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who are plundering.” The marauders re- voort. It stood as a sort of barrier treated in haste, carrying away with them against hostile tribes of the Six Nations. a quantity of silver-plate. Three of the The little garrison had been reinforced guards fought lustily, but were overpower. by the regiment of Col. Marinus Willett, ed and carried away prisoners. When they and was well provisioned. Burgoyne had were exchanged the generous and grateful sent Colonel St. Leger with Canadians, Schuyler gave each of them a farm in Tories, and Indians, by way of Lake OnSaratoga county.

tario, to penetrate the Mohawk Valley General Schuyler was one of the New and made his way to Albany, there to York State Senators; one of the principal meet the general. St. Leger appeared becontributors to the code of laws adopted fore Fort Schuyler on Aug. 3. The Tories by that State; and United States Senator in his train were commanded by Colonels from 1789 to 1791, and again in 1797. Johnson, Claus, and Butler, and the IndHe was an earnest advocate of internal ians by Brant. On receiving news that improvements for the development of the General Herkimer was coming to the aid resources of the country, and he is justly of the garrison with the Tryon county called the “father of the canal system of militia a larger portion within the fort the United States.” He was a man of made a sortie. They fell upon the camp large wealth. He owned a fine mansion of Johnson's “Greens” so suddenly and in the then southern suburbs of Albany, furiously that they were dispersed in and a plain one on his large estate at great confusion, Sir John not having time Saratoga. The latter, with its mills and to put on his coat. Papers, clothing, other property, valued at $50,000, was de- stores, and other spoils of his camp stroyed by the British at the time of Bur- sufficient to fill twenty wagons fell into goyne's invasion. He died in Albany, the hands of the Americans. A part of N. Y., Nov. 18, 1804.

the “Greens ” who had gone to oppose Schuyler, FORT. On the site of the the advance of Herkimer, approaching at


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village of Rome, Oneida

that moment, St. Leger co., N. Y., General Stan

continued the siege. Colowix built a fort which re

nel Willett stealthily left ceived his name. After

the fort at night with a the Revolutionary War

message to Schuyler, then began it was named Fort

near the mouth of the Schuyler. In the Revolu

Mohawk, asking for retion it was on the west

lief. Schuyler called for ern borders of civilization. There was a a volunteer leader. General Arnold resmall garrison there in the summer of sponded, and beat up for recruits. The 1777, commanded by Col. Peter Ganse- next day 800 strong men were following Arnold up the Mohawk Valley. At Fort Schwab, John CHRISTOPHER, educator; Dayton he pardoned a young Tory pris- born in New York in 1865; graduated at oner condemned to death, on condition Yale College in 1886, and studied in Gerthat he should go into the camp of St. man universities in 1887-89; was appointLeger's savages with a friendly Oneida ed Professor of Political Economy at Yale Indian, represent the approaching Amer College in 1898. He is the author of icans as exceedingly numerous, and so History of New York Property Tax; Rev. frighten away the Indians. It was done.olutionary History of Fort Number Eight; The Tory had several shots fired through and magazine articles on the History of his clothing. Almost breathless, he and the Confederate States. the Oneida entered the camp, and told of a Schwan, THEODORE, military officer; terrible fight they had just had with the born in Germany, July 9, 1841; joined the Americans, who were as numerous as the United States army in 1857; served creditleaves on the trees. The alarmed Indians ably during the Civil War; was promoted immediately fled as fast as their legs first lieutenant in April, 1864, and received could carry them towards the western the brevet of major for gallant and meri. wilds, followed by the Canadians and torious services; was appointed brigadierTories pell-mell in a race towards Os- general of United States volunteers in wego. So ended the siege, and so did 1898, and won distinction in the PhilipBurgoyne receive a paralyzing blow. pines, where he captured Cavite, Viejo,


While the British retained possession Novaleta, Rosario, San Cruz, and other of the Western frontier posts in 1784 places in the province of Cavite. He was it was difficult to fix by treaty the promoted brigadier-general United States Indian boundaries and open the Western army, in February, 1901. lands to settlers. But a treaty made at Schwatka, FREDERICK, explorer; born Fort Schuyler by commissioners of the in Galena, Ill., Sept. 29, 1849; graduated United States and the chiefs and warriors at the United States Military Academy in of the Six Nations gave some facilities 1871, and commissioned second lieutenant in that direction. By this treaty the Mo- in the 3d United States Cavalry. He hawks, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas secured a leave of absence in 1878 and who had adhered to the British during took command of the Sir John Franklin the war, consented to a peace and a re- search expedition which sailed from New lease of prisoners. At the same time they York on June 19, in the othen. In a ceded all their territory west of Penn- fifteen months' tour he succeeded in clearsylvania.

