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CABLES OPERATED BY PRIVATE COMPANIES. CABLES OPERATED BY PRIVATE COMPANIES
Commercial Cablo Co.:
land) to Canso (Nova Scotia)....
6,893 Europe and Azores Telegraph Co......
826 Great Northern Telegraph Co.:
Indo-European Telegraph Co .. 4,984 India Rubber, Gutta Percha, and Tele
graph Works Co... 14,053
Mexican Telegraph Co......
United States and Haiti Telegraph
West Coast of America Telegraph Ca 3,099 Western and Brazilian Telegraph Co....
West India and Panama Telegraph Co...
Direct United States Cable Co.: Ballinskellig's Bay (Ireland) to Halifax
(Nova Scotia) .................. Halifax, N. S., to Rye Beach, N. H..
Western Union Telegraph Co.: Transatlantic System-Sennen Cove, near Penzance, England, to Dover
Bay, Dear Canso, N. S..... Dover Bay, N. S., to New Yor Gulf of Mexico System.....
Number of Cables,
Compagnie Française des Cables Télé
graphiques.... Brest (France) to Cape Cod, Mass... Brest (France) to St. Pierre-Miquelon. St. Pierre to Cape Cod, Mass...... Cape Cod, Mass., lo New York. Other branch lines......
Total ........ African Direct Telegraph Co. Black Sea Telegraph Co....... Brazilian Submarine Telegraph Co: Carcavellos, near Lisbon (Portugal), to
Madeira, to St. Vincent (Cape Verde
Island), to Pernambuco (Brazil)..... Central and South American Telegraph
Co.............................. Compagnie Allemande des Cables Télé
graphiques... Compania Telegrafico Telefonica del Plata Compania Telegrafico del Rio de la Plata Cuba Submarine Telegraph Co... Direct Spanish Telegraph Co.......... Direct West India Cable Co.: Bermuda . Turk's Island and Turk's
Island-Jamaica, .. Easteru and South African Telegraph
Co................................ Eastern Extension Australasia and China
214 Austria .. 2.291
65 Belgium.. 828 Denmark ...
5,035 France...... 422 Germany......
1,989 Great Britain and Ireland.... 11,836 Greece....
62 Holland.. 2,938
1,061 337 Norway.....
324 Portugal .....
1,744 Spain..... 7,376
10 7,500 Turkey....
119 Argentine Republic and Brazil
346 Australia and New Zealand.... 28 Babama Islands.................
200 British America, .. 1,049 710
British India (Indo-European Telegraph
1,919 China .........
774 Cochin China and Tonquin.... 1,280 Japan......................
Senegal, Africa-Dakar to Gorée Island. 6.374 Total......
1,141 19,883 6,713 253
On Sept. 23, 1901, the Commercial Pa699 cific Company was incorporated in Al.
SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH-SUCKER STATE bany, N. Y., for the purpose of laying a United States, an attempt was also made submarine cable from San Francisco to to secure the necessary repeal of the inManila, the line to touch Hawaii, Midway dependent treasury act. The latter measIsland, and Guam. The first message was ure passed both Houses, and became a law
Aug. 13, 1841. The next Congress had a sufficient Whig majority in the Senate to overcome the Democratic majority in the
House, and to defeat any effort to renew 1858
the sub-treasury system. For five years, therefore, after the repeal of the subtreasury act, the treasury was managed practically at the discretion of the Secretary and without special regulations by
law. The election of James K. Polk 1865
brought in a Congress largely Democratic in both branches. In 1846 a bill was introduced to renew the sub-treasury sys. tem. It passed both Houses, and became a law Aug. 6. This act was practically the same as that of July 4, 1840, and has since remained in force with but little
change. Present day.
