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was the first Englishman who described and Vanderbilt University in 1874 - 94 ; the White Mountains, for he went to the and for more than thirty years was a source of the Saco River in a canoe. In member of the State board of health. 1630 the Plymouth Company gave Rich. He is author of Geology Reconnoissance ard Vines and John Oldhąm each a tract of Tennessee; Geology of Tennessee; and of land on the Saco River, 4 miles wide on many papers on geological subjects. the sea, and extending 8 miles inland.

Safford, WILLIAM HARRISON, lawyer; Sacramento, capital of the State of born in Parkersburg, Va., Feb. 19, 1821; California, was early known as New Hel. was educated at Asbury Academy, Parvetia and a trading-post. It was settled kersburg, Va.; admitted to the barin 1842; by John A. SUTTER (q. v.); became a began practice in Chillicothe, 0., in 1848; place of large importance on the discovery served in the State Senate in 1858-60 ; of gold by James W. Marshall, the first and was judge of the second sub-dibuilding being erected in 1849; and was vision of the fifth judicial circuit of Ohio made the State capital in 1854. Popula- in 1868–74. He is author of Life of Blen. tion in 1900, 29,282.

nerhassett and The Blennerhassett Pa. Sacramento, BATTLE OF THE. After pers. the battle of BRACETI (q. v.), Col. Alex Sag Harbor, EXPEDITION TO. Early in ander W. Doniphan entered El Paso with: 1777 the British gathered much forage at out opposition, and sent a messenger to Sag Harbor, at the eastern end of Long hurry up artillery which he had sent for to Island, protected by an armed schooner Santa Fé. It arrived on Feb. 1, 1847, and and a company of infantry. General Paron the 11th he set out for Chihuahua in sons, in command in Connecticut, sent search of General Wool. After marching Lieutenant-Colonel Meigs with 170 men in 145 miles he learned that Wool was not at thirty whale-boats to capture or destroy Chihuahua. He pressed forward, however, their forage. They landed near Southold, and halted near the Sacramento River, carried their boats across to a bay, about about 18 miles from the city of Chihuahua, 15 miles, and, re-embarking, landed before in the State of the same name. There he daylight about 4 miles from Sag Harbor. was confronted (Feb. 28) by about 4,000 They took the place by surprise, May 25, Mexican cavalry, infantry, and artillery. killing six men and capturing ninety. After a contest of about three hours, the They burned the forage and twelve vesMexicans were routed by the men under sels, and returned without the loss of a Doniphan. Twelve of their cannon were man. captured, with ammunition and other mu. Sage, HENRY WILLIAM, philanthropist; nitions of war. The loss of the Mexicans born in Middletown, Conn., Jan. 31, 1814; was about 600 men; of the Americans, acquired a large fortune in the lumber eighteen. Doniphan then pressed forward, trade, and will be remembered best for and entered Chihuahua, a city of 40,000 in- his benefactions to Cornell University. habitants, without opposition, and planted He was elected one of the trustees in 1870, the American flag upon its citadel. He and from 1875 till his death president of took formal possession of the province in the board. His gifts to Cornell include the name of the United States. After rest- the Sage College for Women, cost $266,ing there six weeks, Doniphan pushed for: 000; the Sage School of Philosophy, $200,ward and joined Wool at Saltillo (May 000; University Library Building, $260,22). See MEXICO, WAR WITH.

000; and endowment, $300,000; the Susan Safford, JAMES MERRILL, geologist; E. Linn Sage chair of philosophy and born in Putnam (now Zanesville), O., home for the Sage professors of philosoAug. 13, 1822; graduated at the Ohio phy, $61,000; the Sage Chapel; and the State University in 1844; Professor of Museum of Classical Archæology. His Natural Science in Cumberland Univer- various gifts aggregated about $1,250,000 sity, Lebanon, Tenn., in 1848–72; during in value. He died in Ithaca, N. Y., Sept. which time (1854-60 and since 1871) he 17, 1897. After his death his sons, Dean was State Geologist of Tennessee; Pro- Sage, of Albany, and William H. Sage, of fessor of Chemistry in the medical de. Ithaca, presented the university, for a partment of the University of Nashville student's hospital, the Sage mansion, valued at $80,000, a full equipment, and plump and generally handsome; and some an endowment of $100,000.

