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them on a hook, large enough to hold the abovementioned fishes.
How to find and preserve Caterpillars, Oak
worms, Cabbage-worms, Colwart-worm, or Grub, Crab-tree-worm, or Jack, and Grass
hoppers. Found by beating the branches of an oak, crabirce, or hawthorn, that grow over a public path or highway : or upon cabbages, coleworts, &c. Grasshoppers are found in short sun-burnt grass, the latter end of June, all July and August. To preserve these baits, cut a round bough of fine green-barked withy, about the thickness of half one's arm, and taking off the bark about a foot in length, turn both ends together, into the form of an loop, and fasten them with a needle and thread; then stop up the bottom with a bung cork, into this put your baits, and tie a colewort leaf over it, and with a red-hot iron bore the bark full of holes, and lay it in the grass every night; in this manner your cads may be kept till they turn to flies : to your grasshopper put grass.
Are variously compounded, according to the angler's fancy but there should always be a little cotton, wool, fine lint, or flax, to keep the parts together, that they wash not off the hooks; the following compositions make very good pastes:
The blood of sheeps' hearts, mixed with honey and flour, and worked to a proper consistence : old cheese grated, a little butter, sufficient to work
it, and coloured with saffron. In winter fat rusty bacon instead of butter. Crumbs of bread, worked with honey, and moistened with gum-ivy water. The inside of a French roll, or crumbs of bread, worked well with clean hands with water alone. What fishes each of these pastes are proper for, the reader will find under the description of each fish, therefore I shall only make the following observations concerning pastes, which may be of use to young anglers, because founded on experience ; -Note, that in September, and all the winter months, when you angle for chubs, carps, and breams, with paste, let the bait be as large as a hazle-nut: but for roach and dace, the bigness of a pea is sufficient : chuse a still place, use a quill float, a small hook, and strike at the first biting of the fish.
When you wish to have your pastes of a yellow color, use a little Turmerick; when of a flesh, or salınon-color, Vermilion, or Red-lead.
Baits singularly killing to fish with. Sheeps' blood, placed on a trencher till it becomes pretty hard, then cut into small pieces, proportioned to the size of the hook ; put a little salt to it, and it will prevent its growing black. Wheat, or malt, boiled soft in milk, and the husk taken off, à good bait either in winter or summer. The ant-fly, found in June, July, August, and the beginning of September, in mole-hills or ant-nests, where they breed, take some of the earth, and the soots of the grass which grow upon it, and put all in a glass bottle, then gather some of the largest and blackest ant flies, and put them into the bote
tle; these are a deadly bait for roach, dace, and chub , you must angle with them under water, a hand's breadth from the bottom. brood of wasps, hornets, and humble-bées, are likewise very good. Also minnows, loaches, sharplings, and bull-beads. Snails, black and white; the black ones bellies slit to shew the white. Likewise cherries, blackberries, cheese kept a day or two in wet rags, which makes it tough, or steeped in a little honey. Also salmon spawn, which must be boiled till it is hard enough to stick on the hook ; and if you wish to preserve it, sprinkle a little salt over it, and get a glazed earthen pot, and put a layer of wool at the bottom of it, and then a little salmon-spawn upon that ; then wool again, and then spawn, and so proceed alternately till the pot is filled : it is a most destructive bait in the winter and spring, especially if angled with, where salmon are known to spawn ; for there every kind of fish resort in order to devour it.
Of Natural Fly-Fishing, with a Description
of Flies generally used ; and a choice Col-
heads of Dibbling, Dapeing, and Dabbing, is a method with which the largest fish are taken, and requires a deal of nicety and circumspection.
The general rule in this way of angling is to fish with a line about half the length of your rod ; but if there is wind stirring, with as much as it will carry out; but you need hardly ever fish with more than the first length, as dibbling must be performed as near as possible to the bank that you stand on; therefore a long rod and a short line is the best, which you will command with ease, and be able to shelter yourself from the sight of the fishes, behind bushes, stumps of trees, &c. The line you dib with should be very strong : for when you have struck a good fish, you will have a hard bout with him before you kill him, for want of a greater length of line : therefore, whenever I dib I always use a ringed rod, with a winch for my line fixed on it, by which means I can always keep my line to any length, without the trouble of changing it; and when I have hooked a good fish, can always give hiin as much scope as I think neçessary, and kill him with great ease and certainty ; this method I would by all means advise the angler to use, who will be thoroughly convinced of its utility at the first trial he makes. Let the top of your rod be a stiff one. see a fish rise near you, guide your fly over him immediately, and he's your own, if the fly you use is strong on the water. When
dib for chub, roach, and dace, move your fly very slow when you see them make at it, or let the stream carry it down towards them; if it be in a still, deep, shady hole, draw the fly sideways by them, and they will always eagerly pursue it. The roach takes flies the best a little under water. The best for the angler's use in this method of angling, are as follow
Oak-fly, Ash-fly, or Iloodcock-fly, Found on the body of an oak, or ash, with his head downwards in general, and near the bottom of the tree; it is a brownish fly, and is taken from the beginning of May till the end of August.
Found under hollow stones, at the side of rivers ; is of a brown color, with yellow streaks on the back and belly; has large wings, and is in season from April to July.
Green-drake, Found among stones by river sides, has a yellow body, ribbed with green, is long and flender, with wings like a butterfly, his tail turns on his back, and is easily taken from May to Midsummer ; put the point of the hook into the thickest part of his body, under one of his wings, run it directly through, and out on the other side, then take another, and put him on in the same manner, but with his head the contrary way; they will live so near a quarter of an hour.
The Green and Grey-drake, are taken both in streams and still waters, at all hours of the day, while in season ; the Stone-fly chiefly in the morning and evening.
Grey-drake, Found in general where the Green-drake is, and in shape and dimensions perfectly the same, but