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San Juan Hill, the scene of a severe rapid approach, and would probably soon engagement between the American and enter Santiago from the northwest. Early Spanish troops near El Caney, while the on July 1 Lawton was in position, ChafAmerican army was on its march towards fee's brigade on the right, Ludlow's on Santiago. After the engagement at LaS the left, and Miles's in the centre. GUASIMAS (q. v.), the time up to June The conflict opened at 6 A.M., and 30 was spent in concentrating the Ameri. soon became general. The naturally can troops and making preparations for strong position of the enemy was renfarther advance. To the northeast of San- dered doubly so by stone block-houses tiago was the village of El Caney, and and forts. After two hours' fighting on the same side, some 2 to 3 miles from Bates's brigade was ordered from the it, were the San Juan hills and block- rear to the support of Lawton, and the houses. It was decided to attack and battle continued. It was in these assaults carry these positions without further de- that the 71st Regiment of New York lay. There were but four light batteries, Volunteers participated. The Spaniards of four guns each, in the army, and Law. fought with great obstinacy, but were ton's division, assisted by Capron's bat- slowly and surely driven from their intery, was ordered to move out that day trenchments and forced to retire. After --June 30—and make an attack early in Lawton had become well engaged, Grimes's the morning of July 1 towards El Caney. battery from the heights of El Pozo openThen, after carrying El Caney, he was to ed fire on the San Juan block-houses very move by the road of that name towards effectively. The Spanish replied with Santiago, and take a position on the field-pieces and smokeless powder. They extreme right of the line. Grimes's bat- soon had our range, while their smokeless tery, of the 20, attached to Kent's powder made it difficult to determine their division, had orders the same afternoon exact locality. to prepare the way next morning for the The troops of Wheeler's and Kent's diadvance of Kent's and Wheeler's divisions visions, which had up to this time been on the San Juan hills, the attack of which partially concealed, were ordered to dewas to be delayed by the infantry till Law. ploy--Wheeler to the right, towards Lawton's guns were heard at El Caney. ton, and Kent to the left. We here quote
About this time news was brought that General Shafter: the Spanish General Pando, with rein. “In the mean time Kent's division, with forcements of 8,000 men, was making the exception of two regiments of Haw
kins's brigade, being thus uncovered, moved along the crest of which the enemy was rapidly to the front from the forks pre- strongly posted. Nothing daunted, these viously mentioned in the road, utilizing gallant men pushed on to drive the eneboth trails, but more especially the one my from his chosen position, both divisto the left, and, crossing the creek, formed ions losing heavily. In this assault Colofor attack in the front of San Juan nel Hamilton, Lieutenants Smith and Hill. During this formation the 2d Shipp were killed, and Colonel Carroll, Brigade suffered severely. While person- Lieutenants Thayer and Myer, all in the ally superintending this movement, its cavalry, were wounded.” gallant commander, Colonel Wikoff, was The battle of July 1, called the battle killed. The command of the brigade then of El Caney, was over, with the Americans devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel Worth, strongly holding all they had gained dur13th Infantry, who was soon severely ing the day. The losses were very heavy, wounded, and next upon Licutenant-Colo- and the reputed coming of General Pando nel Liscum, 24th Infantry, who, five min- made it necessary at once to continue the utes later, also feil under the terrible fire struggle the next day, and gain a decided of the enemy, and the command of the victory before the Spanish could be brigade then devolved upon Lieutenant- strengthened. The troops had advanced Colonel Ewers, 9th Infantry.
and carried certain positions, but the en“ While the formation just described emy was evidently in stronger ones, and was taking place, General Kent took meas- it was necessary to drive him out at once. ures to hurry forward his rear brigade. During the afternoon of July 1 the two The 10th and 2d Infantry were ordered remaining batteries were brought up and to follow Wikoff's brigade, while the 21st placed in position near Grimes, and direct. was sent on the right-hand road to sup- ed to play on the enemy's trenches. Genport the 1st Brigade, under General Haw- eral Duffield's brigade, composed of the kins, who had crossed the stream and 33d and 34th Michigan and a Massachuformed on the right of the division. The setts regiment, was ordered to assault 2d and 10th Infantry, Col. E. P. Pearson Aguadores, a small outpost. During the commanding, moved forward in good order afternoon and night of July 1 the Amerion the left of the division, passed over can lines were rearranged and strengtha green knoll, and drove the enemy ened, and on the morning of the 2d the back towards his trenches.
enemy himself opened the battle by mak“After completing their formation un- ing a fierce assault. But while Kent and der a destructive fire, and advancing a Wheeler remained behind their works reshort distance, both divisions found in pelling numerous assaults, Lawton adtheir front a wide bottom, in which had vanced his lines and gained strong and been placed a barbed-wire entanglement, commanding positions on the right. On and beyond which there was a high hill, the morning of July 3 the fighting was
renewed, but the enemy soon gave way until I ordered a charge, and the men and the firing ceased. See SPAIN, WAR rushed the block-house and rifle-pits on WITH.
the hill to the right of our advance. The Roosevelt Reports.—The following They did the work in fine shape, although are the two reports by Lieut.-Col. Theodore suffering severely. The guidons of Troops Roosevelt, detailing the gallantry of the E and Gwere first planted on the sum“Rough Riders” in the San Juan Hill mit, though the first men up were some fight, which were not made public till Dec. of A and B troopers, who were with me. 22, 1898. The first report is as follows: We then opened fire on the intrenchments
on a hill to our left, which some of the Col. Leonard Wood, commanding 2d Cav. other regiments were assailing, and which alry Brigade.
