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are assigned to the Engineer Corps from year to year.

The curriculum embraces not only subjects connected with their duties as military engineers, but those required in the performance of the vast and important civil functions performed so creditably by the Engineer Corps in years past in connection with the river and harbor improvements and important surveys.

The School of Submarine Defense pertains to the special branch of Coast Artillery, and is located at the Long Island Sound entrance to New York harbor, where application of submarine defense may be had for the practical protection of our greatest seaport. This school was formerly a part of the Engineer School of Application, but Congress recently transferred the entire land defense of harbors, including submarine mines and torpedoes, to the Artillery Corps. It would have been desirable to have combined this school with the Artillery School at Fort Monroe, but it was recognized that this place was not well adapted to instruction in submarine defense, and that it was impracticable to give a thoro course in this and allied subjects in the brief period of one year allowed for the general course at the Artillery School.

The School of Application for Cavalry and Field Artillery at Fort Riley, Kansas, is, as its name applies, not so much an establishment for the learning of theory as it is for the practical work and combined maneuvers of cavalry and field artillery. The theoretical work of this school is embraced in the curriculum of the post school for officers, but with the manifest advantage to be derived from the assembling of a much larger number of officers than is ordinarily practicable at other posts.

The Army Medical School, in the District of Columbia, is made a part of the general system of army instruction; it is not a school for the general medical education of young men, but the curriculum comprises a post-graduate course for medical officers who have passed their examinations and have been appointed as assistant surgeons. The course is intended to be of only a few months' duration, and has for its object the special instruction of young surgeons in all their army duties, particularly those relating to hygiene and camp sanitation.

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The Army War College, which is located in Washington, has for its object furnishing the opportunity for advanced professional study by selected officers of the higher grades and those graduates of the General Service and Staff College who may be specially recommended for the course. It is not intended that any recitations shall be required at the War College, but every encouragement will be given to selected officers to further develop their talents in the solution of problems of actual practical value to the nation. Systematic study and planning of details for the actual events of war in probable theaters of campaign must prove of great value both to the individual and to the country. To have all conceivable problems of transportation, supply, attack, and defense systematically worked out by specially selected and trained officers is the best preparation possible in peace for war. It is intended that the accepted solutions of these problems shall be filed at the seat of government, available at all times for the use of such armies as may be actually created and employed hereafter in the particular theaters of war considered. It is recognized that this character of work is done in all the more important countries of the world by specially selected officers employed on the general staff, and it is anticipated that the work in the Army War College will gradually prepare a considerable number of officers for the higher duties of such a corps, and that, should they not be called upon to command armies in war, they will at least furnish a grand field from which to select capable chiefs of staff to accompany those generals who may be assigned to command.

The Secretary of War has worked earnestly to bring the officers of the organized militia of the country into active sympathy with this educational movement by throwing open the doors of all the army schools, colleges, and training camps to their participation.

It is fully recognized, in devising this scheme of military education and instruction, that the great and essential point is that each officer shall have his mind so trained that it will act quickly and alertly in all emergencies. It will be useless to train him to make plans which he cannot modify instantly

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when an active, aggressive, and energetic enemy upsets his previous calculations. History evinces that the ability to do this marks the difference between the successful and unsuccessful commander, in the long run.

It not infrequently happens that an officer without previous military instruction performs duty in the higher grades in such a manner as to excite.admiration; such cases should be considered as the exception and not as the rule, for it is only thru systematic instruction and training that the great working machine which makes the success of armies possible can be developed under modern conditions. A patriotic nation which has not been properly supplied, armed, equipped, and prepared for war is doomed to military discomfiture whenever its armies encounter disciplined and instructed troops in anything like equal numbers. This truth is as old the life of armies, but it possesses more force to-day than at any previous period of history. It may be replied that the Boers proved the converse of this statement, but there can be no doubt that the refusal to acknowledge defeat and the continuance of a guerrilla warfare such as has occurred in South Africa and the Philippines is of no benefit to a nation; on the contrary, it almost invariably results in undue devastation, rapine and loss of life. The consequences of such a course, had it been adopted by the Confederates after Lee's surrender, can only be contemplated with a feeling of horror. With all the bitterness engendered by defeat still rankling in their hearts, the Southerners exhibited the highest type of civilization by discontinuing a struggle which furnished no legitimate hope of

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There is nothing in this scheme for training officers of the regular and militia forces which smacks of "militarism," a glib and meaningless word in America at all times. The whole scheme results from a fixed policy, with its objective to make our small army as perfect as possible and thereby remove all necessity for maintaining a large one under ordinary conditions.