ing up a great deal of the mystery in conSchwab, CHARLES M., manufacturer; nection with that fated expedition. In born in Williamsburg, Pa., April 18, 1862; 1886 he had charge of a special expedition graduated at St. Francis College, Loretto, to Alaska, and later made a second exPa., in 1880; secured employment as stake- ploring tour in that territory. His pubdriver in the engineering corps of the lications include Along Alaska's Great Edgar Thompson Steel Works; was made River; The Franklin Search, under Lieusuperintendent of that plant in 1881, and tenant Schwatka; Nimrod of the North; served in that capacity till 1887, when and Children of the Cold. He died in he was appointed superintendent of the Portland, Ore., Nov. 2, 1892. Homestead Steel Works. In 1897 he be- Schwenkfelders, a religious sect foundcame president of the Carnegie Steel Com- ed by Hans Kaspar Schwenkfeld in Silepany, Limited, and in 1901-03 was presi. sia. In 1734 most of its members, owing dent of the United States Steel Corpora- to persecution, emigrated and settled in tion, which purchased the Carnegie Steel Pennsylvania, where they established sevCompany, the Federal Steel Company, and eral churches and schools. In 1900 they other large steel interests. He founded an numbered about 1,000. industrial school in Homestead, Pa.; Scioto Company. Soon after the built a Catholic church in Loretto, Pa., at settlement of Marietta was commenced a cost of $150,000, and a public-school (see OHIO COMPANY), an association was at Weatherly, Pa.; and is noted otherwise formed called The Scioto Land Company. as a public benefactor. See TRUSTS. The history of that company is involved

in some obscurity. Col. William Duer, of torical lecture before the Turin Academy New York, was an active member. It was of Science, in 1827. This was followed, founded in the East. They, at first, pur- in 1833, by a History of Ancient Legischased lands of the Ohio Company, and lation in Piedmont and the History of appointed Joel Barlow their agent in Italian Legislation. His fame as a jurist Europe to make sales of them. Barlow was enhanced by his drawing up with had been sent to England by the Ohio great ability the civil code of Sardinia, in Company for the same purpose. He dis- 1837. In 1845 Count Sclopis became a tributed proposals in Paris in 1789, and corresponding member of the Institute of sales were effected to companies and indi. France, and a foreign member in 1869. viduals in France. On Feb. 19, 1790, 218 He was created minister of justice and emigrants sailed from Havre to settle ecclesiastical affairs in Piedmont in on these lands. They arrived at Alexan- March, 1848, after having held the office dria, Va., on May 3, crossed over to the of president of the superior commune of Ohio River, and went down to Marietta, censorship. At the close of 1849 he enterwhere about fifty of them settled, and the ed the Piedmontese Senate, of which he remainder went to another point below, was president until that principality was opposite the mouth of the Great Kanawha, merged into the kingdom of Italy, in where they formed a settlement called 1861, when he held the same office in the Gallipolis (town of the French). These Italian Senate. At about that time he emigrants were to be furnished with sup- became president of the Turin Academy plies for a specified time, but the company of Sciences; and in 1868 Victor Emanuel failed to keep their promises. They suf- bestowed upon him the order of Annunfered much. They failed, also, in getting ziata, the highest of the kingdom. When, clear titles to their lands, and the com- in 1871, Victor Emanuel was asked to appany was charged with swindling opera- point an arbitrator for the tribunal, at tions. The settlers, through the good Geneva, to decide upon the claims growing offices of Peter S. Duponceau, of Philadel- out of the devastations committed by the phia, obtained a grant from Congress of cruiser Alabama, he selected Count Sclo25,000 acres opposite the Little Sandy. It pis, and he was chosen by his colleagues was ever afterwards known as “ The president of the tribunal. For his services French Grant." Each inhabitant had 217 on that occasion, the United States governacres. The aims of the Scioto Company ment presented him a service of silverseem to have been simply land speculation, plate. He died in Turin, March 8, 1878. not founding actual settlements. “ It com- Scotch-Irish. Many persons distinprised,” Dr. Cutter says, “some of the guished in the annals of the United first characters in America.” They un- States were and are of Scotch-Irish dedoubtedly expected to purchase public scent—a bardy people, formed by an intersecurities at their then greatly depreci- mixture of Scotch, English, and Irish ated values, and with them pay for the families, nearly 300 years ago. Queen lands bought of the government; but the Elizabeth found her subjects in Ireland adoption of the national Constitution so uncontrollable that she determined to caused a sudden rise in the value of these try the experiment of transplanting to securities, and blasted the hopes of the that island the reformed religion, with company. Colonel Duer, who seems to some of her English and Scotch subjects. have been the originator of the scheme, It was a difficult and dangerous experisuffered the unjust imputation of being ment, for the Irish regarded it simply in a swindler, because the company did not the light of a measure for their complete (for it could not) meet its obligations. subjugation. Elizabeth did not meet with