On Feb. 25, 1863, the act creating a sysTYPES OF CABLES USED SINCE 1858.
tem of national banks became a law. This
authorized the Secretary of the Treasury sent by President Roosevelt from Oyster to make specified depositories of the pubBay to Governor Taft at Manila on July lic moneys, except receipts from customs. 4, 1903. The entire length of the cable is The original sub-treasury acts provided 7,613 miles, the first part, from San Fran- for seven places of deposit—New York, cisco to Hawaii, being 2,276 miles. The Boston, Charleston, St. Louis, the mints new cable connects at Manila with the at Philadelphia and St. Louis, and the present one running thence to Japan, and treasury at Washington, the first four also with the one running to China. This being under the control of assistant insures direct telegraphic communication treasurers. The status of the sub-treasury between the United States, the Philippine system in 1901 is clearly defined in the Islands, China, and Japan without, as prescribed duties of the treasurer of the heretofore required, transit across Europe. United States—viz.: "... is charged Extensions to various systems are now with the receipt and disbursement of all (1905) in active preparation, especially public moneys that may be deposited in in the Orient.
the treasury at Washington, and the subSubmarine Telegraph. See ATLANTIC treasuries at Boston, New York, PhilaTELEGRAPH.
delphia, Baltimore, Cincinnati, Chicago, Sub - Treasury, THE. The United St. Louis, New Orleans, and San FranStates government first assumed control of cisco, and in the national bank United its own funds in 1840, the money being States depositories...." deposited in two corporations known as Sucker State, a cant name given to the Banks of the United States. Previous to State of Illinois. On the great prairies that year public moneys were deposited the crawfish makes holes and descends in various State banks selected by the to the water beneath. The traveller across Secretary of the Treasury. The suspen- the great plains, in early times, provided sion of specie payments in May, 1837 (see himself with a long hollow reed, by which SPECIE CIRCULAR, THE) not only led to a he sucked the pure water from these holes, general panic, but shut up a large amount From this circumstance the settlers on of national government money. In 1840, the prairies were called Suckers, a name when an attempt was made to secure a afterwards applied to all the inhabitants renewal of the charter of the Bank of the of the State.
SUFFERERS' LANDS-SUFFRAGE LAWS IN THE UNITED STATES'
Sufferers' Lands. In the history of of vast importance. Besides preserving Connecticut, the designation of a tract of that region from seizure, they kept Long. 500,000 acres of land at the western ex- street and a large Confederate force froin tremity of the Connecticut Western Re- joining Lee. serve in Ohio, given by the General As- Suffolk Resolutions. At a meeting of sembly of Connecticut to the inhabitants delegates of every town in Suffolk county, of the towns in that State who had lost Mass., on Sept. 9, 1774, nineteen bold property in British incursions during the resolutions, prefaced by a long preamble, Revolutionary War, and to the heirs or as- were adopted, and laid before the Contisigns of those who had died. The total nental Congress. They declared, 1. The number of sufferers was reported at 1,870, loyalty of the people to the King; 2. and the aggregate losses about £161,500. That it was their duty to defend and The grant by the Assembly was made preserve their civil and religious liberties; on May 11, 1792. In 1796 the sufferers 3. That the late laws of Parliament conwere incorporated in Connecticut, and in cerning the people of Massachusetts were 1803 in Ohio. The State of Connecticut gross infractions of popular rights; 4. subsequently sold the whole tract for $1,- That no obedience was due to either or 200.000. See CLEAVELAND, MOSES; GAR- any part of the acts complained of; 5. FIELD, JAMES ABRAM.
