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young and

our virtues to the highest point

- ignorant of perfection.

are always most violent in little churches of

pursuit. Savoyards, enveloped in trees,

ambitious are their own form touching contrast with idols, and wish for the homages their huge mountains.

of the whole world. He knew this would procure

What enemy is man to him final and satis- his own future happiness ! factory arrangement.

RULE 18.

VERBS.

(1) Active verbs govern the objective case.

I. When active transitive verbs are followed by nouns of like signification, they govern these nouns in the objective case. *

EXAMPLES.

The sinner at first loses his tion, but rest promotes regularity morals, and then, too often, his in the shape of the crystals. faith.

Man has received reason and Paganism has infested all our free-will, only to glorify the literature.

Giver. We love the truth when it

I. He lived a virtuous life, and shows itself; we hate it when it died the death of the just. shows us to ourselves.

He fought a good fight, and Motion promotes crystalliza- ' finished his course.

* Verbs meaning to ask, allow, lend, pay, teach, promise, offer, give, tell, send, and a few others when used in the active form, are generally followed by a pronoun and a noun, or two nouns, either of which may become the object of the erb; as- I taught him grammar; We paid him wages; He

fered us pardon. In each of these examples, thé pronoun is governed by a preposition understood, the noun being the direct object of the verb. But if we use such sentences without reference to the noun; as- I taught him; We paid him; He pardoned us; it is evident the pronoun, or its substitute, is the direct object of the verb.

When these verbs are used in the passive form, a noun, or a pronoun, may also become the nominative to the verb. In the sentence-"He was taught by me," he is the true nominative to the verb was taught, as no allusion is made to the subject in which he was instructed. But when that subject is introduced; as-He was taught grammar by me; then grammar, not he, is the direct nominative case to the verb; and the sentence should run thus,-Grammar was taught to him by me. The active form of this would be I taught to him grammar. The objective case of the pronoun in both these forms should remain unchanged, as it is not affected in meaning or construction, by any transposition the sentence undergoes. The same remarks will apply to sentences of a similar nature.

They wrapt the ship in splendour wild ;

They caught the flag on high;
And stream'd above the gallant child

Like banners in the sky.

EXERCISES.

Blind to ourselves, we

America us the potato. eyes but to examine others.

I also dreamed a that I A fish itself by its fins had three baskets of meal upon in water; a bird - by its my head. wings in air.

He ran the

prepared for Few the true use and him. value of time.

He slept an everlasting

RULE 19.

(2) Participles of active verbs govern the objective

case.

I. The present participle preceded by the and followed by of, or when preceded by a noun or pronoun in the possessive case, becomes a substantive.*

EXAMPLES.

A law is written on the heart What does man gain by forof man forbidding violence, in- getting or concealing truth ? justice, perfidy, and all by which I am not averse to his travelhe himself could suffer.

ling on the Continent. In rubbing two pieces of ice

I. The forming of railways is together for some time, they one of the great items in the will gradually melt.

mass of modern improvement. The thermometer is a glass

In the bending of a spring a tube containing mercury, which, gradual expenditure of power is when heated, expands and rises

necessary in the tube.

* The article the and the preposition of, must be both used or both omitted.

EXERCISES.

9

Wedges are used for s- The f- -g of an arrow masses of timber or stone. acts, in part, on the principle of

The shoulder-joint is remark- the windmill. able for c

-9 great extent The bg of light renders of motion, with great strength. precaution necessary in making

Chimneys quicken the ascent very nice geometrical observaof hot-air by k

-9 a long tions. column of it together.

-g off four In--g the Cape of Good thousand impressions per hour Hope, waves are met so vast, by the Times' printing machine, that a few ridges and a few de- is a work of great celerity. pressions occupy the extent of Great safety and convenience a mile.

have been secured by the bNo fish moves with a velocity-gof a suspension bridge across

twenty miles an hour. I the Menai Straits in Wales.

The s

RULE 20,

(3) When a verb is followed by another verb in the infinitive mood, the former governs the latter.