WILLIAM H. CARTER BRIGADIER GENERAL,

UNITED STATES ARMY

II

BALDWIN'S DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY AND

PSYCHOLOGY 1

The magnitude of the undertaking which has been almost brought to completion, and of which we have the first installment in the present volume, calls for an extended review, written, like the Dictionary itself, “ by many hands." This preliminary notice, limited to the first volume, is designed primarily to give an account of the purpose and plan of the whole and only secondarily to criticise details; yet we shall not wholly shirk the latter responsibility. A final estimate must await the appearance of the two succeeding volumes.

The Dictionary is noteworthy, in the first place, simply as a serious attempt to supply a real need—we should rather say several real needs—of the present-day student of philosophy. Perhaps the attempt was too ambitious; conscious of too many needs at once to supply them all with adequacy. To use a biological figure, with no implied disrespect, it suggests in some ways a cross between a lexicon and a cyclopedia, and consequently comes a little short of being quite satisfactory as either.

But especially noteworthy is this particular attempt by reason of the efficient editorial management under which it has been produced. The name of Professor Baldwin as editor-inchief was a sufficient guarantee of the comprehensiveness as well as of the acuteness of the work. To all admirers of his

· Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logic, æsthetics, philosophy of religion, mental pathology, anthropology, biology, neurology, physiology, economics, political and social philosophy, philology, physical science, and education, and giving a terminology in English, French, German, and Italian. Written by many hands and edited by James Mark Baldwin, Ph. D. (Princeton), Hon. D. Sc. (Oxon), Hon. LL.D. (Glasgow), Stuart Professor in Princeton University, with the co-operation and assistance of an international board of consulting editors. In three volumes, large octavo, with illustrations and extensive bibliographies. Vol. I. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1901. xxiv+644 p. $5.00. [Vol. II has been issued since this article was in type.]

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extensive erudition and to those familiar with his no less intensive industry, his name was an assurance of the completion, despite every obstacle, of a task enough to make most men despair, but which has happily not sufficed to conquer Professor Baldwin's courage.

The editor has been fortunate in the selection of his collaborators, nearly seventy in all, representing almost to a man the ripest scholarship and highest eminence. Two, by the way, are women, Mrs. C. Ladd-Franklin and Mrs. Henry Sidgwick. Among the consulting editors there are four each for French and German terminology respectively, and three for Italian. Of the rest, about one-third are British, about two-thirds Americans. We shall have occasion to mention some of the special contributors below.

The list of collaborators is followed by the Editor's Preface, which is an instructive essay in itself and extremely modest withal. It is, moreover, of importance as suggesting criteria for criticism of the Dictionary, as it takes pains to set forth explicity the design of the whole and the motives which have guided the selection of material. Much criticism is thereby forestalled. But the anticipation of a criticism does not diminish its justice; indeed it would be possible to argue per contra, and insist, for instance, that the biographies should have been omitted, rather than deliberately included in their present unsatisfactory form. It is understood indeed that one of the leading counselors of the editor strongly favored this exclusion.

After a general table of contents, and lists of abbreviations, the present volume carries the text thru "laws of thought.” The remainder of the text, completing the alphabetical treatment, together with indexes of Greek, Latin, German, French, and Italian terms, will appear in volume 2, while volume 3 will be devoted exclusively to the general bibliographies, prepared by Dr. Rand of Harvard University.

The aim, scope, method, and special features of a dictionary have to be determined in part from the prefatory statement of the editor, and in part also from a study of the actual contents of the work. In what follows we have tried to render a fair,

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