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The trenty-ninking power is not suliject to the limitntions imposed log the Tonsillition on this power of Congress to enact legislation, and trenties mny le moncle which ist riblity under the control or die studes.' Trruly by cquiralene lo statuto
al trouby, entered into llaccordance with constitutional requirements, tu the (31001l lont It ly self-executing. has the force and sect of a lcgisini ve elincimcuit 110011 10 all intents and purposion is the equivalent of an Act of Congress. In addi. 11011 10 Iluk ini luternational contract, it bxromes municipuil law of the Uulled slodes a10111 of uncle of the states, in the judges of every state are bound thereby. mengelolonko loi the constitution or laws of 11119 slute to the contrary not willistanding
Tin the evront of all conillle: lt weens trendy made in accordance with consiliu11011111 ropuireusenlot and the provisions of a state colistitution or a sente salute. whollier l'orferl porlor or subsequently lo lle making of the treaty, the Trendy will control.'
1111, i trendy may lie aborogated by the enactment of a subscquent ferlern studuite which is clearly inconsistent Ilorowltlı."
"Thus, 11 will be seen flint il is proposer llal wc set out on a course, undern power without express limitation nud of birond scope, to cnnct domestic criminn! low, without any concurrence loy the Ilouse of Representatives, the body frndlIlonally roxlorilerden olomeone to llocs people,
Morewer, if the openises involvered should be regarded as international in olunrurilor log Seocition of Article 1 of the United States Constilullon, Congress uns llor power lo delle noul punish ... offenses against the law of nations.' ('unication toone become supreme lair of land
'Since the Convention In most respects lo sull-cxccuting, in those respects, on rotlliention, it would become the supreme low of the Innd. That would not be True los 10 any ulder contracting prly excepit france and a few other sintes. Born 1 non-selp08ccounting. The obliguillon 10 Implement thc Trcnly liy legislation Is nis blondink as thic Trolly itsell.
It is one of our fundamental concepts that a legislalive body, in the exercise auf ils power to declare wont constitutes a crimne, must denne It so n9 to inform qwersons sulleject therelo, with reasonable precision, wlint ll intends to prohlblt so they may have ll certain ind understandable rule of conduct and know what il is their daily 10 nroid. 'statute which either forbills or requires the doing oof olli act in terms so vaglie that men of common intelligence must necessarily Lisy all los menning und allfer 119 lv ltis application, violntcs thic Orst essential of alle process of low.''
Do tie slomilions in Articles II and III of Ilic Convenilloni mect that test?
'What is a part of a national, elhulcnl, rncial or religious group-one member, Iwonnenbere, how many?
12 nn net wns alone will intent to destroy two members of ll group, although 110111010med lige nio muliere lowered the group is such, would loot lie genocide?
Would it not be more accurate and desirable 1l the prorevisite Intent was Wellnesl 114 1111 110*1 committed with intent to 10. Jurre one of the emmerntral Kronpne IIN NIHII, Nov 10.9 100 101 kr Il restr Ihr net. Int be allrockerl toward the group ng such omul 101 merilyo 1111 individual member or members thereul?
What is meestalt lige lesen bormi?
Towe: 100 complicity means the act of 1111 11ccessory, or to inlil, nbet, neslut, or 1n.r.lle Bonnin.bile?
a worsoni 116in1.seal of an ofense delmed by the Conveuillon, if tried lige an inlerunt levell polonel tribunal, would not lieu surrounded by the sellerunrds we accord pw.rsons vinrent with comestie crime. Shoudel roc roilily contention will rexerrallons!
Tullie event wp rullly the Convention, ylioule wc, by reservallon, expressly proble: Tout rillzens of clar Unidel Santos 19001 1morsons within lloc lcrritorin! Jurisilicion of the United States, charrell Willa onni olton se delined in the Convento I love will be suiloferil 10 trindoned sentence only logo al commanderol Juicial tribunal of, and allling within the United Sinton, vostcd will jurisdiction over such ol. Pense by federal legisintion; that a citizen or other purson so charged should be presumed to be lomacinil umiillik yilll los marins establisheel logi Inwall evilerden Inyone il rensonnbile doubt; that i cilizen or other JMirson so churkea simul loc. pirolivicollige all the millofanarely cubriceed willlon loro constitution of Iloco Iloilleed States, including the rigties kilimindecal ly tie livurili, lirin, Sixdle, and Birlilli Amendments to the Constitution of the United States, to inclused clunrged will a domestic crime; and that such cliizeli or other persons shinll not be subjert loin chargeul, Irleil, or sentenceel lige ning International quali rribul? 01 Mrs. 11. international ;xnnllribunol has got be con created, and lic advice and consent of the Senate would be viccesenry 10 subject our citizens to Aloe jurisdiction of s10.11 il tribunal should ll be crental. But should we not onder vor to close the door to the Blvink of Ilond oddienne ronisilll In Ilves Plilaire?