of the tribes, especially the Nez Percés, Sage, RUSSELL, capitalist; born in are neat in their personal appearance. Shenandoah, N. Y., Aug. 4, 1816; re. With the exception of the latter, none of ceived a public school education; and till the Sahaptin nation have figured in the 1857 was engaged in mercantile pursuits history of the republic. See Nez PERCÉS in Troy. He was elected alderman in INDIANS. 1841 and 1848; served as treasurer of Sailor's Creek, a small tributary of the Rensselaer county for seven years; was Appomattox River in Virginia, the scene of in Congress as a Whig in 1853-57; later an engagement on April 6, 1865, between became interested in railroads; removed to Sheridan's cavalry and the 2d and 6th New York City in 1863 and engaged in Corps of the Army of the Potomac and business in Wall Street; and for many the Confederates of the Army of Northern years has been closely connected with the Virginia under Generals Ewell, Anderson, affairs of the Union Pacific Railroad. On Pickett, and Bushrod Johnson. Ewell's, Dec. 4, 1891, a man named Norcross ob- corps was captured and the divisions of tained access to Mr. Sage's office; secured Anderson, Pickett, and Johnson almost an interview with the millionaire; de- broken up, about 10,000 men in all bemanded from him $1,200,000 in cash; and, ing captured. This action is variously on Mr. Sage's refusal to pay the money, known as the battle of Sailor's Creek, pulled a small dynamite bomb from a Harper's Farm, and Deatonsville. satchel in his hand, and dashed it on the St. Albans, a city and county seat of floor. The explosion that followed killed Franklin county, Vt., near Lake Cham. Norcross, seriously injured Mr. Sage, plain. On Oct. 19, 1864, a party of armed wounded a clerk so severely that he died Confederate refugees in Canada, under soon afterwards, and partially wrecked the leadership of Lieut. Bennett H. Young, the building. At the time of the outrage raided the town in the afternoon, and atWilliam R. Laidlaw, Jr., a clerk for a tacked the St. Albans, Franklin County, banking firm, was in Mr. Sage's office. and First National banks. They overHe claimed that Mr. Sage seized him and powered the few employés of the banks held him as a shield for his own person, then on duty, secured an aggregate of with a result that Laidlaw was also $211,150 in bank-notes, seized all the severely injured. Soon afterwards he be- horses they could find, and rode off hasgan suit against Mr. Sage for damages. tily towards Canada. The party numbered After many delays a jury awarded him a between thirty and forty, and the entire handsome sum, whereupon Mr. Sage ap- proceeding occupied only about twenty pealed to the higher court, and the mat- minutes. Nearly the entire party was ter is still (1905) in litigation.

subsequently captured by the Canadian Sahaptin Indians, a family regarded authorities. as a distinct nation of Indians within the In 1867 the town was again a centre of domains of the United States. It is one public interest. An invasion of Canada of the nine Columbian families in the from the United States had been arranged States of Oregon and Washington. Their for the spring by members of the Fenian country extends from the Dalles of the Brotherhood. Buffalo, N. Y., and Detroit, Columbia River to the Bitter Root Moun- Mich., were chosen as the principal rentains on both sides of the Columbia, and dezvous, and St. Albans, Vt., and Odgenson the forks of the Lewis and the Snake burg, N. Y., as depots for the accumulation and Sahaptin rivers. The nation includes of arms and stores, and as points of dethe NEZ PERCES (9. v.) or Sahaptins parture for subordinate contingents of proper, the Walla Wallas, and other clans the “army of invasion.” The vigilance of of less importance. On the northern bor- the United States government and lack der are the Salish family, chiefly in the of harmony among the Fenian leaders preBritish possessions, and on the southern vented anything more serious than a borthe Shoshones. They are of medium stat. der excitement. ure; the men are brave and muscular, St. Andrew, BROTHERHOOD OF, an or. and dignified in appearance; the women ganization of men in the Protestant Epis.

copal Church. Its sole object is the thirty-five of these separate brotherhoods. spread of Christ's kingdom among men. It then was proposed to form them into It works under two rules, known as (1) one general Church organization. This The Rule of Prayer: To pray daily for the was done in 1886. Since that time the spread of Christ's kingdom among men, Brotherhood has gone on growing, and and that Christ's blessing may be upon the has spread to all parts of the United labors of the Brotherhood; and (2) The States. There are now 1,220 active chapRule of Service: To make an earnest effort ters, with a membership of 13,000 men. each week to bring at least one man within St. Augustine, a city in Florida ; the hearing of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. founded by Menendez in 1565; population

The Brotherhood started in St. James's in 1900, 4,272. When Menendez gave up Church, Chicago, on St. Andrew's Day, the chase of the Frenchmen under Ribault 1883. It takes its name from the apostle (see HUGUENOTS), he turned back towards who, when he had found the Messiah, the Florida coasts, entered an estuary in a first found his own brother Simon and boat manned by six oarsmen, leaving his brought him to Jesus. This Brotherhood large flag-ship at anchor outside, and, acin St. James's parish was started simply companied by his chaplain, Mendoza, and as a parochial organization, with no followed by other boats filled with “genthought of its extending beyond the limits tlemen” and ecclesiastics, he went ashore, of the parish. Its work, however, was while trumpets sounded, drums beat, canso successful in bringing men to church nons thundered, and flags waved. The that attention was called to it, and other chaplain walked at head of the procession, brotherhoods, having the same objects bearing a large cross and chanting a hymn.

