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The verses with four feet are also frequently used; as
Earth has nothing | sweeter | fairer,
Lovelier / forms or beauties rarer. The Anapestic verse has the accent on every third syl
lable, and like the lambic and Trochaic, is of various lengths. It takes additional syllables at the end, and frequently commences with an Iambic or Trochaic foot.
With one Iambic Foot.
My right there is none | to dispute ;
I am lord of the fowl, and the brute. By the admission of secondary feet, and by the judicious intermixture of principal ones, poetry may varied almost without limit.
EXERCISES. And its zone of dark hills-oh! to see them all brightning, When the tempest flings out its red banner of lightning; And the waters rush down, ʼmid the thunder's deep rattle, Like clans from their hills at the voice of the battle ; And brightly the fire-crested billows are gleaming, And wildly from Mullagh the eagles are screaming.
The boy stood on the burning deck,
Whence all but he had fled;
Shone round him o'er the dead.
More cruel far
Against a people who oppose,
On the cloud after tempests, as shineth the bow;
Than if day in its pride had array'd it;
Look'd pure as the spirit that made it:
On the shadowy waves' playful motion, From the dim distant hill, till the light-house fire blazed,
Like a star in the 'midst of the ocean.
The faded palm-branch in his hand
Show'd pilgrim from the Holy Land.
When he who sheds them inly feels
Effaced by every drop that steals.
Fall dark to earth and never rise;
In light exhalement reach the skies.
Home to folds of joy and peace ?
I bave brought but the palm-branch in my band,
Yet I call not my bright youth lost !
But, bark of eternity,
Where art thou now?
O'er each plunge of thy prow;
Thus shatter'd and tost;
If I lose thee, I'm lost.
Their own Italian shore;
Seems like a home no more.
Amid his native seas,
Upon our olive trees.
A flood of glory bursts from all the skies !
Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note,
As his corse to the rampart we hurried ;
O'er the grave where our hero we buried.
POETICAL LICENSE. The difficulty of arranging words in poetical measure, authorises certain violations of the ordinary rules of grammar. The following are the principal : I. Words are frequently transposed ; as
Oh! might I breathe morn's dewy breath,
When June's sweet sabbath's chime. II. Some words are lengthened, others are abridged ;
Presumptuous Xerxes next with efforts vain,
To curb the billows and the sea enchain.
But the long winding-sheet and the fringe of the shroud. III. Two words are sometimes contracted into one ; as
To riches ? Alas! 'tis in vain :
Who hid, in their turn have been hid;
For here, in the grave, are all metals forbid,
Save the tinsel that shines on the dark coffin-lid. IV. Adjectives are often used instead of adverbs ;
Scarce has the warrior time his sword to wield,
Or breathe awhile, or lift the fencing shield. V. The imperfect tense and past participle are used for each other ; as
The mother seats her by her pensive son,
She prest his hand, and tender thus begun. VI. When conjunctions are used with corresponding conjunctions, nor is often put for neither, and or for either; as
Nor love, nor joy, nor hope, nor fear,
Has left one trace or record here.
Or let me lift thee, chief, or lift thou me. VII. A great variety of elliptical expressions are also allowed in poetry, as of nouns, prepositions, verbs, &c.
(1) Punctuation is the marking of the various pauses made in reading, by points or stops, which indicate the length of each pause, and which serve to make the meaning of the sentence more distinct.
The points or marks in common use are,—the comma (,) the semicolon (;) the colon (:) the period (.) the dash (-) the point of interrogation (?) the point of exclamation, or admiration (!) the apostrophe (°) and the parenthesis ().
(2) The comma is used when short natural pauses are to be made. Its use, in many cases, depends upon taste : it ought to be used,
I. When other words, in a simple sentence, intervene between the nominative case and the verb.
Ex.—The impious man, in drawing down upon himself the terrible vengeance of the future world, acquires no privilege which exempts him from the common accidents and sufferings of the present.
(3) II. When the person named in a direct address, or the request made, is separated by commas from the rest of the sentence.
Ex.—Paul, thou art beside thyself. Pardon me, I beseech thee, in thy mercy.
III. When a simple sentence is long, it may be divided by a comma.
Ex.-To be constantly employed in consoling the afflicted, is the duty of the faithful Christian.
(4) IV. Where the word which connects others is not expressed, the comma supplies its place.