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3,000 men. Spurning the advice of his offi- by General Gist, Colonel Howard, and Capcers, he marched before he had made any tain Kirkwood. They had almost won disposition of his baggage in the rear. the victory, when Cornwallis sent some Cornwallis had left Camden to meet Gates fresh troops that turned the tide. In this at about the same time. Foot - falls could not be heard in the sandy road. As the vanguard of the British were ascending a gentle slope after crossing Sanders's Creek, that traversed a swamp, nearly 8 miles from Camden, they met the vanguard of the Americans, at a little after 2 A.M., on Aug. 16. It was a mutual surprise, and both began firing at the same time. Colonel Armand's troops, who led

VIEW AT SANDERS'S CREEK. the van, fell back upon the Ist Maryland Brigade, and broke its line. sharp battle De Kalb was mortally wound. The whole army, filled with consterna- ed. Gates's whole army was utterly routtion, would have fled but for the wisdom ed and dispersed. For many miles the and skill of Porterfield, who, in rally- roads were strewed with dead militia, ing them, was mortally wounded. The killed in their flight by Tories; and, hav. British had the advantage, having crossed ing made no provision for retreat, Gates the creek, and were protected on flank was the most expert fugitive in running and rear by an impenetrable swamp. away. He abandoned his army, and, in an Both parties halted, and waited anxiously ignoble flight to Hillsboro he rode about for the dawn.

200 miles in three days and a half. He The right of the British line was com- had lost about 1,000 men in killed, woundmanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Webster, ed, and prisoners; the loss of the British and the left by Lord Rawdon. De Kalb was less than 500. The Americans lost all commanded the American right, and Gen- their artillery and ammunition, and a eral Stevens the left, and the centre was greater part of their baggage and stores. composed of North Carolinians, underSandiford, RALPH, author; born in Colonel Caswell. A second line was form: Liverpool, England, about 1693; settled in ed by the 1st Maryland Brigade, led by Pennsylvania, where he became a Quaker General Smallwood. The American artil. preacher; was one of the earliest abolilery opened the battle. This cannonade tionists, and in the advocacy of negro was followed by an attack by volunteers, rights published A Brief Examination of under Col. Otho H. Williams, and Ste- the Practice of the Times, by the Foregovens's militia. The latter were mostly ing and Present Dispensation, etc. He raw recruits, to whom bayonets had been died in Philadelphia, Pa., May 28, 1733. given only the day before, and they did not Sands, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, naval offiknow how to use them. The veterans, led cer; born in Baltimore, Md., Feb. 11, by Webster, fell upon these raw troops 1811; entered the navy as midshipman, with crushing force, and they threw down April 1, 1828; was attached to the coast their muskets and fled to the woods for survey before and after the war against shelter. Then Webster attacked the Mary. Mexico (in which he participated), and, land Continentals, who fought gallantly while engaged in the blockading service until they were outflanked, when they (1861–65), was in both attacks on Fort also gave way. They were twice rallied, Fisher. In May, 1867, he was made superbut finally retreated, when the brunt of intendent of the Naval Observatory, and the battle fell upon the Maryland and was promoted rear-admiral in 1871. He Delaware troops, led by De Kalb, assisted died in Washington, D. C., June 30, 1883. Sands, JAMES HOBAN, naval officer; certed signal, they seized the ensign and born in Washington, D. C., July 12, 1845; carried him out of the room, where he saw graduated at the United States Naval the dead body of his sentry and of others Academy in 1863; served in the North of the garrison. All had been massacred Atlantic blockading squadron in 1863-65, by the treacherous Indians. They also being present at the surrender of Charles- killed the traders, seized their stores, and ton and at both attacks on Fort Fisher; carried the ensign to Detroit as a trophy and was promoted rear-admiral April 11, (see PONTIAC). In 1782, flushed with suc1902. During the American-Spanish war cess against the Christian Indians on the he commanded the cruiser Columbia in Muskingum, 480 men marched, under the North Atlantic patrol fleet. After the Colonels Williamson and Crawford, to Spanish surrender at Santiago he joined complete their destruction by assailing the expedition to Porto Rico, and subse- them at Sandusky. They designed, at the quently was appointed governor of the same time, to strike a blow at the Naval Home.


