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“He should have endeavored on May 23, ing the Spanish squadron from her when she at Cienfuegos, to obtain information regardcame out. ing the Spanish squadron by communicating " The passage from Cienfuegos to a point with the insurgents at the place designated about 22 miles south of Santiago was made in the memorandum delivered to him at 8.15 with as much despatch as was possible while A.M. of that date.

keeping the squadron a unit. He should have proceeded from Cienfue- “The blockade of Santiago was effective. gos to Santiago de Cuba with all despatch, “ Commodore Schley was the senior officer and should have disposed his vessels with a of our squadron off Santiago when the Spanview of intercepting the enemy in any at- ish squadron attempted to escape on the tempt to pass the Flying Squadron.

morning of July 3, 1898. He was in absolute He should not have delayed the squadron command and is entitled to the credit due for the Eagie.

to such commanding officer for the glorious “ He should not have made the retrograde victory which resulted in the total destruction turn westward with his squadron.

of the Spanish ships. “ He should have promptly obeyed the

GEORGE DEWEY, Navy Department's order of May 25.

“Admiral, U. S. N. " He should have endeavored to capture

“ SAM. C. LEMLY, or destroy the Spanish vessels at anchor “ Judge-Adrocate-General, U. S. N., Judge. near the entrance of Santiago Harbor on Advocate." May 29 and 30. “He did not do his utmost with the force

RECOMMENDATION under his command to capture or destroy

“In view of the length of time which has the Colon and other vessels of the enemy

s elapsed since the occurrence of the events

la which he attacked on May 31.

of the Santiago campaign, the court recom" By commencing the engagement on July

mends no further proceedings be had in the 3 with the port battery and turning the


GEORGE DEWEY, Brooklyn around with port helm, Commodore

“Admiral, U. S. N., President. Schley caused her to lose distance and position with the Spanish vessels, especially with “ Judge-Advocate-General, U. S. N., Judge

“SAM. C. LEMLY, the Vizcaya and Colon. " The turn of the Brooklyn to starboard

Advocate." was made to avoid getting her into danger- Schmauk, THEODORE EMMANUEL, edi. ous proximity to the Spanish vessels. The tor: born in Lancaster. Pa.. in 1860 : turn was made towards the Texas and caused that vessel to stop and to back her engines

og became editor of The Lutheran in 1889. to avoid possible collision.

He is the author of History of Old Salem "Admiral Schley did injustice to Lieut.- and Lebanon; The Nineteenth Century: Com. A. C. Hodgson in publishing only a Ito History Ven and Movements: etc. portion of the correspondence which passed between them.

Schmucker, SAMUEL MOSHEIM, author ; " Commodore Schley's conduct in connec- born in New Market, Va., Jan. 12, 1823; tion with the events of the Santiago campaign prior to June 1, 1898, was characterized by vacillation, dilatoriness, and lack of en

1840; became a Lutheran clergyman and terprise.

held pastorates till 1848; was admitted “Flis official reports regarding the coal to the bar in 1850, but applied himself supply and the coaling facilities of the Flying Squadron were inaccurate and mislead- to literary work. He was author of Elecing.

tion of Judges by the People; Constitu“ His conduct during the battle of July 3 tionality of the Maine Liquor Law; Life was self-possessed, and he encouraged, in his of John

S of John C. Frémont; Life of Alexander

Frémont own person, his subordinates, officers and men, to fight courageously.

Hamilton; History of the Mormons; Life “ GEORGE DEWEY,

of Thomas Jefferson; Arctic Explorations Admiral, U. S. N., President.

and Discoveries; Life of Dr. Elisha Kent “SAM. C. LEMLY, “ Judge-Advocate-General. U. S. N.. Judge. Kane; Life of Daniel Webster; Life of Advocate."

Henry Clay; Life of Washington; Blue ADMIRAL DEWEY'S OPINION

Laws of Connecticut; A History of the “In the opinion of the undersigned the Civil War, etc. He died in Philadelphia, passage from Key West to Cienfuegos was Pa., May 12, 1863. made by the Flying Squadron with all pos Schmucker, SAMUEL SIMON, theologian; sible despatch, Commodore Schley having in her

in born in Hagerstown, Md., Feb. 28, 1799 ; view the importance of arriving off Cienfue. gos with as much coal as possible in the graduated at the Princeton Theological ships' bunkers.