That the act for the appointment of juSuffolk, OPERATIONS At. In 1863 Gen. dicial officers by the crown was unconstiJOHN J. PECK (q. v.) was in command tutional, and therefore not to be regarded; of 9,000 men at Suffolk, in southeast 6. That justices disqualified by the late ern Virginia, where he had erected strong acts should be supported in the continued defensive works. Believing he was pre- performance of their duties, and that credparing there a base of operations for itors ought to be lenient during the cona movement against Richmond, in con- fusion caused by the obnoxious laws; 7. junction with the Army of the Potomac, That they recommend all collectors of the Confederate authorities took counter- taxes to retain the moneys in their hands vailing measures, and in February, 1863, until action should be had by arbitration Gen. James Longstreet was placed in or otherwise; 8. That the mandamus councommand of the Confederate forces in that sellors be recommended forthwith to reregion, then fully 30,000 strong. Early in sign, or be regarded as public enemies; April Longstreet made a descent upon 9. That the erection of fortifications on Peck with 28,000 men. He thought his Boston Neck be condemned; 10. Also the movement was so well masked that he Quebec Act as dangerous to the Protestant should take the Nationals by surprise. religion; 11. That the people be recomHe drove in their pickets; but Peck, aware mended to prepare for war; 12. That the of his expedition, was ready for him. He people should act only on the dehad been reinforced by a division under 'fensive as long as possible; 13. That General Getty, making the number of his the proposition to transport beyond the effective men 14,000. The Confederates sea for trial be condemned; 14. That were foiled; and in May, 1863, Longstreet non - intercourse in trade with Great abandoned the enterprise and retreated, Britain be established; 15. That domestic pursued some distance by Generals Cor- arts and manufactures be encouraged; 16. coran and Dodge and Colonel Foster. The That a Provincial Congress was necessary siege of Suffolk had continued for several and should be chosen; 17. That obedience weeks before the final dash upon it, the to the Continental Congress should be object being the recovery of the whole given; 18. That all riots and violence country south of the James River, ex- be avoided; and, 19. That provision be tending to Albemarle Sound, in North made for unity of action, in case hosCarolina; the ports of Norfolk and Ports. tilities should be begun at any place. mouth; 80 miles of new railroad iron; the These resolves formed the basis of imequipment of two roads; and the capture portant action in the Continental Conof all the United States forces and prop- gress. erty, with some thousands of contrabands. Suffrage Laws in the United States. The services of the troops under Peck were See ELECTIVE FRANCHISE.
Suffrage, WOMAN. The people of the frage exists in a limited way in Arizona, State of Oregon voted upon a woman suf- Connecticut Delaware, Illinois, Iowa, frage amendment in June, 1900. The Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minvote stood 28,402 against 26,265 for, the nesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampwhole vote of the people numbering 82,- shire, New Jersey, New York, North 000. The joint resolution to submit to the Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South people of Iowa a woman suffrage amend- Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Washington, and ment was lost in the House in 1900 by a Wisconsin. vote of 55 against 43 for, thereby showing In Great Britain women vote for some a larger opposing vote than that cast in local officers, but not for members of Par1898. A woman suffrage resolution came liament. before the Ohio legis ature in 1900, by In many European countries, in Auswhich it was referred to the committee tralia and New Zealand, in Cape Colony, on judiciary, and there lost sight of. The in Canada, and in parts of India women New York Senate declined to act upon a vote on various terms for municipal or bill giving tax-paying women in towns school officers. and villages the right to vote upon ques. The New York State Association Options affecting property.
posed to the Extension of Suffrage to The committee on election laws in the Women is an organization of women hav. Massachusetts legislature reported 10 to ing its headquarters in New York. The 1 against a petition for Presidential and executive committee is as follows: Mrs. municipal suffrage for women. And for Francis M. Scott, chairman; Miss Alice tax-paying women the vote was unanimous Chittenden, Mrs. Arthur M. Dodge, Mrs. against the suffrage. After debate in the George White Field, Mrs. Richard Watson House for the latter, on Feb. 20, the vote Gilder, Mrs. Gilbert E. Jones, Mrs. Elihu stood 142 nays against 40 yeas.