Wyandotte town. They fell into an Indian Sands, JOSHUA RATOON, naval officer; ambush near Sandusky, and, attacked by born in Brooklyn, N. Y., May 13, 1795; be- an overwhelming force, were compelled to came a midshipman in 1812, serving under retreat. Many stragglers were killed, and, Chauncey on Lake Ontario. He was while Williamson escaped, Crawford and promoted commodore on the retired list in others were made prisoners. The colonel 1862, and rear-admiral in 1866. He and his son-in-law were tortured and served on the Mexican coast in 1847-48, burned at the stake, in revenge for the and was at different times commander of cold blooded murder on the Muskingum. the East India, Mediterranean, and Sandwich Islands. See HAWAII. Brazilian squadrons. He died in Balti. Sandy Creek, BATTLE AT. There was more, Md., Oct. 2, 1883.

great anxiety felt in the spring of 1814, Sandusky, a city and port of entry in to have the Superior, ship-of-war, built at Erie county, 0.; on Lake Erie, at the Sackett's Harbor, hastened for sea, lest mouth of the Sandusky River. Near by is Sir James L. Yeo would roam over Lake Johnson's Island, on which 2,500 Con- Ontario the unrestricted lord of the federate officers who had been taken pris. waters. Heavy guns and cables destined oners were confined in 1863. During the for her were yet at Oswego. The roads summer a plot was formed to liberate were almost impassable, and the blockade these prisoners and in connection with this of Sackett's Harbor made a voyage thither act to burn or otherwise destroy Buffalo by water a perilous one. The gallant mas. and other lake cities. An expedition for ter-commander, M. T. Woolsey, declared his these objects was organized in Canada. willingness to attempt carrying the ord. The plans of the Confederate sympathizers nance and naval stores to Stony Creek, 3 became known to the American consul- miles from Sackett's Harbor, where they general in Montreal, who immediately might reach Commodore Chauncey in notified the Canadian authorities. By safety. On May 19 Woolsey was at OsNov. 11, the governor-general had gained wego with nineteen boats heavily laden sufficient information to warrant his noti- with cannon and naval stores. The flotilla fying Lord Lyons, the British minister at went out of the harbor at twilight, bearing Washington, of the plot. Lord Lyons Major Appling, with 130 riflemen: About promptly communicated with the United the same number of Oneida Indians agreed States government, and by midnight of to meet the flotilla at the mouth of Big the same day Secretary Stanton had per. Salmon River, and traverse the shore fected plans which put an end to the abreast the vessels, to assist in repelling movement.

any attack. Woolsey found it unsafe to Sandusky, INDIAN OPERATIONS AT. attempt to reach Stony Creek, for the On May 16, 1763, a party of Indians ap- blockaders were vigilant, so he ran into peared at the gate of Fort Sandusky. The Big Sandy Creek, a few miles from the commander, Ensign Paulli, admitted seven harbor, under cover of a very dark night, of them as friends and acquaintances. and landed the precious treasure there. They smoked awhile, when, at a precon- The British heard of the movement, and, ignorant of the presence of Major Appling lost no life. They captured the British and the Indians, proceeded to attempt to squadron, with about 170 officers and capture the flotilla on the Big Sandy. That men as prisoners of war. A ponderous stream wound through a marshy plain cable for the Superior, 22 inches in cirabout 2 miles, and at that time was cumference, and weighing 9,600 lbs., was fringed with trees and shrubs. Among borne to the harbor in a day and a these Major Appling ambushed his rifle- half, on the shoulders of 200 militiamen,