1. The word to is omitted before verbs in the infinitive mood which follow, bid, dare, need, make, see, hear, feel, let, have, &c. *

(4) II. The infinitive mood in different cases, supplies the place of a noun.

III. The infinitive mood, or part of a sentence, is often the subject of an affirmation, or the object of an active verb.

(1) IV. The infinitive mood is frequently governed by an adjective, a noun, a pronoun, an adverb, or a participle.

V. The present tense of the infinitive mood must be used after the imperfect tense of other moods.

* The passive form of these verbs offers an exception to this rule; as-He was made to obey the law.

(2) VI. The infinitive mood is sometimes used absolutely or independently.

VII. The present participle is also sometimes used absolutely.

EXAMPLES.

Both heat and cold are known The love of honour makes us to produce expansion in bodies. contemptible.

You labour to acquire a great To imagine we know what we name among men.

know not, is direct folly. On the death of Domitian, To desire to pass for knowing Nerva, a native of Crete, was that of which we are ignorant, is chosen to govern the Roman em- intolerable vanity. pire.

To be too fond of conversation The fat of vipers is thought to is a mark of sloth and idleness. be an excellent remedy against The virtuous love to instruct their bite.

the ignorant and console the afA solid covering like the skull flicted. was required to defend the brain. Endeavour to persevere in the

A flake of snow viewed in the blessed enterprise of a devout life. microscope, is seen to be as sym- To speak little is not to be so unmetrically formed as a swan's derstood as that we should utter feather.

but few words, but that we should I. He dares not disobey the not speak many that are unprocommands of his parents.

fitable. We need but desire virtue and IV. We are unwilling to be we possess it.

found guilty, because we We make one powerful steam- unwilling to be punished. engine do the work of a hun- Do not confine yourself to the dred horses.

knowledge of religion: be also II. To steal is sinful.

careful to practise it. To exercise promotes health.

The Georgium-Sidus requires Boys love to play.

eighty-two years to perform one No one likes to be coerced.

revolution round the sun. To obey is to serve.

Great heat would cause the To pray is an indispensable whole material universe to disduty.

appear.

John commands him to inIII. To give every one his

struct me. own is just.

He taught them to deny themTo persecute for religion is un

selyes. just and impious. To instruct the ignorant is the

V. The vain pharisee judged duty of the learned.

the humble publican to be a great sinner.

are

Cato killed himself to avoid appearing before his enemy.

VI. To tell you the truth, I cannot answer your question.

Po acknowledge his guilt, I exhorted him in vain.

VII. Properly speaking, I should not have said so.

Acting correctly, he should not have gone there.

EXERCISES.

-e

A very slight declivity suffices conduct of others, and careless

the running motion to in correcting his own. water.

The danger of keeping bad The art of writing to company arises, principally, from have been known in Greece, our own aptness to : when Homer composed the Iliad and catch the manners and sen. and Odyssey.

timents of others. The discovery of the telescope We acknowledge virtue is said

accidentally the richest treasure of the soul, made by the children of a Dutch and yet take very little pains spectacle-maker.

to a- it. To judge from your conduct, Coach horses are much spared and from your expressions, you by being made to g- up a

no account of eter- short hill, and then allowed nity.

more slowly for a little time. I bid my servant this, Birds and beasts began and he doth it.

habitations before man. Man is curious to knw the

seem

RULE 21.

(3) The verb To Be, through all its variations, has the same case after it, that it has before it.*

1. Some neuter verbs, and passive verbs which signify naming, are followed by a nominative case.

* The noun or part of a sentence, (for either may constitute this case) which follows the verb To be, must be identical with that which precedes it; both must consequently be in the same case. There are, however, some sentences in which the word that follows the verb is not identical with that which precedes it, and therefore cannot be parsed as if they were synonymous. Sentences of this nature are like the following: The tree is six feet long; The river is twenty yards wide; The book is worth a shilling. Here tree and feet, river

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