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The report on cane-sugar and United States beet-sugar is by Willett & Gray ; that on European beet-sugar by Licht.


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Sugar Act. The popular name of an ister, he introduced into Parliament two act of the British Parliament, officially measures of vast importance to the Ameriknown as the molasses act. In 1733 the can colonists. The first was the revival British government laid a prohibitive duty of the old molasses act; the second was on all sugar and molasses imported into the notorious STAMP ACT (q. v.). The North America from the islands of France, immediate effects of the reinforcement of for the purpose of compelling the people the molasses act were seen in the trade of New England particularly to purchase relations between the New England colotheir sugar and molasses from the planters nies and the French West Indies. The in the English West Indies. In 1763, New England people depended largely when Lord Grenville became prime min- upon the products of their fisheries, and

a considerable portion found a ready mar- lasses. The trade between the New Engket in the French West Indies. Those land colonies and the French West Indies, possessions in turn depended upon the accordingly, becoming a matter of great molasses raised therein, and the French importance to the people of both sections, government, in order to force a market and the reinforcements of the original act for the sugar, forbade the planters pay. could have but two results: either the ing for the fish with anything except mo. New-Englanders would have to pay the

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exorbitant duty on the French West Indies Island which Moultrie had so gallantly molasses, or have it seized without cere- defended was renamed Fort Moultrie. inony or compensation.

Sullivan, JAMES, lawyer; born in BerSugar - house Prison. The principal wick, Me., April 22, 1744; began practice place of imprisonment within the limits in Biddeford in 1770; member of the of New York City during the British oc- Massachusetts constitutional convention in cupation. The sugar-house was a brick 1779-80; attorney-general of Massachubuilding five stories high, near the Old setts in 1790–1807; elected governor in 1807 Middle Dutch Church. Here were con- and 1808. His publications include Obserfined the prisoners taken on Long Island rations on the Government of the United and elsewhere, and many patriotic citi. States; History of the District of Maine ; zens. Owing to improper food, clothing, History of Land-Titles in Massachusetts; and medical attendance the prisoners died Dissertation on the Constitutional Liberty by the thousands. It was the pitiable con- of the Press; Correspondence with Colonel dition of these unfortunate heroes that Pickering; History of the Penobscot Ind. led Washington to refuse to regard them ians, in the Massachusetts Historical Colas fair subjects for exchange, because, as lections, etc. He died in Boston, Mass., he wrote to Lord Howe, “ You give us only Dec. 10, 1808. the dead or dying for our well-fed and Sullivan, John, military officer; born healthy prisoners." While the old sugar- in Berwick, Me., Feb. 17, 1740; was a house was kept crowded with prisoners, lawyer, an earnest patriot, and a memthe prison-ship JERSEY (9. v.) was an. ber of the first Continental Congress. In chored across the river in Wallabout Bay. December, 1774, he, with John Langdon, Over 12,000 seamen were confined in this led a force against Fort William and hulk at one time, and the number who died Mary, near Portsmouth, and took from in her was estimated at 11,000.

it 100 barrels of gunpowder, fifteen canSullivan, FORT, the former name of Fort Moultrie. On the morning of July 30, 1776, General Lee reviewed the garrison of Fort Sullivan, and bestowed on them marked praise for their valor and fortitude in its defence. At the same time Mrs. Susanna Elliot, young and beautiful, with the women of Charleston, stepped forth and presented to Moultrie's regiment a pair of silken colors, one of blue, the other of crimson, both richly embroidered by their own hands. In a low, sweet voice, Mrs. Elliot said: “Your gallant behavior in defence of liberty and your country entitle you to the highest honors. Accept these two standards as a reward justly due to your regiment; and I make not the least doubt, under Heaven's protection, you will stand by them as long as they can wave in the air of liberty.” On receiving them Moultrie said: “The colors shall be honorably supported, and shall never be tarnished.” On the morning of July 4 Governor Rutledge visited the garrison, and in the name of South Carolina thanked them; and to Sergeant Jasper he offered a lieu- non, small-arms, and stores. In June, tenant's commission and a sword. The 1775, he was appointed one of the brigasergeant refused the former, but accept- dier - generals of the Continental army, ed the latter. The fort on Sullivan's and commanded on Winter Hill in the



siege of Boston. After the evacuation in battle, he withdrew with slight loss. The March, 1776, he was sent with troops atrocities of the Indians (especially the to reinforce the army in Canada, of which Senecas, the most westerly of the Six he took command on the death of Gen Nations) in the Wyoming Valley, and eral Thomas, June 2, 1776, and soon after their continual raids upon the frontier