all insouris. llolland, 23° V.S. 110, 4:32. * Se l'alentine 1. Neidercher, 209' (1.8, 9, 10: "l'hienry r. Robertson, 124 U.S. 100, 101. * Suntorinern1:9 . lipni, Si US, 330, 40; Nirinin x Johnson, 27: U.S. 17, 32.
Whitney . Domingue:, 1:30 1.8. 2:38, 2:47: 52 dm. Jur. ircalice. R18 121; Note 1.R.R. 895.
"" l'onnolly v. (Ieneral Connl. (!o.,200 1.8. 385, 301.
"Allhough the luled Norlinnas (mrtor provideles llist not likely theroin containeel shall authorize the United Nations to lutorsene 111 1011011cers which are rosseritully within the clomestic jurisdiction of any state, simee olir repres11101ives hinir pourticipated in the drastink und approving of the lievociile (convention, il il mlioulil thereultor bernillleri boy the linlleul S11110s, would the millor condominoel in such Convention be leroy withdrawn from mur domestir jurisdiction?
"Shoulil we agree to submit to the litornillon (ourt of Justice in illspele its to tlor Interpromillon, application, or rullllloonil of them (Murallion loy iis? Super 1x9c al cluzill of the United States WIN olunraryl wille one of thor ortense'n deillonnel in the Convention-Ile group involveel boring oldi olien racial group --- su trivel ini il commitent tribunal in the United States, and our domestic courts, including lloro Hupreme Court of llor lloller? Suntou. Noubel lockel Iloco not alle 10001 rolul invite 1101 offense under the Convention. Couled the sinto, of whole-le loro olles Kromp were sulle jects, weck n review is to the interpretallion of the Irenly 100 llor lulerundionul ('ourt of Justice? If Il.could not scook al ilirect review, come il secol 1111 torprolone tlon log the International Court while would lie boloodlus ollor lluinestle cruris in The Pillare?
Should we oblikite the United States lo meridir lo prevell 1101 pourmisto fenikelde in other slutes? Suche scumis to love the import of Vrlicie Los lloe ('on Veolion.
"I assume that no one will denny Dont Wie nets delimeel in the convention des offenses are abhorrent and the purpose to prevent the wholly commemobile. Thor question is as to the method one montis to 1111.intball come.
"If genocide and kindred offenses defined in the treaty olto in faucit interne tional crimes, would not the wise course be 10 elnait domestir loxisintion wher Section 8, Cinuse 10, article 1 of lle constitution of the United States, Ilocuinas much offenses, and providing for the trial and promislomment of qw.rsons (no miltinik such ofl'enses, in our own domestic courls, where the hellseil will lx fun ruterul Tils institulionnl rights and necorded due process under our concept of that pohrnne? We would thus url our own house lo order, would offer the winne probere llon tu Ue necuiseul 119 one conrrrel willennis cornost le crime, and would reserve in our own curts the land determination of questions is to the interpretation of the worl sinute. Tonkree, loy International convention. In so dolineIrinn poisto HOTIN who (*010111ull the ottenines whilele chori truly undertakes to follmo. would seem to me to wholly pulllll our International coolinillon, im Wolled ili obel muy serious questions will respect to the Incijoieril oferils of rolitheation of Ilor Convention on our cou9l11tional opel lengual system on 0001 questions of policy whicle will orinc on lomalderation of concurrence log Ihr Sonne in the porowosowel Convention.
(ABA Journal, August-1949, quoted in Genocide Convention,
Hearings, Subcommittee, Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, 92-1, March 10, 1971, pp. 8-11)
HUMAN RIGHTS AND INTERNATIONAL LAW
By Mr. Carl B. Rix* (At the annual meeting of The American Society of Inter
national Law held in Washington on April 29, 1949)
Jluminn rights and international law ng a composite until recently was a1 11011existent problem. Tu An International Bill of the Nights of Man, page 5, l'rul. JI, Lauterpacht suys :
"In fact, the Individual liccnnc only to an Imperfect degree the othfeart of the Inwol in long. Treulley of n boumanitarians charncter were runelul fur pirolecing the Individund in some sinucific spheres, but the fundamental chauins of buman persoonllly lo cquality', liberty, and freedom against llie arbitrary will
*Member, ABA Special Committee on Peace and Law through
the United Nations.
of the sole remialueel oululele lhe orbll of International low Suvc Pur the pre carlouis non controversial principle of lawilirim Intervention."