they carried a few minutes later. · SIR,—On July 1 the regiment, with Meanwhile we were under a heavy fire myself in command, was moved out by from the intrenchments along the hills your orders directly following the 1st to our front, from where they also shelled Brigade. Before leaving the camping with a piece of field artillery until some ground several of our men were wounded of our marksmen silenced it. When the by shrapnel. After crossing the river at men got their wind we charged again the ford, we were moved along and up and carried the second line of intrenchthe right bank under fire, and were held ments with a rush. Swinging to the left, in reserve at a sunk road. Here we lost we then drove the Spaniards over the a good many men, including Captain brow of the chain of hills fronting on O'Neill killed and Lieutenant Haskell Santiago. By this time the regiments wounded. We then received your order were much mixed, and we were under a to advance and support the regular cav. very heavy fire both of shrapnel and from alry in the attack on the intrenchments rifles, from the batteries, intrenchments, and block-houses on the hills to the left. and forts immediately in front of the The regiment was deployed on both sides city. On the extreme front I was myself of the road and moved forward until we in command, with fragments of the six came to the rearmost lines of the reg. cavalry regiments and the two batteries ulars. We continued to move forward under me. The Spaniards made one or
two efforts to retake the line, but were of cool head, great executive ability, and promptly driven back. Both General literally dauntless courage. Sumner and you sent me word to hold the The guerillas in trees not only fired at line at all hazards, and that night we dug our troops, but seemed to devote thema line of intrenchments across our front, selves especially to shooting at the surusing the captured Spanish intrenching geons, the hospital assistants with Red tools. We had nothing to eat except what Cross bandages on their arms, the woundwe captured from the Spaniards, but their ed who were being carried in litters, and dinners had fortunately been cooked, and the burying parties. Many of these gueril. we ate them with relish, having been las were dressed in green uniforms. We fighting all day. We had no blankets sent out a detail of sharp-shooters among or coats, and lay by the trenches all those in our rear and also along the line night. The Spaniards attacked us once where they had been shooting the woundin the night, and at dawn they opened ed, and killed thirteen. a heavy artillery and rifle fire. Very To attempt to give a list of the men great assistance was rendered us by Lieu- who showed signal valor would necessitate tenant Parker's Gatling battery at crit. sending in an almost complete roster of ical moments. He fought his guns at the the regiment. Many of the cases which extreme front of the firing-line in a way I mention stand merely as examples of that repeatedly called forth the cheers of the rest, not as exceptions. Captain Jenmy men. One of the Spanish batteries kins acted as major, and showed such conwhich was used against us was directly spicuous gallantry and efficiency that I in front of the hospital, so that the Red earnestly hope he may be promoted to Cross flag flew over the battery, saving major as soon as a vacancy occurs. Capit from our fire for a considerable period. tains Lewellen, Muller, and Luna led their The Spanish Mauser bullets made clean troops throughout the charges, handling wounds, but they also used a copper- them admirably. At the end of the batjacketed or brass-jacketed bullet which tle Lieutenants Kane, Greenwood, and exploded, making very bad wounds in- Goodrich were in charge of their troops, deed.
immediately under my eye, and I wish Since then we have continued to hold particularly to commend their conduct together. The food has been short, and throughout. Corporals Waller and For. until to-day we could not get our blank- tescue, and Trooper McKinley, of Troop ets, coats, or shelter-tents, while the men E; Corporal Rhoades, of Troop D; Trooplay all day under the fire of the Spanish ers Albertson, Winter, McGregor, and Ray batteries, intrenchments, and guerillas in Clark, of Troop F; Troopers Bugbe, Jacktrees, and worked all night in the trench- son, and Waller, of Troop A; Trumpeter es, never even taking off their shoes; McDonald, of Troop L.; Sergeant Hughes, but they are in excellent spirits, and ready of Troop B, and Trooper Geieren, of Troop and anxious to carry out any orders they G, all continued to fight after being woundreceive. At the end of the first day the ed, some very severely; most of them eight troops were commanded, two by cap- fought until the end of the day. Trooper tains, three by first lieutenants, two by Oliver B. Norton, of Troop B, who with second lieutenants and one by the sergeant his brother was by my side all throughout whom you made acting lieutenant. the charging, was killed while fighting
We went into the fight about 490 strong; with marked gallantry. Sergeant Fereighty-six were killed or wounded, and guson, Corporal Lee, and Troopers Bell there are half a dozen missing. The great and Carroll, of Troop K, Sergeant Dame, heat prostrated nearly forty men, some of of Troop E; Troopers Goodwin, Campbell, them among the best in the regiment. Be- and Dudley Dean, Trumpeter Foster, of sides Captain O'Neill and Lieutenant Has- Troop B, and Troopers Greenwold and kell, Lieutenants Leahy, Devereaux, and Bardehan, of Troop A, are all worthy of Case were wounded. All behaved with special mention for coolness and gallantry. great gallantry. As for Captain O'Neill, They all merit promotion when the time his loss is one of the severest that could comes. But the most conspicuous gal. have befallen the regiment. He was a man lantry was shown by Trooper Rowland.