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men and the Indians. Near Woolsey's carrying it a mile at a time without restboats were stationed some cavalry, artil- ing. lery, and infantry, with field-pieces, which Sandy Hook. See HANCOCK, FORT. had been sent there from Sackett's Har- Sandys, EDWIN, statesman, born in bor. The confident Britons, sure of suc- Worcester, England, in 1561; was a son cess, pushed up the sinuous creek with of the Bishop of York; became a pupil of their vessels, and strong flanking parties Richard Hooker at Oxford; travelled much were thrown out on each shore. The guns in Europe; and, on the accession of King of the vessels sent solid shot upon the James, was knighted. He became an inAmerican flotilla and grape and canister fluential member of the London Company, among the bushes. These dispersed the in which he introduced reforms; and in cowardly Indians, but young Appling's 1619, being treasurer of the company, he sharp-shooters were undisturbed. When was chiefly instrumental in introducing the invaders were within rifle-range the representative government in Virginia, riflemen opened destructive volleys upon under Yeardly. The fickle King forbade them, and at the same time the artillery his re-election in 1620; but he had served on shore opened a furious cannonade. So the interest of the colony and of humanity sharp and unexpected was the assault, in by proposing to send young maidens to front, flank, and rear, that the British Virginia to become wives of the planters. surrendered within ten minutes after the He died in Northbourne, Kent, in 1629. first gun was fired in response to their Sandys, GEORGE, poet; born in Bishopown. They had lost a midshipman and thorpe, England, in 1577; brother of seventeen men killed, and at least fifty Edwin Sandys; educated at Oxford; apwounded. The Americans had one rifle- pointed treasurer of Virginia; and was an man and one Indian warrior wounded, but earnest worker for the good of the colony, VIII.--D



building the first water-mill there. He torney in 1803-16, and during this period promoted the establishment of iron-works, also served in both branches of the State and introduced ship-building. He had legislature; and was elected United States published a book of travels; also a trans- Senator as a Democrat, serving in 1815–21. lation of the first five books of Ovid's On the adoption of the new constitution of Metamorphoses, before he left England for New York, he succeeded James Kent as Virginia. To these Drayton, in a rhyming chancellor; was again in the United States letter, thus alludes:

Senate in 1826–31, and during this ser

vice he was chiefly noted for his efforts “ And, worthy George, by industry and use,

Let's see what lines Virginia will produce. in behalf of currency reform, and for Go on with Ovid, as you have begun

urging the retaliatory policy towards With the first five books ; let y'r numbers France which was subsequently adopted

run Gllb as the former ; so shall it live long,

by Congress. He died in Flushing, N. Y., And do much honor to the English tongue." Oct. 17, 1838.

Sanger, JOSEPH P., military officer; In Virginia he translated the other ten born in Michigan; distinguished himself books, and the whole translation was pub- in the Civil War, receiving two brevets; lished in London in folio, with full-page accompanied General Upton on his tour engravings, in 1626. Sandys wrote several of inspection of the armies of Japan, other poetical works. He died in Boxley France, Austria, and England in 1875–77; Abbey, Kent, in 1644.

was appointed inspector of volunteers with Sanford, CHARLES W., military officer; the rank of lieutenant-colonel in May, born in Newark, N. J., May 5, 1796; ad- 1898; promoted brigadier-general of vol. mitted to the bar in New York City and unteers May 27, 1898. He was directpractised there till his death, attaining or of the census in Cuba and Porto cminence in his profession; was at the Rico in 1899, and in the Philippines in head of the New York State militia for 1903. more than thirty years; directed the Sanger, WILLIAM CARY, military offitroops in suppressing the Astor Place, cer; born in Brooklyn, N. Y., May 21, Flour, Street Preachers', and Draft riots; 1853; graduated at Harvard College in served with the three months' volunteers 1874; lieutenant-colonel of the 203d at the beginning of the Civil War; held United States Volunteers during the a command at Harper's Ferry during the American-Spanish War. He is the author engagement of Bull Run. He died in of Sea Coast Defences and the Organiza. Avon Springs, N. Y., July 25, 1878. tion of Sea Coast Artillery Forces; Or

Sanford, HENRY SHELTON, diplomatist; yanization and Training of a National Reborn in Woodbury, Conn., June 15, 1823; serve, etc. studied in Washington College, and later Sanitary Commission, THE UNITED in Heidelberg University; entered the STATES; one of two great popular organUnited States diplomatic service in 1847; izations established to promote the relief was secretary of the United States lega- and comfort of the National soldiers and tion in Paris in 1849-54; and minister to sailors during the American Civil War, Belgium in 1861-69, where he negotiated the other body being the UNITED STATES the Scheldt treaty of commerce and navi- CIIRISTIAN COMMISSION (9. v.). The corgation. He founded the city of Sanford, porate names of the two organizations inFla., in 1870; was United States com- dicate their respective spheres of operation. missioner on the Congo River Colony in On the day that President Lincoln issued 1883; and was a delegate to the inter- his call for 75,000 men, the women of national Congo conference in 1885, and Bridgeport, Conn., organized a society for to the anti-slavery conference at Brus- the purpose of affording relief and comsels in 1889. He died in Healing Springs, fort to the volunteers. This was the first Va., May 21, 1891.

