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The verses with four feet are also frequently used; as

Earth has nothing | sweeter | fairer,

Lovelier / forms or beauties rarer. The Anapestic verse has the accent on every third syl

lable, and like the lambic and Trochaic, is of various lengths. It takes additional syllables at the end, and frequently commences with an Iambic or Trochaic foot.

Four Feet.
The Assy- | rian came down, I like the wolf on the fold,
And his co. | horts were gleam- | ing in pur- | ple and gold;
And the sheen / of their spears ( was like stars on the sea,
When the blue wave rolls night. I ly on deep | Galilee.

With one Iambic Foot.
And there | lay the steed | with his nos- | trils all wide,
But through | it there roli'd | not the breath of his pride ;
And the foam of his gasping lay white on the turf,
And cold as the spray on the rock-beaten surf.

Three Feet.
I am mon. | arch of all | I survey,

My right there is none | to dispute ;
From the cen- | tre all round | to the sea,

I am lord of the fowl, and the brute. By the admission of secondary feet, and by the judicious intermixture of principal ones, poetry may varied almost without limit.


EXERCISES. And its zone of dark hills-oh! to see them all brightning, When the tempest flings out its red banner of lightning; And the waters rush down, ʼmid the thunder's deep rattle, Like clans from their hills at the voice of the battle ; And brightly the fire-crested billows are gleaming, And wildly from Mullagh the eagles are screaming.

The boy stood on the burning deck,

Whence all but he had fled;
The flames that lit the battle's wreck,

Shone round him o'er the dead.

More cruel far
Than when the pagan world arose,
And waged an unrelenting war,

Against a people who oppose,
To persecution-nought but prayer;
To torments—but the cross they wear.

On the cloud after tempests, as shineth the bow;
In the glance of the sunbeam, as melteth the snow,
He look'd on the lost one—her sins were forgiven,
And Mary went forth in the beauty of heaven.
The scene was more beautiful far to my eye,

Than if day in its pride had array'd it;
The land-breeze blew mild, and the azure-arch'd sky

Look'd pure as the spirit that made it:
The murmur rose soft, as I silently gazed

On the shadowy waves' playful motion, From the dim distant hill, till the light-house fire blazed,

Like a star in the 'midst of the ocean.

The faded palm-branch in his hand

Show'd pilgrim from the Holy Land.
Go, let me weep! there's bliss in tears,

When he who sheds them inly feels
Some ling'ring stain of early years

Effaced by every drop that steals.
The fruitless show'rs of worldly wo

Fall dark to earth and never rise;
While' tears that from repentance flow,

In light exhalement reach the skies.
Wilt thou not, my Shepherd true,
Spare thy sheep? in mercy spare me!
Wilt thou not, as shepherds do,
In thine arms rejoicing bear me;
Bear me where all troubles cease,

Home to folds of joy and peace ?
Man marks not thee, marks not the mighty hand
That, ever busy, wheels the silent spheres;
Works in the secret deep; shoots, steaming, thence
The fair profusion that o'erspreads the spring;
Flings from the sun direct the flaming day;
Feeds every creature; hurls the tempest forth,
And, as on earth this grateful change revolves,
With transport touches all the springs of life.

I bave brought but the palm-branch in my band,

Yet I call not my bright youth lost !
I have won but high thought in the Holy Land,
Yet I count not too dear the cost!

But, bark of eternity,

Where art thou now?
The wild waters shriek

O'er each plunge of thy prow;
On the world's dreary ocean

Thus shatter'd and tost;
Then, lone one, shine on,

If I lose thee, I'm lost.
Kind Mother, let them see again

Their own Italian shore;
Back to the home which, wanting them,

Seems like a home no more.
Madonna, keep the cold north wind

Amid his native seas,
So that no withering blight come down

Upon our olive trees.
As when the moon, refulgent lamp of night!
O'er heaven's clear azure spreads her sacred light,
Where not a breath disturbs the deep serene,
And not a cloud o'ercasts the solemn scene,
Around her throne the vivid planets roll,
And stars, unnumber'd, gild the glowing pole,
O’er the dark trees a yellow verdure shed,
And tip with silver every mountain head;
Then shine the vales,-tho rocks in prospect rise,--

A flood of glory bursts from all the skies !
The warrior bow'd his crested head, and tamed his heart of fire,
And sued the haughty king to free his long imprison'd sire :
I bring thee here my fortress keys, I bring my captive train ;
I pledge my faith, my liege, my lord; oh! break my father's chain.

Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note,

As his corse to the rampart we hurried ;
Not a soldier discharged his farewell shot

O'er the grave where our hero we buried.
The soul, secure in her existence, smiles
At the drawn dagger, and defies its point.
The stars shall fade away; the sun himself
Grow dim with age, and nature sink in years,
But thou shalt flourish in immortal youth,
Unhurt amidst the war of elements,
The wreck of matter, and the crush of worlds.

POETICAL LICENSE. The difficulty of arranging words in poetical measure, authorises certain violations of the ordinary rules of grammar. The following are the principal : I. Words are frequently transposed ; as

Oh! might I breathe morn's dewy breath,

When June's sweet sabbath's chime. II. Some words are lengthened, others are abridged ;


Presumptuous Xerxes next with efforts vain,

To curb the billows and the sea enchain.
For here neither dress nor adornment 's allow'd,

But the long winding-sheet and the fringe of the shroud. III. Two words are sometimes contracted into one ; as

To riches ? Alas! 'tis in vain :

Who hid, in their turn have been hid;
And soon they are squander'd again;

For here, in the grave, are all metals forbid,

Save the tinsel that shines on the dark coffin-lid. IV. Adjectives are often used instead of adverbs ;


Scarce has the warrior time his sword to wield,

Or breathe awhile, or lift the fencing shield. V. The imperfect tense and past participle are used for each other ; as

The mother seats her by her pensive son,

She prest his hand, and tender thus begun. VI. When conjunctions are used with corresponding conjunctions, nor is often put for neither, and or for either; as

Nor love, nor joy, nor hope, nor fear,

Has left one trace or record here.
While the long strife ev'n tired the lookers-on,
Thus to Ulysses spoke great Zelamon :

Or let me lift thee, chief, or lift thou me. VII. A great variety of elliptical expressions are also allowed in poetry, as of nouns, prepositions, verbs, &c.




(1) Punctuation is the marking of the various pauses made in reading, by points or stops, which indicate the length of each pause, and which serve to make the meaning of the sentence more distinct.

The points or marks in common use are,—the comma (,) the semicolon (;) the colon (:) the period (.) the dash (-) the point of interrogation (?) the point of exclamation, or admiration (!) the apostrophe (°) and the parenthesis ().

(2) The comma is used when short natural pauses are to be made. Its use, in many cases, depends upon taste : it ought to be used,

I. When other words, in a simple sentence, intervene between the nominative case and the verb.

Ex.—The impious man, in drawing down upon himself the terrible vengeance of the future world, acquires no privilege which exempts him from the common accidents and sufferings of the present.

(3) II. When the person named in a direct address, or the request made, is separated by commas from the rest of the sentence.

Ex.—Paul, thou art beside thyself. Pardon me, I beseech thee, in thy mercy.

III. When a simple sentence is long, it may be divided by a comma.

Ex.-To be constantly employed in consoling the afflicted, is the duty of the faithful Christian.

(4) IV. Where the word which connects others is not expressed, the comma supplies its place.

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