Too lloc prill 1019) Issm of the American Bar Association Journal, page 358, Mr. Moses Moskowitz says:
***There Is NICH Thalles 119 recognized human rights in International common ۱۱۱, The Idlen of Torelling Internellon protection of certain human rights and Precedentis can lie realizeil only willoin the framework of licnly provisions estado lisliina Ilir riklits to be placed under international protection, delining licir content, lingallons, and prolilulllong."
Internationell law, toy really or otlıcrwise, is not made in the twinkling of nu iyo or log the cleaninmily and line of the few. Sulllclcul linic for scisoning 110001 prnceler Tons old woll's burnu il fundamental of International low. Aspirations and allegoul necessibles for social con1604, 110 millor low meritorious, nint justily Tremendous revolutionary changes in a slowly developing structure like that of Julererillon 10w. lienry been of proof rests on piloponeuls of those changes, nemillally not to be secuired by an evolutionary process of building (listomars Jaw but log the summery process of contract or trendy low, the purpose of which is to crente al con of conduct of individuals and motions for inore than a billion of flor pecuple of the world of diverse langunges, concepts of povertimenil, and stamenrels of living
Inillois country w'n dood il signilleant experience will it nobile experiment which endeel in rebole Parllure une lo impossibillly or enforcement and me of public sentiment. limotional 110lions and resulting propegime must be 1111111yzed and weiglel. Wind change's Ill (xisting strictures will loc cffectul? It isn't enough to say that there must be a law and then all will be well. Who says it and wliy, on whill allt hority in cxperience? Who is tu nominister ills new buily of trenty 111w, while inet loones of enforcement will be llu'nlinble, whint tilulls for usemilers, Individual or stolic? Dr. Jessup, in his look "A Molern Law of Niillons," page 181, discusses intervention li civil wars and internal matters and cautious "Ilont international interference in yuch mallors mny Jene lu indesirable (lom). Imdim ol lloc luterunt sil1101 loss in a simile and be productive of more international Priction tonni Il col.1111 64,"
There is al sur Girong liont lloc worlll for Preciom of inen ns indivillunds, for nsstrainees of such freerun from those governments, of assurances of ininorities that great progr:ms of destruction shall not be repeatedl oluywhere in the world, thal (01111110n 11ction hereiller shall not be wounting in prevention and stopping such things in their trucks. The propileg of mny countries, Uiroukhi llic trealy of mutual assistance and now the Allotic l'ouet, arc umilca in common delensc of the Kolins in soll.govcrument they donic m:00. Tlicy' uile lu lepense ng lust 11 system of government which is determined to sprcnil Its tentacles of enslavemenit of freerolls of Ghonght and inclion, 115minst llic machiuntions of 133 mcn rmning i privernment of tyranny 10001 dcroll to sprend their power over the world. lloc wing of the NSKressor will be heal. When lle questioni wais riskuuli oldmerieri lawyers if they were ready to proscribe 1165ression in the world, thic 1118wrr w:19 100 xpecteel so soon.
Allie Hanc Ilome, in lrm bellef llol lhe freedom of mon coinot be destrosnil, minuly notions of the world move forward on il tremendous companien poor perce in n barosscal world, por lhlupy of the spiril, for supremacy of the mind of min, for the right of the Individunt lo llue his own life. They move forenrel inn chestre of I loose who live been convereed in loc llicose wlin lunare mol, los xrlange of wily's sun menuis 10 bilgher and letter standards of living cuerywhere. It is IIIwni's lovered to merstom. 1111 ruism boul. There it is, cre:11|115 problems of use.comDouchillon with the providenl. We come in yol 119 representillves of n groot 11830). (Jallion of me'll devoting their lives to problems of government mill justice, of loadividual rights in a sporil of Accommodation, if possibile, of lie conlllicts of 11c1ime to loc solvall, 1001 solved they must loe sly il prrill loneler in the sinw, Imparfort loisk of dawnmann crorelom, inois cuillery, is one possessor of a consellulloosnel Hill of liabils, lslsliced and lookeel to fur nssumption of leadership.
