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desk, or near the desk; above the desk; below the desk; in motion towards the desk; from the desk, &c. Here again the very existence of the noun includes the necessity of prepositions.

This intimate comexion of the parts of speech with one another is well worth the attention of the Teacher, who may, by examples suited to the capacities of his pupils, carry out this brief notice, to any necessary extent. And as no member of the body can be in. dependent of the others, so no part of speech can exist without the rest, if we except the interjection, which some grammarians do not rank as a part of speech, and which, from its nature, must be unconnected with any word.

Conjunctions are the links which bind words together to form sentences. They are absolutely necessary in grammar to connect single words and parts of sentences together; and although we cannot join them to the verb or noun like the other parts of speech, yet they can no more exist without them than the adjective without the noun, or the adverb without the verb: for there could not be links, were there no objects to be joined by them. Though conjunctions do not bear that kind of relation to the verb or noun that adjectives and adverbs do, still they could not subsist without them.

Thus these different groups of words depend mutually upon each other; and, like the genera of natural history, so insensibly does one glide into the other, that it is difficult in many cases to determine the limits of each class. The same word not unfrequently becomes an adverb, a conjunction, and a preposition. An objective case placed after certain prepositions, deprives them of their adverbial or conjunctive appearance. Adjectives and abverbs so nearly approach that it often becomes difficult to determine to which certain words belong. The verb glides into the participle, the participle into the adjective, and the adjective often so nearly approximates the noun, as in some instances to make it a matter of indifference to which it is attached. Pronouns, and adjectives derived from pronouns, are sometimes so closely related that grammarians feel often at a loss in which class certain words

should be included. The leading features of each part of speech are, however, so distinct, that cases which involve either difficulty or doubt in the mind of an experienced grammarian, very rarely occur ; but as individual opinion is less liable to be checked in language than in positive science, grammar is, on that account, more obnoxious to arbitrary opinions than any other department of science or literature.


Article and Noun.

A tree.

The sea.
A field.

The city.
An angel.

The flowers.
An angle.

A house.

An ocean.

Article, Adjective, and Noun.
A good book.

A loving child. An honest man.

A circular opening. A finer landscape.

A cubical figure. The mildest season.

A square pyramid. The best boy.

An unwholesome atmosphere. The coldest day.

The first six boys. A worse horse.

The last two days. A wiser student.

A tall old man. A little portion.

A well-tried friend. A slothful scholar.

The temperance pledge. The greater sum.

The English language. An evil hour.

The Irish character. A delightful prospect.

The Spanish nation. A disinterested person.

An Italian manuscript. An evening walk.

The supreme court. A pleasing appearance.

The everlasting church A lovely scene.

Pronoun, Verb, &c. I am well.

He is good. Thou art bappy.

She is prudent.

It is imperfect.

It will be fine. We love reading.

You will not stay. You are submissive.

We shall come. They are attentive.

He might have helped them. You are troublesome.

They may have followed. I teach him.

They might consider. I will teach him.

We could not give it. Thou mayest do it.

They ought to find He can annoy us.

He must return them. She saw them.

I should have taught him. It torments me.

We are instructed. Thou commandest him.

They will be comforted. He assists them.

He is being taught. It troubles you.

Thou art being watched. We instruct them.

We are being followed. You did condemn it.

It is being built. They will employ us.

It was being built. He consoles them.

I did the work. I am alone.

Had we gone there. Thou wert solicitous.

He is gone out. He is a scholar.

He went out. He has been thinking.

We shall have done it. She had been there.

I am grown old. Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, &c. I knew him formerly to be well | Alas! have not your sins, like

conducted; latterly I have no those of Nineve, called for knowledge of him.

vengeance ? With the worship of fire, that of Whence comes it then, that

water was usually joined by eternity is so seldom thought the gentiles.

of? Ireland, at no very remote pe- Now is the time for thee to see

riod, must have been abun- and examine how stands thy dantly wooded.

soul. Great minds are easy in prospe. How mean a figure will the

rity, and quiet in adversity. great ones of this life make, Fundamental truths can never who shall be placed at the left

be too familiarly explained. hand of the great Judge ! Fool-hardiness should never be Quarrels are generally the offmistaken for courage.

spring of pride. There go men in pursuit of Nero. Reptiles are separated into four Vice is infamous, though in a divisions, namely, chelonia,

prince, and virtue honourable, sauria, ophidia, and batrachia. though in a peasant.

Try particularly to remember The good Christian will patiently those points in which you are

and courageously endure the wrong, lest you fall into the labours of this life.

same error again.

There is no sense through which

we acquire knowledge more

speedily than through that of hearing.

Examples in which the same word becomes a different

part of speech.

I esteem him, for he is uniformly | Man wants but little here below, virtuous.

nor wants that little long. Were it not for him, we could Little children please and fatigue not bave succeeded.

themselves with running after For is sometimes a conjunction, butterflies.

though generally a preposition. Air or gas is totally devoid of Calms frequently occur in the any cohesive attraction.

Atlantic Ocean, opposite the Air pipes are absolutely necesCoast of Guinea.

sary for the close cabins of He who calms his passions, is

steam-boats. truly a conqueror.

Air your clothes before you wear Wemust fight continually against

them, or you will catch cold. our vices and passions.

Cold days frequently occur in

summer. Cock fights are cruel sports,

which should be discounte- Chalk is composed of carbonic nanced.

acid and lime. The battle of Waterloo continued Chalk the line that it may be for three days.

distinctly seen. A battlefield presents sight Oppression is ever accompanied

calculated to create the most by fear. painful feelings.

They fear to do evil. The incredulous Jews beheld Spring hushes the stormy winds,

the progress of Christianity discloses the flowers, and prowith an evil eye.

mises the fruits. As soon as a child has the first A certain degree of warmth and

idea of evil, he hides himself moisture is necessary to make to commit it.

seeds spring up. If water be cooled to a low de- Hail is nothing but drops of rain

gree, it will shoot into crystals frozen in the atmosphere. and form ice.

Hail him, and tell him to return Quicksilver takes every form one speedily.

wishes to give it, but finally Sea petrifactions are found in reassumes its own natural

great abundance all over the fluid state.

world. Our wishes should correspond The Mediterranean sea, with with our wants.

its branches, is larger than

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all the other European seas to- Train up a child to virtue, and gether.

he will not depart from it. The cure which is made lei. A ship carpenter is, at present,

surely is always the most per- a bad trade in Ireland. fect.

The ship, Caledonia, is a firstTo cure pulmonary diseases is rate man of war. exceedingly difficult.

He purchased cattle to ship them Charity never enters the heart

for England. without bringing all other virtues in her train.



first part

He has violent head-ache. adjective cannot be conjuShe has new book.

gated. It is shame to be idle. Classification is I have apple.

of Etymology. What bold act.

Russia is largest empire; Have you seen - Lakes of China most populous; Killarney?

Great Britain

most Did he pass Alps ?

wealthy. He paid debt unwillingly.

virtuous are

most He is obedient child.

happy. trees are covered with blos- wicked are miserable. soms.

He opened

valve and He came from Dublin by

steam came out. ten o'clock train.

star, Sirius, gives twice as Every object has name. much light as noun has no tense.

ship, Caledonia, carries one verb has no case.

hundred and twenty guns.

Ellipsis of Nouns. A quadruped has four

is the greatest of all vir. A biped has two

tues. High - are covered with Faith without good

is perpetual snow, and some- dead. times with glaciers.

The Mediterranean is the largest The is the largest of land of the European animals.

The is the largest river is the most valuable of in Ireland. all metals.


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