Root, Mrs. George Waddington, Mrs. RosIn Australia, Oct. 10, 1900, the legis- siter Johnson, and Mrs. George Phillips. lative council of Victoria rejected the bill Mrs. Phillips is secretary, 789 Park Avepassed by the legislative Assembly pro- nue, New York. There are also societies viding for a referendum on the question in Massachusetts, Illinois, Oregon, Iowa, of full woman suffrage.
and Washington, and others are being orIn 1899 woman suffrage bills were de- ganized. These work to oppose the exfeated in the legislatures of Massa- tension of suffrage in their own States, but chusetts, Maine, Connecticut, Vermont, last winter combined in sending seven Illinois, Oklahoma, Arizona, Indiana, Mis- women to appear before congressional comsouri, Michigan, and California.
mittees to protest against a petition for Woman suffrage amendments to the women suffrage. constitution were defeated by the people The National American Woman's Sufin the State elections of 1898 in South frage Association, Mrs. C. Chapman Catt, Dakota and Washington, and in Oregon president; honorary presidents, Elizabeth in June, 1900.
Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony; In Colorado, Idaho, Utah, and Wyo- vice-president-at-large, Rev. Anna H. ming, women have full suffrage and vote Shaw, Philadelphia, Pa.; corresponding for all officers, including Presidential elec- secretary, Rachel Foster Avery, Philadeltors. The woman suffrage law was adopt- phia, Pa.; recording secretary, Alice Stone ed in Wyoming in 1870, and in Colorado Blackwell, Boston, Mass.; treasurer, Harin 1893, and woman suffrage is a con- riet Taylor Upton, Warren, O.; office, 150 stitutional provision in Utah and Wyo- Nassau Street, New York. ming.
Sugar (Saccharum officinarum) is supIn Indiana women may hold any office posed to have been known to the ancient under the school laws, but cannot vote Jews. Found in India by Nearchus, ad. for any such officer.
miral of Alexander, 325 B.C. An Oriental In Kansas women exercise the suffrage nation in alliance with Pompey used the largely in municipal elections.
juice of the cane as a common beverage. In some form, mainly as to taxation or It was prescribed as a medicine by Galen, the selection of school officers, woman suf- second century. Brought into Europe
from Asia, 625 A.D.; in large quantities, duty, $53,992,107; 1892, after reduction, 1150. Attempted to be cultivated in $76,795. Italy, not succeeding, the Portuguese and Total production of beet-sugar of the Spaniards carried it to America about world in 1891 was 7,987,913,896 lbs.; of 1510.
cane-sugar, 4,529,248,334 lbs. Sugar in the United States.—Sugar-cane In 1887 there was produced in the Unitfirst grown in part of territory now con- ed States 400,000 lbs. of beet-sugar; stituting the United States, 1751; first 1888, 3,600,000; 1889, 6,000,000; 1890, American sugar-mill built near New Or. 8,000,000; 1891, 12,000,000; 1892, 27,000,leans, 1758; sugar first manufactured from 000. In 1893, 43,000,000 lbs., produced sorghum, 1882. A bounty was granted by from 200,000 tons of beet-roots, averaging Congress from July 1, 1891, to July 1, the producer $4.50 per ton. In 1900 1905, of 2 cents a pound on sugar not 1,607,685,760 lbs. of beet-sugar were proless than 90° by the polariscope from duced in the United States. cane, beets, sorghum, and maple producedBeet-sugar during the past twenty years in the United States, and testing less than has been rapidly displacing cane-sugar. 90° and not less than 80°, 134 cents, Oct. Should the United States succeed in pro1, 1890.
ducing sufficient sugar from beets to sup(All bounties paid to sugar producers ply the home demand, the cane-sugar inin the United States ceased Aug. 27,1894.) dustry would be practically extinct.
Sugar imported into the United States The average yearly production of maple for the year ending June 30, 1893, was sugar in the United States is about 32,3,766,445,347 lbs., and the total amount 000.000 lbs., although some years there is consumed was 4,024,646,975 lbs., being produced over 50,000,000 lbs. According
62+ lbs. per capita. Very little sugar to the United States census for 1890 there exported from the United States; average were 23,533 producers of maple-sugar less than 20,000,000 lbs. yearly. Sugar making 500 lbs. and over, 10,099 of them duties, 1890, prior to the reduction of the in the State of Vermont.