Menendez followed with his train, and carrying in his own hand the standard of Spain unfurled. Mendoza, arrayed in rich sacerdotal garments, kissed the cross, and then planted it in the sand by the side of the staff that upheld the royal standard, and against which leaned a shield bearing the arms of Spain. Then, after all had done homage to the priest, Menendez took formal possession of the country in the name of Philip of Spain. With such consecration he laid the foundation of the city of St. Augustine. From that spot he marched to the destruction of the Huguenots on the St. John, and there the unfortunate Ribault and his followers were slain

(see RIBAULT, JEAN). and the same rules, were formed in other Such was the human sacrifice at the parishes in Chicago and in different parts founding of St. Augustine, now the oldest of the country. In 1886 there were about town in the United States.



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Soon after the beginning of “ Queen divisions to the attack. The governor, Anne's War” (see ANNE, QUEEN), Gov- with the main division, went by sea to ernor Moore, of South Carolina, pro- blockade the harbor, and the remainder, posed an expedition against the Span- under Colonel Daniels, proceeded along the iards at St. Augustine. The Assembly coast. The latter arrived first and plunappropriated $10,000 for the service. dered the town, the Spaniards retiring An army of 1,200 men (one-half Ind- within their fortress with provisions for ians) was raised, and proceeded in two four months. Their position was impreg.

nable, for the Carolinians had no artil. Augustine, and imprisoned, when they lery. Daniels went to Jamaica to procure were required a second time to give their battering cannon, but before his return parole to keep within certain limits as the two Spanish war-vessels appeared. Gov. price of their release from close confineernor Moore raised the blockade and fled. ment. Among the prisoners was the This expedition burdened the colony with a sturdy patriot Col. CHRISTOPHER GADSdebt of more than $26,000, for the pay. DEN (q. v.). He had been treacherously ment of which bills of credit were issued taken from his bed at night and conveyed -the first emission of paper money in on board a prison-ship. adsden was reSouth Carolina. Oglethorpe, having been quired by the commanding officer at St. joined by a South Carolina regiment and Augustine to give his parole. He refused, a company of Highlanders, marched with saying he had already given his parole his whole force, about 2,000 strong, to and kept it inviolate, that his rights as a Fört Moosa, within 2 miles of St. Augus- paroled prisoner had been violated, and tine, in May, 1740. The Spanish garri. that he would not trust his persecutors son evacuated the fort and fled into the again. The commander haughtily said he town. Oglethorpe proceeded to reconnoitre would hear no arguments, and demanded the town and castle, and, finding they had an explicit answer whether Gadsden would more than 1,000 defenders, determined to or would not give his parole. “I will turn the siege into a blockade with some not," answered Gadsden, firmly. “In God ships lying at anchor near the bar. Hav. I put my trust, and fear no consequences.” ing disposed troops so as to hold impor. He was confined in a loathsome prison, tant points, Oglethorpe, with the remain- apart from his fellow-patriots, until exder, went to the island of Anastasia, lying changed, in July, 1781, eleven months opposite, from which he might bombard the after the surrender at Charleston. castle. After planting batteries there he St. Brandan (or Brendan), abbot of summoned the Spanish governor to sur. Cluainfert, Ireland; died May 16, 577. render; but, secure in his stronghold, he According to a popular story of the Midsent word to Oglethorpe that he should dle Ages, he with seventy-five monks spent be glad to shake hands with him in his seven years on an island far in the Atcastle. Indignant at this reply, the gen- lantic Ocean. The island was believed to eral opened his batteries against the cas- be visible from the Canaries. tle, and, at the same time, threw a num- St. Clair, ARTHUR, military officer; born ber of bombshells into the town. The fire in Thurso, Caithness, Scotland, in 1734; was returned with spirit from the castle was a grandson of the Earl of Roslyn, and and armed ships, but the distance was so was educated at the University of Edingreat that very little damage was done. burgh. He studied medicine under the celeMeanwhile a party of Spaniards went out brated Hunter, of London, but inheriting a and attacked the Georgian garrison at large sum of money from his mother, he Fort Moosa and cut it in pieces. The purchased an ensign's commission in a regChickasaw Indians with Oglethorpe, of- iment of foot (May 13, 1757) and came in fended at some incautious expression of Boscawen's fleet to America in 1758. He his, deserted him, and the Spaniards by was with Amherst at the capture of Louissome means received a reinforcement of burg, and, promoted to lieutenant in April, 700 men. All prospects of success began 1759, distinguished himself, under Wolfe, to fade. The Carolina troops, enfeebled at Quebec. In May, 1760, he married, at by the heat of the climate and dispirited Boston, a half-sister of Governor Bowdoin; by much sickness, marched away in con- resigned his commission in 1762, and in siderable numbers; and the naval com- 1764 settled in Ligonier Valley, Pa., where manders thought it imprudent to remain he established mills and built a fine dwelllonger on the coast, for the season of hur- ing-house. Having held, by appointment, ricanes was nigh. The enterprise was ac- several civil offices of trust, he became a cordingly abandoned in July.

colonel of militia in 1775, and in the fall In violation of the capitulation at Char- of that year accompanied Pennsylvania leston, many of the patriotic citizens were commissioners to treat with the Western torn from their families, taken to St. Indians at Fort Pitt. As colonel of the

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