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which is indeterminate, until another word is added ; asI will read.

Present. Slay Sleep Slide Sling Slink Slit, R. Smite Sow, R. Speak Speed Spend Spill, R. Spin Spit Split, R. Spread Spring Stand Steal Stick Sting Stink Stride Strike String Strive Strew or strow, R. Swear Sweat Sweep Swell, R. Swim Swing Take Teach Tear Tell Think Thrive Throw

Past. slew slept slid slung, slang slunk, slank slit, slitted smote sowed spoke, spake sped spent spilt, spilled spun, span spit, spat split, splitted spread sprung, sprang stood stole stuck stung stunk, stank strode, strid struck strung strove strewed, strowed swore, sware sweat swept swelled swam, swum swung, swang took taught tore, tare told thought throve, thrived threw

Perf. Part. slain slept slidden slung slunk slit, slitted smitten, smit sown, sowed spoken sped spent spilt, spilled spun spit, spitten split, splitted spread sprung stood stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck, stricken strung striven strown, strewed,

strowed Sworn sweat swept swelled, swollen swum swung taken taught torn told thought thriven thrown


(4) ADVERBS bear a similar relation to verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs, that adjectives do to nouns; and can in some instances be compared like adjectives; asm nobly, more nobly, most nobly; soon, sooner, soonest.

Adverbs are generally contractions of sentences, or clauses of sentences, and express in one word, what otherwise would require two or more words; as—mildly, denotes, in a mild manner. *

Wax, R.
Work, R.
Wring, R.
Writhe, R.

trod, trode
wound, winded
wrought, worked
wrung, wringed
wrote, writ

Perf. Part.
waxed, waxen
wrought, worked
wrung, wringed
written, writ
writhen, writhed



Perf. Part.

could Forego

foregone May

might Must

must Ought

ought Quoth

quoth Shall

should Will

would Wis

wist Wit or wot

wot * Adverbs are divided into a variety of classes ;-the following are the principal:

I. Of QUALITY or MANNER, formed by adding ly to certain adjectives; as - sharp, sharply ; sober, soberly.

II. ORDER; as--firstly, secondly, thirdly.

(1) Adverbs generally follow verbs, but precede adjectives; as-He labours diligently; very bad.


PREPOSITIONS are, for the most part, but contractions or combinations of other words, They require an objective case after them, and may, in many instances, be considered as adverbs, when the object is omitted. They generally show the position or local situation of the noun with respect to some other object. *


(2) CONJUNCTIONS are divided into two classes, copulative and disjunctive.

III. TIME;-now, to-day, yesterday, before, already, heretofore, lately, hitherto, long ago, then, ever, never.

IV. QUANTITY;much, little, enough, how much, how great, &c.

V. PLACE;—here, there, where, hither, thither, whither, hence, thence, &c.

VI. AFFIRMATION ;-certainly, truly, doubtless, yes, yea, &c.
VII. NEGATION ;-nay, no, not, by no means, &c.
VIII. INTERROGATION;-how, why, where, when, wherefore, &c.
IX. EXPLAINING;_namely, to wit, as, &c.

X. EQUALITY and INEQUALITY ;-so, thus, as, alike, else, otherwise, &c.

XI. Excess and DEFECT;-very, exceedingly, too, too much, more, better, mostly, almost, less, nearly, &c.

XII. SEPARATIVE and CONJUNCTIVE ;-apart, away, asunder, together, jointly, &c.

XII. CONTINGENCY or Doubt ;-perhaps, peradventure, possibly, perchance, &c. * The principal prepositions arem

Above, about, after, against, amidst, among, around, at, before, below, beneath, behind, beyond, beside, between, by, from, for, in, into, near, nigh, of, off, on, over, round, through, to, throughout, towards, under, underneath, until, with, within, without, &c.

The Conjunction COPULATIVE connects or continues a sentence, by expressing an addition, a supposition, a cause, &c.; as, He learns his lesson because he is attentive. *

(3) The Conjunction DISJUNCTIVE connects the sentence, and also expresses opposition of meaning in different degrees; asThough you were created without your concurrence, yet you will not be saved without your concurrence.t.

INTERJECTIONS. (4) The principal interjections are, 0,1 oh, ah, alas, alack, hush, hurra, hark, lo, ha, adieu. Other words, as verbs, adjectives, adverbs, &c., become interjections, when uttered as exclamations; as—hail ! away! strange! nonsense! folly!


And, because, both, for, if, since, then, that, therefore, and wherefore, belong to this class.

+ The disjunctive conjunctions are

As, but, either, lest, neither, nor, notwithstanding, yet, than, or, unless, though, &c.

“ As there are many conjunctions and connective phrases appropriated to the coupling of sentences, that are never employed in joining the members of a sentence, so there are several conjunctions appropriated to the latter use, which are never employed in the former, and some that are equally adapted to both these purposes ; as- - again, farther, besides, &c., of the first kind; than, unless, that, so that, &c., of the second ; and, but, for, therefore, &c., of the last."

“In writing, the interjections O and oh are sometimes improperly used, the one for the other. When a person, place, or thing, is spoken to, the interjection 0 ought to be used; but the interjection oh, when a violent or painful emotion of the mind is expressed."




A noun is the only part of speech which expresses a distinct idea, without the help of any other word. It may, indeed, be regarded as the basis of all the other parts of speech, as they all, in some measure, depend upon it, and are so connected with each other, as to render the independent existence of any one of them almost impossible. A noun cannot exist without possessing some qualities or properties; hence, there can be no noun without adjectives to express those qualities: and as properties or qualities cannot exist without the substantives to which they are attached, so there could be no adjectives were there not nouns or substantives with which they might be connected.

Pronouns being used instead of nouns, must evidently depend upon them; and had there been no nouns, there could be no pro

Verbs must have been coeval with nouns; for the action or energy, which nouns must necessarily exercise, can be expressed only by verbs. Nouns and verbs are therefore so connected with each other, that no one of them could possibly be without the other. The noun is the subject of the being, action, or suffering, which the verb expresses; and as every noun must be in some one of those states, it follows that no one of those states could be conceived to exist without the noun. The verb, then, could not be without the noun, nor could the noun have existence without the verb,

As the chief use of adverbs is to modify the verb, verbs must be accompanied by adverbs. The adverb indicates the quality of the action, or the manner in which that is performed which the verb is made to express; as—he reads correctly. Here the verb reads is qualified by the adverb correctly; and thus are adverbs inseparably united with the parts of speech already noticed. Prepositions would seem to denote those relations to place or position which nouns are known to hold when referred to other objects; as—The book is on the desk, or in the desk, or over the desk, or under the

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