of the worm that was above the shank or arning of the hook : if you fish with two worms, then put the second on before you turn back the hook on the first worm.

8th. If when you are angling in any particular spot, and have had good sport, the fishes should suddenly leave off biting, you may conclude that some of the fish of prey are come to the part you are fishing in ; therefore put a minnow on your hook alive, sticking it through his upper lip, or back fin : let your tackle be strong, in case the pike should be there, but for a certainty you may depend that either he or the perch will take it. But the best way is to have a trianmer or two with you, which may be applied with great advantage whilst you angle for other fish.

9th. When you have struck a good fish, keep your rod bent, which will prevent him from running to the end of the line, whereby he might break his hold.

10th. In ponds, angle near the fords where cattle go to drink : and in rivers, angle for breams in the deepest and quietest parts: for eels, under trees hanging over banks; for chubs, in deep shaded holes; for perches, in scours; for roaches, in winter in the deeps, at all other times where you angle for perches ; and for trouts in quick streams.

11th. It is good angling in whirlpools, under bridges, at the falls of mills, and in any place where the water is deep and clear, and not disturbed with wind or weather; also at the opening of sluices, and mill-dams, and if you go with the course of the water, you will hardly miss catching fishes, that swim up the stream to seek what food the water brings down with it.

12th. When you fish for roach, dace, &c. in a stream, cast your ground-bait above your hook, and always remember to plumb your ground.

13th. Never trust to the strength of your rod or line when you have hooked a good fish, but always use your landing-net.

14th. Your rod must neither be kept too dry nor too moist, for the one will make it brittle, the other rotten, and in sultry weather always wet the joints of your rod, which will make them adhere, and if by being wet they should stick so that you cannot easily get them asunder, never use force, for then

will strain

your rod ; but turn the ferrel of the joint that is fast, a few times over the flame of a candle, and it will separate.

15th. The best times for angling are from April to October, and the best time of the day from three till nine in the morning, and three in the evening till sun-set. The south wind is the best to angle in; the next best point to that is the west, the cooler these blow in the hottest months, is the best time to fish,

161h. Never angle in an easterly wind, for your labour will be in vain; but you may if the wind blows from any other point, provided not too sharply. Fishes will never bite before a shower of rain; this hint may save you many a wet skin *.


17th. In the morning, if there happens to be a hoar frost, either in the spring or advancing of the season, fishes will not bite that day, except in the evening: and after they have spawned, very ill, till with grass and weeds they have scoured themselves, and by that means recovered their appetite.

18th. The best time for the trout to be taken, and other fishes with the ground-line, is morning and evening, in clear weather and water ; but if the day proves cloudy, or the water muddy, you may angle all day long.

19th. The angler may depend on catching store of fishes, in a dark, close, gloomy, or lowering day, if the wind be southerly, and when, as the poet observes,

The stealing show'r is scarce to patter heard " By such as wander thro' the forest walks, “ Beneath th'umbrageous multitude of leaves."

Having given the reader every necessary

instruction, in regard to the breeding and feeding of fishes ; with the best advice concerning his rods, lines, floats, hooks, baits, &c. and a set of very choice rules, hints, and cautions, I shall now tell hin the best methods of taking the fishes in general angled for in England and Wales.

* Vide the Prognostics,



A Description of the Fish generally angled for in England and Wales, with the proper Times and Seasons to fish for them; their peculiar Haunts, spawning Time, and most killing Buits, &c.

The Salmon.


"HE Salmon, according to the opinion of some,

breeds in the sea ; but better warranted, that he breeds in the clear, sandy, parts of rivers, not far from the mouths thereof. They commonly spawn in Oftober, and the young become samlets the following year, and in a few months a large salmon. The milter and spawner having performed their office, betake to the sea, and we are told that when they have been obstructed in their passage, they have grown so impatient, that clapping their tails to their mouths, with a sudden spring, they have leaped clear over wears and other obstacles which stood in their way; and some by leaping short, have by that means been taken. If they happen to meet with such impediments that they cannot get to sea, they become sick, lean, and pine away, and die in two years. The principal occasion of their dying is this; the salmon being a fish by nature tender, and very chill, cannot, in the winter-season, endure


the extreme frigidity of the fresh river water, by reason of its tenuity, especially being so lately weakened by spawning; and, therefore, by instinct, they make the sea their winter habitation, the sea being naturally warın.

But if they spawn in the mean time, from thence proceeds a small salmon, called a Skegger, which never grows large. The female salmon is distinguished from the male, because its nose is longer and more hooked, its scales not so bright, and its body speckled over with dark brown spots ; its belly flatter, and its Aesh not so red; more dry, and less delicious to the taste.

The principal rivers in England for salmon, are, 1st. The Thames, whose salmon beats all others for taste and flavour; the Severn and the Trent; the Lon at Lancaster, about Cockersand Abbey; at Workington in Cumberland; Bywell in Northumber.. land; Durham, and Newcastle on Tyne ; the Dee in Cheshire; and the rivers Usk and Wye in Monmouthshire. Besides the salmon-leap in Pembrokeshire, there is another in the river Ban in Ireland : this river is in the mountains of Mourn in the county of Down, and it passes through Lough Eaugh, or Lough Sidney, a large. lake in the county of Colraine. Mr. Cambden says it breeds salmons in abundance, above all other rivers in Europe, because it is thought to exceed all others for clearness, in which sort of water salmons delight. He bites best about three in the afternoon, in May, June, July, and August, if the water be clear, and a little breeze of wind stirring : especially if the wind and stream are contrary.

You must fish for him like a trout, with a worm, fly, or minnow, or bob-worm is an excellent bait for him, well scoured in moss, which makes it tough, clear, and lively,


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