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wards exhibited great skill in effecting a settlements in New York, caused a reretreat from that province. On the ar- taliatory expedition to be made into their rival of Gates to succeed Sullivan, the country in the summer of 1779. It was latter joined the army under Washington led by General Sullivan, who was instructat New York, and at the battle of Long ed to “chastise and humble the Six NaIsland, in August, he was made prisoner. tions." He collected troops in the Wy. He was soon exchanged for General Pres. oming Valley, and marched (July 31), cott, and, joining Washington in West- up the Susquehanna with about 3,000 solchester county, accompanied him in his diers. At Tioga Point he met (Aug. 22) retreat across New Jersey. On the capture Gen. James Clinton, who had come from of Lee, he took command of the troops the Mohawk Valley with about 1,600 men under that officer, and performed good to join him. On the 29th they fell upon service at Trenton and Princeton. In some Tories and Indians who were pretty August, 1777, he made an unsuccessful at- strongly fortified at Chemung (now El. tack on the British on Staten Island, and mira), and dispersed them. Before they then joining Washington, commanded the could rally, Sullivan had pushed onward right wing in the battle of Brandywine. to the Genesee River, when he began the He skilfully led in the battle of German work of destruction. In the course of town, and would have driven the British three weeks he destroyed forty Indian vil. from Rhode Island, or captured them, in lages and a vast amount of food growing August, 1778, had not D'Estaing failed in fields and gardens. In fields and granto co-operate with him. After a sharp aries 160,000 bushels of corn were wasted by fire. The Senecas had planted orchards West Point in 1841; served in the Semiin the rich openings in the forest. These nole War, and in the war against Mexico. were destroyed. A vast number of the He was colonel of the 3d Minnesota Regi. finest apple and pear trees, the product of ment early in 1862, and in the Peninsular many years of growth, fell before the campaign commanded a brigade. He was axe; hundreds of gardens abounding with also in the principal battles of the Army edible vegetables were desolated; the in- of the Potomac in Maryland and Virhabitants were hunted like wild beasts; ginia until the close of that year, and in their altars were overturned and their the battle of Chancellorsville. He was graves trampled on by strangers; and a sent to Dakota Territory in 1863 to keep beautiful, well-watered country, teeming the Indians in subjection, where he was with a prosperous people and just rising successful, and served in the Northeast from a wild state by the aid of cultivation, until his death in Fort Vancouver, Washwas cast back a century in the course ington Territory, April 17, 1879. of a few weeks. This dreadful scourging Sully, THOMAS, painter; born in Hornawed the Indians for the moment, but it castle, England, June 8, 1783; came to did not crush them. In the reaction they the United States with his parents, who had greater strength, and by it the fires were players, when he was ten years of of deeper hatred of the white people were age. At fifteen he began to paint at kindled far and wide among the tribes Charleston, S. C., and at twenty estabupon the borders of the Great Lakes and lished himself as a portrait-painter at in the valley of the Ohio. After this cam- Richmond, Va. He went to Philadelphia paign Sullivan resigned his commission on in 1809, where he resided and practised account of his shattered health, and re- his profession until his death, Nov. 5, ceived the thanks of Congress. He took 1872. During a visit to England (1837a seat in Congress late in 1780, and aided 38) he painted a portrait of Queen Vicin suppressing the mutiny in the Pennsyl- toria. His picture of Washington Crossvania line. From 1782 to 1786 he was ing the Delaware is in the possession of attorney-general of New Hampshire, and the Boston Museum. from 1786 to 1789 was president of that Summerfield, John, clergyman; born commonwealth. He was active in other in Preston, England, Jan. 31, 1798; was public employments, and saved the State educated at a Moravian school; came to from great confusion by his prudence and New York in 1821, and was admitted to intrepidity when discontented persons the Methodist conference of that State. were stirring up the spirit of insurrec- He preached in Philadelphia, Baltimore, tion. From 1789 until his death he was and Washington in 1822, his eloquence United States judge of New Hampshire. arousing enthusiasm. He went to France He died in Durham, N. H., Jan. 23, in 1822, and returned to the United States 1795.

in 1824 and preached in the large cities. Sully, ALFRED, military officer; born in He was the founder of the American Tract Philadelphia, Pa., in 1821; son of Thomas Society. He died in New York City, Sully, the emigrant painter; graduated at June 13, 1825.


Sumner, CHARLES, statesman; born in Sumner was lecturer to the Law School at Boston, Mass., Jan. 6, 1811; graduated at Harvard, and his familiar theme was conHarvard College in 1830. Appointed a stitutional law and the law of nations. In reporter of the United States Circuit 1837 he visited Europe, travelled extensiveCourt, he published Sumner's Reports ly on the Continent, and resided nearly a (3 volumes), containing the decisions of year in England. Bearing a complimentary Judge Story. He also edited the American letter to the latter country from Judge Jurist, a quarterly law magazine of high Story, he was cordially received, and was reputation. For three winters, while Judge introduced by statesmen on the floor of Story was absent at Washington, Mr. the House of Parliament. In 1840 he re

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