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mises, commands, or threatens ; as—They shall be paid ; Thou shalt not steal; Thou shalt not be pardoned. Will

, in the first person, intimates resolution and promise ; as--I will not allow it; I will reward him : will, in the second and third persons, generally foretells or affirms; as-He will be well; Thou wilt be happy; He will not perform his work.

(3) Will, used interrogatively, in the second and third persons, generally implies resolution or expectation ;

-Will you permit me to go ? Will he return ?

Shall, used interrogatively in the first and third persons, intimates duty or obligation ; as—

-Shall I go ? Shall he go ?

(4) Shall, in the second person, and will in the first person, when used interrogatively, are incorrect; asWill I go? Shall you go o ? Both are sometimes used, but never with propriety.

I shall do it, implies a sense of duty or obligation; 1 will do it, implies choice or determination.

as

EXERCISES.

the scholars get a holi. You be too late. day?

the general review the the queen visit Ireland ? | troops ? the judge attend the court

not change his conduct. to-day?

He - not return. we go to walk ?

They return. She

you leave town to-day?

He

not go.

This is not all:--Patroclus on the shore
Now pale and dead, succour Greece no more.
Myself and my bold brother sustain
The shock of Hector and his charging train.

DERIVATION.

are

(1) DERIVATION teaches the origin and primary signification of words. * Words are derived from one another in many ways:

I. Nouns derived from nouns; as—baroness from baron; widowhood from widow; partnership from partner; foolery from fool; kingdom from king; physician from physic; hillock from hill.

(2) II. Nouns are derived from adjectives; as-mildness from mild; freedom from free; refulgence from refulgent (by changing nt into nce).

III. Nouns are derived from verbs; as-equipage from equip; instruction from instruct; reaper from reap. .

(3) IV. Adjectives are derived from nouns; as angelic from angel; healthy from health ; golden from gold; peaceful from peace; sensible from sense ; motionless from motion; childish from child.

V. Adjectives are derived from adjectives and verbs; as—whitish from white ; greenish from green ; corrective from to correct; answerable from to answer. (4) VI. Verbs are derived from nouns; as

habituate from habit; breathe from breath.

VII. Verbs are derived from adjectives; as--widen from wide; soften from soft.

VIII. Adverbs are derived from adjectives and participles; as-sweetly from sweet; mincingly from mincing.

* See School Expositor, Third Reading Book, or Literary Class Book, for Saxon, English, Latin, and Greek prefixes, affixes, and roots of words.

64

SYNTAX.

(1) SYNTAX* treats of the connexion of words; and includes the nature and structure, as well as the arrangement and punctuation, of sentences.

A SENTENCE is any number of words connected together, so as to make complete sense.

Every sentence must consist of two principal parts,the Subject and Predicate.

(2) The SUBJECT expresses the person or thing spoken of; the PREDICATE declares something of the subject.

Sentences are of three kinds,- Simple, Complex, and Compound.

A SIMPLE sentence contains one nominative case and one verb;(a) or consists of one subject and one predicate;

(3) A COMPLEX sentence consists of two or more subjects with one predicate;(6) two or more predicates with one subject ;(c) or two or more subjects with two or more predicates.(d)

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Syntax is derived from (G.) sun, or syn, together, and taxis, (from tasso, I put or arrange,) order, arrangement.

The subject and predicate may each consist of one or more words; asSub.

Pred. Water

flows. Exercise

preserves health. A neglected cold

may produce a serious disease. The condition of the wicked is truly miserable.

EXAMPLES

(a) Life is uncertain.
(b) Science and literature should be cultivated.

(c) Pharaoh assembled his troops, put himself at their head, and marched in pursuit of the Israelites.

(d) The lever and wheel and axle, are mechanical powers, and modifications of the same principle.

A COMPOUND sentence is formed of simple(a) or of complex(b) sentences, or of a mixture(c) of both.

Sentences are Affirmative,(d) Interrogative,(e) Negative, (f) or Imperative.(g)

(4) Every sentence which forms a part of a compound sentence is called a clause, Two or more clauses form a member.

An Idiom is a form of speech peculiar to a language, and cannot be literally translated into any other language.

That part of Syntax which treats of the agreement of words with each other in gender, number, person, and case, is called CONCORD.

(1) GOVERNMENT is the power which one word has over another in directing its mood, tense, and case.

The parts of speech which agree with one another are,—the noun with the pronoun and adjective;(h) and the verb with its nominative case.(i)

The parts of speech which govern others are,--the verb, (j) participle,(k) and preposition.(1)

(a) Moses stretches his rod over the sea, and a passage is opened to the Israelites.

(b) In Nubia, every town and large village has its chief, who exercises to the utmost whatever power or authority he possesses.

(c) The ruins of Thebes and Tentyra are very extensive, and surpass all others in Egypt.

(d) All human comfort is vain and transient.

(e) What hath pride profited us? or what advantage hath the boasting of riches brought us ?

o Galileo was never condemned, nor persecuted, nor eren arraigned, on account of his astronomical opinions.

(9) Let curiosities alone. Remember thy last end. (h) This book—these books ; one boy-two boys. (i) He learns-we learn ; this man is he of whom I spoke. (j) I taught him. (k) Knowing him. (1) He gave it to me.

RULES OF SYNTAX.

SUBJECT AND VERB.

RULE ).

(2) The verb and its nominative case must always be of the same number and person.*

1. When the nominative case denotes but one object, the verb is singular.

EXAMPLES.

The tongue of the slanderer man believes he always gives tov is a devouring fire that withers much. all it touches.

When I stir my finger I do Base interest opposes brother not know how what I do myself to brother, and friend to friend. is done. Old age hardens the infidel in A mixture of tin, zinc, and

lead, melts in boiling water. Touch is the universal sense Explosion of gunpowder is reof animals.

pulsion among the particles when Time is regulated by the mo- assuming the form of air. tions of the heavenly bodies. The strength of spirit is pro.

The liberal man never thinks portioned to its lightness. he gives enough : the avaricious

sin.

EXERCISES.

Oil floats in water, but Logic accurate reason. in alcohol.

ing. The pressure of steam v The fire of the most intense with the intensity of the furnace. furnace but a painted fire

Trial by jury instituted in comparison with that of hell. by King Alfred.

The enchantment of worldly Butler, the author of the pleasures

- quickly away. poem of Hudibras,

in want. The flame of a lamp or canThe folly of appearing gay dle merely the oil, wax, or

only supportable in youth. tallow converted into gas.
A Christian martyr loves his
tormentors, and prays for -

1
I saw thee stray forlorn, and

thee faintly cry,
And on the tree of scorn, for thee I deigned to die.

* As the number and person of the verb are derived from the nominative case, these are the only properties common to both, and, consequently, those only in which they can agree.

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