Seminary in 1820; chairman of the fac“ The blockade of Cienfuegos was effective. ulty of the Theological Seminary at Get

“ Commodore Schley, in permitting the steamer Adula to enter the port of Cienfue. tysburg, Pa., in 1826-64; was largely ingos, expected to obtain information concern- strumental in founding the ecclesiastical connection between the Lutheran churches geologist of an exploring expedition under in the United States and Europe. His pub- General Cass to the Lake Superior copper lications include Fraternal Appeal to the region. He was also on a commission to American Churches on Christian Union; treat with the Indians at Chicago. In The American Lutheran Church, Histori. 1823 he was made Indian agent at the cally, Doctrinally, and Practically Deline- Falls of St. Mary, and afterwards at ated; American Lutheranism Vindicated, Mackinaw, where he married a grandetc. He died in Gettysburg, Pa., July 26, daughter of an Indian chief. He founded 1873.

the Historical Society of Michigan in Schofield, JOHN MCALLISTER, military 1828; the Algic Society, at Detroit, in officer; born in Chautauqua county, N. Y., 1831, before which he delivered two lectSept. 29, 1831; graduated at West Point ures on the grammatical construction of in 1853, where he was instructor in nat- the Indian languages. These, translated ural philosophy for five years. Under into French by Duponceau and presented leave of absence he was filling a like post to the French Institute, procured for in the Washington University, Mo., when Schoolcraft a gold medal from that insti. the Civil War broke out. He was chief tution. He published several works on of Lyon's staff at Wilson's Creek, and in Indian literature, as well as fiction, and November, 1861, was made brigadier-gen- in 1832 led a second government expedieral of volunteers, commanding the Mis- tion to discover the real chief source of souri militia. In April, 1862, he command- the Mississippi River, which was found to ed the District of Missouri, and in October be Lake Itasca. In a treaty with the Indthe Army of the Frontier, with which he ians on the Upper Lakes in 1836 he prodrove the organized Confederate forces cured the cession of 16,000,000 acres of into Arkansas. In November, 1862, he was land to the United States, and he was apmade major-general of volunteers. In the pointed chief disbursing agent for the Atlanta campaign, in 1864, he was con- Northern Department. After visiting Euspicuous; also in the campaign against rope he was employed by the State of New Hood in Tennessee until the battle of York in making a census and collecting Nashville, when he was transferred to statistics of the Six NATIONS (q. v.), and North Carolina, taking possession of Wilc in 1847 he was employed by authority of mington, and was active until the sur. Congress in the preparation of a work render of Johnston. He was brevetted ma- entitled Historical and Statistical Injor-general, United States army, in March, formation Respecting the History, Con1865; was Secretary of War ad interim on dition, and Prospects of the Indian Tribes the resignation of General Grant in 1868; of the United States. He wrote Personal resigned in 1869; and was assigned to the Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years Department of Missouri. He was pro- with the Indian Tribes on the American moted lieutenant - general in February, Frontiers (1863), and several other works 1895, and retired in September following. on the red race. The Indian Fairy Book, He published Forty-six Years in the Army. compiled from his manuscripts, was pub

Schoolcraft, HENRY Rowe, ethnologist; lished in 1868. He died in Washington, born in Watervliet, N. Y., March 28, 1793. D. C., Dec. 10, 1864. His ancestor who first settled in America Schools. See EDUCATION; TECHNOLOGY; was a school teacher named Calcraft, and MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS; COLLEGES, he was popularly named Schoolcraft. ETC. Henry studied chemistry and mineralogy Schooner Pearl, ThE. In 1848 Captain in Union College in 1807-8. In 1817-18 Drayton and his mate Sayles, attempthe took a scientific tour in the West, and ed to carry away to freedom, from the made a fine mineralogical and geological vicinity of Washington, D. C., seventycollection, publishing, in 1819, A View of seven fugitive slaves concealed in this the Lead Mines of Missouri, which was en- schooner; as the schooner neared the larged and published (1853) under the mouth of the Potomac River, she was overtitle of Scenes and Adventures in the Semi- taken and obliged to return. These Alpine Regions of the Ozark Mountains of fugitive slaves, men, women, and children, Missouri and Arkansas. In 1820 he was were immediately sold to the cotton plant.