1ii iunpuroull mig win this isisk, problems arise for the people of this country. I low in their cunsilliillund Airmeture, lovir Bill of lights, be Alice into the duscloping international picture of lemon iluliis willinell lestriction of a chier. Islice. Most of our division of powrops of government, or whicula nui pravidland picressiiles? 'Phils is I love lovske in which ile American Blois Association louis set Il self and is the reason why wr, I lor common birilen verlory of merlin luwyers, (uine 10 yoll--posporis ini international law.
Among many other qucullons, we present these fur (Uncussion :
1. What will be the lirobable result of thic Induction Inco luternational law ol inc srnernl principles of individual responsibillly sur Intcruncional law?
2. W lonel is llle effect of treatly low as domestic law of the land, 118 Kliplome Inne under the Constitution?
3. Is there no lluilt to the power of Congress ucting under a trenly cdrept think of problbillou ini llie Consillution?
4. Shull tlic Treaty-making power lie user as the basis for cunclinent of domeslle legislation in the United States?
5. What Is llc cllect of provisions in thic Charter of the Wicil Nolions as 10 human rights, as n surrender of the provision of article ? (7), the reservation of jurisdiction as to comestic questions? What will loc lhe oferit ils to surrender of domestic questions if the Cenocidic Trouls' annes1 luman Rights Treatly are roullied?
0. Shall the American people, with their gunraulics of protection in the trials of individuals not present in other countries, agree to cxirndition and Irlals of Americans before foreign or international tribunals for violations of international Inw?
7. Wlint means nre available to Nt our structure into the International picture willout destruction of our basic principles?
We are not now renily to supply the answers to these questions. We believe Ilind thic American people should be fully advised on Iliesc mullers; thue Il you, will your knowledge of luternational and constitutional law, cannot supply the answers, all of us shinll devole unremllilag ilong and toll in their solution. We are grntillel llint inc campaign of the Aincrlcon Bar Association to this ond, Through Judge Ronsoin and l'resident Ilolman, is licuring frult and that bullicicnt llinc will be nvallable for full and completc discussion and stuly.
In the meantime, thosc questlous and others are luken to the lawyers of thels country and Canada in n scrics of confcrcnics of which 12 out of 20 projected in this country have been licid, Nucli of value ins boen lenrned, much study by Individuals and groups is now unler wny.
We have before us one signal treaty, ihut of scuocloc, in loc sulumit feed for rouincallon. Å frent trenty on human rights is in process of drulling and wc bare for study lloc preliminary drails of the commission on human riglils.
Now, in the limited lime available to me, for it quick look at the problems.
I Wlint will lic llic prownble result of the induction Into interunional law of thic general principles of Thaiirdunt responsibility for litërsialioallein g*******
Traditional international In w lý" The Inw. of stules and the relations to cuch olher, with ill enforcement and pegotinllons si lliəsliiles ulovic. Ilomillon puit IT, *I'he low of sovereim am soverriko." Now there is nnother concept of Individuellabillly in internationnl Inw which alrendy nppenr8 In four Melds:
1. Ocnscs ngninst the laws of war and other war crimes.
Brin. Gen. Telforil Tnylor lins sald, in an Outline of Ilic Research and Publica. lion l'oshilillll les or the War Crimes 'l'rlills, on puige 2:
"Internntional penal law-n more cmbryo a few decades ngon-lins vercloped will plicnomenal rapidity.
Almost overniglit, International penal law Jinny become a llving reallly."
lenin lie snys, on pinge 11:
"The war crimes trinis, nt Icast in western Europe, love licen lield on the unsis lline thic Inw npplied and culoruri in lbesc Irinly is International low of Kinerninpplication whiloh everyone in llie world is legnlly bound to woscrir. On no ollier basis can lhe trinis be regarded 11.9 juicial proceedings, ils illsingislieel from pollllend 19quisitions. On any other lously, Iloc friuls will become il sorry Proporonchi lo those wlin sponsorcıl them, and will surely linee a doplnog roller than a benelle cont n'ect in Corinns. No insk whilele confronts International Inwyers and sintesirii toung is more important llinn that of solving the primere ouis and dillikult prolicina which surround the project of making interontlenni Julian hard reallly throughout the world." , Article 15, of llic Genocide Trenly prorlieg :
"L'ersous conmling genocide or any of thic oblier nois commernteil an artire Justin'l lic. punishical, whether they are constitutionally responsible rulers, public onlainly, or priyolc Indlvidunls."