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Like the leaves of the forest when summer is green,
That host with their banners at sunset seen;
Like the leaves of the forest when autumn hath blown,
That host on the morrow withered and strown.

RULE 7.

(4) There can be no verb without a nominative case, except the infinitive mood; nor can there be a nominative case without a verb, except the case absolute,* and a noun of address.

EXAMPLES.

It is a great error to imagine | atmospbere must be below the that bodily labour is injurious to level of its summit. health.

Chili being situated between Beauty, to have a good grace, the parallels of 24° and 44°, its must be neglected.

climate must be free from the When the peacock spreads his , extremes of heat and cold. tail to admire himself, he ruffles O Art! wide and extensive is the rest of his feathers and dis- the reach of thy dominion. covers his deformities.

Paul, thou art beside thyself: Mount Blanc being nearly six- much learning doth make thee teen thousand feet high, half the 'mad.

And shouted but once more aloud,

My father! must I stay ?”
While o'er him fast, through sail and shroud,

The wreathing fires made way.

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EXERCISES.

Achab desired

Reputation is but a sign Naboth's vineyard justly, which out where virtue is. Naboth more justly desired to The tide

to seventykeep.

one feet at Cumberland Head, Scipio

conquered Fundy Bay, makes that the high. Hannibal, Africa became a Ro. est tide on the globe. man province.

* The case absolute is formed by a nominative, and a participle occupying the place of the verb ; as, Virtue being lost, faith is endangered. Such sentences may be easily changed into the ordinary form; as, When virtue is lost, faith is en langered.

He taught us how to live; and oh, too high,
The price of knowledge, taught us how to

RULE S.

(1) The subject or nominative precedes the verb in all cases except

1. When the sentence is either interrogative or imperative;

II. When the subjunctive form of the verb begins the sentence;

III. When the verb is accompanied by the adverbs here, there, then, thence, thus, yet, so, &c.

IV. When the expression is emphatic.

EXAMPLES.

I. Are there not many who

III. Here is true virtue to be linger under indigence, sickness, found. and trouble?

T'here is nothing that interests Were not the charter of British man more than eternal salvation. freedom and the common law of Thus has it ended. England established in Catholic So varied are opinions that it times ?

is hard to decide. II. Were we as ready to ex

There are three species of cuse our neighbours as ourselves, bear in America : the brown, the we would truly love them.

black, and the white. Had not copper vessels been IV. Great was his thirst for lined with tin, the food prepared knowledge. in them might be impregnated How wonderful is the power with that poisonous metal. by which the universe exists !

EXERCISES.

not water expand by | ature preserved by Catholics cold from forty degrees to the during the middle ages? freezing point ?

not ashamed of pracnot science and liter- / tising virtuous actions.

Acknowledge frankly that you

has it occurred ? rather die than commit a

are two hundred and mortal sin.

forty-eight hones in the human not St. Stephen body. prayed, would St. Paul have rapidly do some trains been in the Church?

go, that they equal the speed of comes John with a racer, or at the rate of 40 miles good news.

per hour.

Fallen thy throne, Israel !

Silence is o'er thy plains;
Thy dwellings all lie desolate,

T'hy children weep in chains.

RULE 9.

NOUNS AND PRONOUNS.

(2) A noun or pronoun in the possessive case is governed by the substantive which denotes the thing possessed.

I. When the name of the possessor is a compound word; or when the names of several possessors follow each other, the sign of the possessive case is attached only to the last mentioned word. But when other words intervene, or common property is to be expressed, the sign of the possessive case is annexed to each.

(3) II. When a sentence consists of a name and an office, the possessive case is affixed to the name.

III. When the apostrophe causes a hissing or unpleasant sound, or conveys an ambiguous meaning; or when a noun of multitude is used, the possessive case may be better expressed by the preposition of.

(4) IV. When a sentence, or clause of a sentence, beginning with a present participle, is used to express one name or circumstance, the noun or pronoun may be put in the genitive case.

EXAMPLES

From the time of Constantine's II. The manuscript was left conversion, Christianity became at Powells, the printer. the religion of the Roman em- He left the printed sheets at pire.

Bellew's, the book-binder. Heresies spring from the III. The rod of Moses was pride and perversity of man's turned into a serpent. heart.

The juice of apples is called The scorpion's oil is deemed an cider. infallible remedy for its sting. The will of the people was

Two drachms by weight of a manifested on that occasion. spider's web, would reach from

IV. The blow of a hammer is London to Edinburgh.

not heard in a vacuum, if care 1. Julius Cæsar's commenta be taken to prevent the shock's ries were written by himself.

being communicated through the I followed my father, mother, adjacent solid bodies. and sister's advice.

The report occasioned by a He recorded the judge's, the cannon's being placed on ice, is barrister's, and the solicitor's carried much farther by the ice opinion.

than by the air around.

EXERCISES.

er.

The draft of a chimney is becomes an uninterrupted prayproportioned to length.

M--,--, and Edw- By attending to order he books were stolen.

avoided idleness. The sound produced by a An eclipse of the sun is a nafwing is supposed to be tural effect, produced by the the voice of the insect.

coming between that The loudness of sound con- luminary and the earth. veyed by air, depends on the The

roar is preceded density.

by the flash. The just m whole life

By the

springing a-leak the cargo was lost.

m

But lo! the dome! the vast and wondrous dome,

To which Diana's marvel was a cell;
Christ's mighty shrine above his mar-

tomb!
I have beheld the Ephesian miracle.

RULE 10.

Pronouns agree with their antecedents or correlatives, and with the nouns for which they stand, in gender, number, and person.

(1) I. When the correlative is a sentence or part of a sentence, the pronoun it is used.

II. When nouns or personal pronouns are added to other words to explain them, they are put in the same case, and said to be in apposition to them.

(2) III. The relative should point out its antecedent or correlative so explicitly, as to prevent ambiguity or confusion in referring to it.

IV. No relative can be without a correlative expressed or understood.

EXAMPLES.

On the fall of Nero, Galba, some supposed to have invented who commanded in Spain, letters. mounted the imperial throne. III. Pride, which is the begin

The impression which a favour ning of all sin, is also the con. makes on the heart of man, is summation of it. too apt to wear away.

Smoke consists of the dust and Religion is the star that guides visible particles which are sepato heaven.

rated from the fuel without being I. It is a truth confirmed by burnt. experience, that charitable fumi- One of the Persian kings, who lies prosper.

was very vain, is said to have It is proverbial, that corner worn a golden beard. houses, or those at the end of a

IV. There are boats used in row, are smoky.

China, called-snake boats, which II. Learning, the great accom- are only a foot or two in breadth, plishment of the human mind, and perhaps a hundred feet in is often made its bane.

length. Memnon, the Egyptian, is by What is the life of a sinner but

an anticipated hell!
To mangay, smiling, thoughtless man–I went,

And asked him next: he turned a scornful eye,
Shook his proud head, and deigned me no reply.

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