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ers of the Gulf States; while Drayton and with various papers; member of the MasSayles, with difficulty saved from death sachusetts House of Representatives for by mob-violence, were brought to trial in four terms and of the Senate one term; Washington. The aggregate bail required adjutant-general of the State in 1860-66. amounted to $228,000. They were convict. He published a History of Massachusetts ed and in prison until 1852, when, through in the Civil War (2 volumes). He died the influence and efforts of Charles Sum- in West Roxbury, Mass., Oct. 24, 1872. ner, President Fillmore granted them an Schurman, JACOB GOULD, educator; unconditional pardon; but, notwithstand- born in Freetown, Prince Edward Island, ing this, they were immediately hurried May 22, 1854; graduated at the University out of the city and sent to the North to of London in 1877, and took a post-gradsave them from violence and rearrest. uate course at the University of Edin

Schoonmaker, MARTINUS, clergyman; burgh; was Professor of Philosophy at born in Rochester, N. Y., in 1737; licensed Cornell University in 1886–92; and was to preach in 1765; held several pastorates then elected its president. In January, till 1784, when he took charge of the 1899, President McKinley appointed him six congregations in Kings county; was chairman of the United States Philippine among the last ministers who preached commission, and he was granted a leave in Dutch. During the Revolutionary War of absence from Cornell. He is the author he was an active and influential Whig. He of Ethics of Evolution; The Ethical Imdied in Flatbush, N. Y., in 1824.

port of Darwinism; Belief in God, etc. Schott, CHARLES ANTHONY, civil en- See PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. gineer; born in Mannheim, Germany, Aug. Schurz, CARL, military officer; born 7, 1826; graduated at the Polytechnic near Cologne, Germany, March 2, 1829; School in Carlsruhe in 1847; came to the studied at the Gymnasium at Cologne United States in 1848, and secured a place and at the University of Bonn; with on the coast survey; was made assistant other students engaged in the revolutionin 1856; elected a member of the Nation- ary movements in 1848; joined Gottfried al Academy of Science in 1872. His pub- Kinkel in publishing a liberal newslications include Magnetical Observations paper; and, after the failure of an atin the Arctic Seas; Tables and Results tempt at insurrection at Bonn (1849) of the Precipitation in Rain and Snow in both were compelled to fly. Schurz made the United States, and at Some Stations his way to Switzerland. On the night in Adjacent Parts of North America, and of Nov. 6, 1850, he rescued Kinkel from in Central and South America; Tables, the fortress of Spandau, escaped to the Distribution, and Variations of the Atmos- sea, and took passage in a schooner for pheric Temperature in the United States Leith. Thence Schurz went to Paris; and Some Adjacent Parts of America; etc. thence to London, in 1851, where he was He died in Washington, D.C., July 31, 1901. a teacher until the summer of 1852, when

Schouler, JAMES, historian; born in he came to the United States, landing at Arlington, Mass., March 20, 1839; grad- Philadelphia. There he remained three uated at Harvard College in 1859, and years, and then settled at Madison, Wis. was admitted to the bar in 1862; became In the Presidential campaign of 1856 he professor in the law department of the became a noted German orator, and in Boston University, and later was made a 1858 began to make public speeches in lecturer in Johns Hopkins University. He English. He soon afterwards became a is the author of The Law of Domestic Rela- lawyer at Milwaukee, and, in the winter tions; The Law of Personal Property; Law of 1859–60 was recognized as a popular of Excecutors and Administrators; Life of lecturer. He took a leading part in the Thomas Jefferson ; Historical Briefs; His. Republican National Convention in 1860, tory of the United States (6 volumes). when Abraham Lincoln was nominated for

Schouler, WILLIAM, journalist; born in President, and made effective speeches Kilbarchan, Scotland, Dec. 31, 1814; was during the campaign. After his inaugurabrought to the United States in 1815; re- tion Mr. Lincoln appointed him minister ceived a common school education; en- to Spain, but he returned to the United gaged in journalism and was connected States in December, resigned the office of

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