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Sing. Brother,

Plur. brothers—when sons of the same parent ; brethren—when of the same society. dies— stamps for coining; dice-little cubes used in games. sindices-exponents of algebraic quantities; indexes tables of contents.

Die,

Index,*

GENDER.

(4) GENDER is the distinction of sex.

In English, there are three genders,—the Masculine, the Feminine, and the Neuter.

The Masculine denotes the male sex; the Feminine, the female sex; the Neuter, all inanimate objects.

(1) Things naturally neuter, are sometimes rendered masculine or feminine; but, whenever this is done, we are understood to use figurative language.

* Nouns adopted without alteration from foreign languages, retain their original plurals :Singular. Plural. Singular.

Plural. Antithesis, G. Antitheses

Genus,

Genera
Animalculum, L. Animalcula Hypothesis, G. Hypotheses
Apex, L.

Apices
Ignis fatuus, L.

Ignes fatui
Appendix, L. Appendices Lamina, L.

Lamine Arcanum, L. Arcana

Magus, L.

Magi Automaton, G. Automata

Medium, L.

Media Axis, L.

Axes

Memorandum, L. Memoranda Basis, G.

Bases

Metamorphosis, G. Metamorphoses Bandit or banditto, I. Banditti

Phenomenon, G. Phenomena
Beau, F.

Beaux
Radius, L.

Radii
Calx, L.

Calces

Seraph, Heb. Seraphim Cherub, Heb. Cherubim Stimulus, L.

Stimuli
Crisis, G.

Crises
Stratum, L.

Strata
Criterion, G.

Criteria

Terminus, L. Termini
Datum, L.

Data
Thesis, G.

Theses
Effluvium, L. Effuvia

Vertex, L.

Vertices Ellipsis, G. Ellipses

Virtuoso, 1.

Virtuosi
Erratum, L.

Errata
Vortex, L.

Vortices.
Focus, L.

Foci

The sex of nouns is distinguished, first,by different words ; as Boy girl

Lord lady Brother sister

Man

woman Father mother

Nephew niece King queen

Uncle aunt Son daughter Sir

madam (2) Second,-- by a difference of termination ; as Baron baroness

Lion lioness Duke duchess

Testator testatrix
Hero heroine

Widower widow
Third,- by prefixing another word; as-
A man-servant; a male child; a female child.

CASE.

(3) The Cases of nouns mark the different relations they have to other words.

In English there are three cases, the Nominative, the Possessive, and the Objective.

The NOMINATIVE Case is the agent, or the subject of discourse; as—God has created the universe; gold is the most unalterable of all bodies.

(4) The POSSESSIVE Case denotes possession or property, and generally has an apostrophe with the letter s after it; as -The moon's influence on our globe is next to that of the sun.

The OBJECTIVE Case expresses the object of an action or of a relation, and follows a transitive verb, an

*

* When the noun terminates in s, ss, ce, the possessive case is formed by adding only the apostrophe; as—the holy Fathers' writings, for righteousness' sake, for conscience' sake.

active participle, or a preposition; asThe Almighty punished Heli for not reprimanding his sons with sufficient severity. (1) Nouns are thus declined :Sing. Plur.

Sing. Plur. Nom. Father Fathers N. Man Men Poss. Father's Fathers' P. Man's Men's Obj. Father Fathers 0. Man Men.

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ADJECTIVES.

(2) Adjectives may be divided into Common, Proper, Numeral, Pronominal, and Verbal.

Common Adjectives denote common qualities; as good, wise, great.

PROPER Adjectives denote peculiar qualities; asEnglish, Irish, Scotch.

(3) NUMERAL Adjectives express number, and are divided into Cardinals; as-one, two, &c.; Ordinals ; as—first, second, &c.; Multipliers ; as-single, double, &c.; Compound, as-biennial, triennial, &c.

PRONOMINAL Adjectives, which are sometimes joined to nouns, and sometimes used alone, are divided into Distributives, Demonstratives, and Indefinites.

(4) VERBAL, or Participial Adjectives, are such as terminate like participles, in ing or ed; as—loving child, inviting prospects, charming days, animated expressions.

Adjectives which denote qualities susceptible of increase or diminution, admit of comparison.

(1) There are three degrees of comparison,—the Positive, the Comparative, and the Superlative.

The Positive degree is the simple form of the adjective; as-wise.

The COMPARATIVE denotes a greater or less degree of the quality expressed by the positive; as—wiser, more wise ; less wise.

(2) The SUPERLATIVE denotes the greatest or least degree of that quality ; as—wisest or most wise ; least wise.

Monosyllables are generally compared by the affixes r or er, and st or est; as- -fierce, fiercer, fiercest; mild, milder, mildest.

Words of more than one syllable are generally compared by the adverbs more and most, and sometimes by less and least ; as—angry, more angry, most angry ; agreeable, less agreeable, least agreeable.

(3) Adjectives which do not form their degrees by any fixed rule, are said to be irregularly compared ;* as

* The Adjectives which do not admit of comparison are-1. All words expressive of shape or figure; as, circular, square, triangular, cubical, straight, perpendicular. II. Those derived from proper names; as, English, Irish, Spanish. III. Numeral, which are divided into Cardinal; as, one, two, three, &c.; and Ordinal; as, first, second, third, &c. IV. Multiplicative; as, single, double, treble. V. All those whose simple forms imply the highest or lowest degree; as, chief, universal, perfect, eternal, immortal, omnia potent. VI. Such as cannot be increased or diminished; as, like, similar, boundless, lifeless, true, gold, polar, atmospheric, catholic, main. VII. Words which are commonly used as nouns; as, blocktin, sheet-iron, cast-iron, silver-watch, gold-chain, standard-silver, steel-wire, bell-metal, &c. VIII. Pronominal adjectives, or such as are derived from pronouns; as the distributives, each, every, either, neither; the demonstratives, this, that, with their plurals, these, those ; yon, yonder, former, and latter ; and the indefinites, some, other, any, one, all, such, none, both, several, sundry, divers,

same.

The demonstratives, former and latter; and the indefinites, other and one, are sometimes used as nouns, and declined as such.

Pos.

Comp.
Above superior
Bad, evil, ill worse
Beneath nether
Far

farther 'Fore, before former (4) Good

better
Head
'Hind, behind hinder
In

inner
Little

less
'Low, below lower
Middle

Much, many* more (1) Near

nearer Nigh nigher Old

older, elder Out

outer

prior Top

under Up

utter

Super.
supreme
worst
nethermost
farthest
foremost, first
best
headmost
hindmost
inmost
least
lowest
middlemost
most
nearest, next
nighest
oldest, eldest
outmost
prime
topmost
undermost
uppermost
uttermost, or
utmost

upper

ARTICLES.

(2) A or an, and the, are called articles, to distinguish them from the other more emphatic words of similar import; namely, one, that, these, those, of which they are evidently but contractions.

* Much is applicable to things weighed or measured ; many, to things numbered.

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