in all the land. On the same day (April Sanford, Nathan, jurist; born in 15, 1861) a woman in Charlestown, Mass. Bridgehampton, N. Y., Nov. 5, 1777; edu- (Miss Almena Bates), took steps to form a cated at Yale College; admitted to the bar similar organization, and a few days later in 1799; was United States district at- the women of Lowell did the same. They proposed to supply nurses for the sick dent Lincoln and Secretary of War Simon and wounded, and provisions, clothing, and Cameron. The name now assumed was other comforts not furnished by the gov. “ The United States Sanitary Commisernment; also to send books and newspa- sion.” Frederick Law Olmsted was chosen pers to the camps, and to keep up a constant resident secretary-a post of great imporcommunication with their friends in the tance, for that officer was really the genfield. On the 19th the women of Cleveland, eral manager of the affairs of the commisO., formed an association for the purpose sion. Its seal bore the name and date of of taking care of the families of the volun- creation of the commission; also a shield teers. Earnest women in New York, at bearing the figure of Mercy, winged, with the suggestion of Rev. HENRY W. BEL- the symbol of Christianity upon her bosom LOWS, D.D. (q. v.) and Dr. Elisha Harris, and a cup of consolation in her hand, commet with a few earnest men, and formed ing down from the clouds to visit wounded the Women's Central Association for Re- soldiers on the battle-field. lief. Auxiliary associations were formed. The commission was to supplement gov

Then an organization on a more extend- ernment deficiencies. An appeal was made ed and efficient plan was formed, which to the people, and was met by a most contemplated the co-operation of the medi- liberal response. Supplies and money cal department of the army, under the slowed in, from all quarters, sufficient to sanction of the government, in the care of meet every demand. All over the country, the sanitary interests of the soldiers. Al men, women, and children were seen workready Miss DOROTHY Dix (q. v.) had ing singly and collectively for it. Fairs done much in that direction. She had were held in cities, which turned immense offered her services gratuitously to the sums of money into the treasury of the government, and obtained the sanction commission. One small city alone (Poughof the War Department for the organ- keepsie, N. Y.) contributed $16,000, or $1 ization of military hospitals and the fur- for every man, woman, and child of its nishing of nurses for them. Eight days population. Branches were established; after the President's call for troops (April ambulances, army-wagons, and steamboats 23) the Secretary of War issued a procla- were employed in the transportation of mation, announcing the fact of the accept- the sick and wounded. It followed the ance of Miss Dix's services, and on May armies closely in all campaigns, and be1, Surgeon-General Wood " cheerfully and fore the smoke of conflict had been fairly thankfully" recognized the ability and en- lifted, there was the commission with its ergy of Miss Dix, and requested all women tents, vehicles, supplies, and necessaries. who offered their services as nurses to re- When the war was ended, and the work port to her.

of the sanitary commission was made On June 9 the Secretary of War issued plain, it was found that the loyal people an order appointing Henry W. Bellows, of the land had given to it supplies valued D.D., Prof. Alexander D. Bache, Prof. Jef- at $15,000,000, and money to the amount fries Wyman, M.D., William H. Van Buren, of $5,000,000. The archives of the United M.D., Surg.-Gen. R. C. Wood, U. S. A., Gen. States sanitary commission, containing George W. Cullum, of General Scott's a full record of its work, were deposited staff, and Alexander Shiras, of the Unit- in the Astor Library in 1878, as a gift to ed States army, in conjunction with such that institution. “With this act," wrote others as might associate with them, “a Dr. Bellows, in his letter of presentation, commission of inquiry and advice in re- “and with my signature as president of spect of the sanitary interests of the the sanitary commission, the last official United States forces.” The surgeon-gen- act of my service, the United States sanieral issued a circular announcing the tary commission expires. You receive its creation of this commission. On June 12 ashes, in which I hope some fragrance may a board of managers was organized, with linger, and, at least, survive to kindle in Dr. Bellows at its head. He submitted a times of new need a flame equal to its plan of organization, which was adopted, own." C. T. STILLÉ (q. v.) wrote a Hisand it became the constitution of the com- tory of the United States $anitary Com. mission, bearing the signatures of Presi- mission,

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