Sclopis, PAUL FREDERICK DE SALERNO, much success, but her successor, James I., COUNT, diplomatist; born in Turin, Italy, did. He determined to introduce whole Jan, 10, 1789; studied law at the Univer- English and Scotch colonies into Ireland, sity of Turin; took his legal degrees in that by so disseminating the reformed 1818; and soon rose to eminence as a law. faith he might promote the loyalty of the yer and jurist. He was also distinguish- people. These were sent chiefly to the ed as an historian, and gave his first his- northerly portions of Ireland; first, to SCOTCH-IRISH SOCIETY OF AMERICA-SCOTT six counties in Ulster, which were divided ized south of the James River for the into unequal proportions—some of 2,000 Continental service. On Aug. 12, 1776, acres, some of 1,500, and some of 1,000. he was appointed colonel, and was distinThese were allotted to different kinds of guished at Trenton and in the battle of persons—first, British undertakers, who Princeton; and just a year later he was voluntarily engaged in the enterprise; promoted to brigadier-general. He was second, servitors of the crown, consisting the last officer to leave the field at Monof civil and military officers; and, third, mouth in 1778. He was conspicuous in natives, whom the King hoped to render the storming of Stony Point, under loyal subjects. The occupants of the Wayne, in 1779, and the next year was largest portion of lands were bound, with with Lincoln, at Charleston, where he was in four years, to build a castle and bawn made prisoner. He was closely confined (a walled enclosure for cattle), and to for a while, to the injury of his health. settle on their estates forty-eight able- He was released on his parole near the bodied men, eighteen years old or up close of the war, when he was exchanged. ward, of English or Scotch descent. The In 1785 General Scott settled in Woodford, second class were also required to put up Ky., and in 1791, as brigadier - general suitable buildings, and to plant English or of the Kentucky levies, led an expedi. Scotch families on their possessions with- tion into the Ohio country, and particiin two years. These colonists from Scot- pated in the events of St. Clair's defeat. land and England intermarried with the He was afterwards successful in an exnatives, and from this union sprang the pedition against the Indians on the Wa. race of law-loving, law-abiding, loyal, bash, and commanded a portion of enterprising freemen from whom came Wayne's troops in the battle of Fallen many of the best settlers in Pennsylvania, Timbers in 1794. He was elected governor Virginia, and North Carolina.

of Kentucky in 1808, and in 1812 he re. Scotch-Irish Society of America, a tired from that office into private life. society organized in May, 1889, when the His education was limited, he was blunt first Scotch-Irish congress was held at in manners, and was decidedly eccentric. Columbia, Tenn. It is composed of the He died Oct. 22, 1820. people of Scotch-Irish descent, residents of Scott, DRED. See DRED SCOTT CASE, the United States and Canada. Its pur- THE. pose is declared to be “the preservation Scott, JAMES HUTCHISON, naval offiof Scotch-Irish history and associations, cer; born in East Liberty, Pa., Feb. 11, the increase and diffusion of knowledge 1868; graduated at the Cadet School of regarding the Scotch-Irish people, the the United States Revenue-cutter Serkeeping alive of the characteristic quali. vice in 1890. When the American-Spanish ties and sentiments of the race, the pro- War began he was made executive officer motion of intelligent patriotism, and the of the revenue-cutter Hudson, and distindevelopment of social intercourse and guished himself at the battle of Cardenas fraternal feeling.” State societies are be- Bay, Cuba, May 11, when the Hudson ing formed, and the growth of the or- shielded the disabled torpedo-boat Winsganization is expected to be large, as the lov, and towed her out of danger; was later race is widely extended over the Union, recommended by President McKinley to and particularly in the middle South, receive the thanks of Congress and a where such men as Andrew Jackson, John medal for bravery during hostilities. See C. Calhoun, and Sam Houston were its BAGLEY, WORTH. types. Membership includes females as Scott, John, legislator; born in Alex. well as males.

andria, Pa., July 14, 1824; received a Scott, CHARLES, military officer; born good education; admitted to the bar in in Cumberland county, Va., in 1733; 1846, and practised in Huntingdon; proswas corporal of a Virginia company in the ecuting attorney in 1846–49; member of battle of the Mononga hela, where Brad. the legislature in 1862; and United States dock was defeated in 1755. When the Senator in 1869–75. While in the Senate Revolutionary War broke out, he raised he made an address favoring the adoption and commanded the first company organ- of the “ enforcement bill" permitting the

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