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rangement there was at least a certainty would have speedily overhauled the Cris. that nothing would get out of the harbor tobal Colon. undetected.

From the moment the Spanish vessel Thirteenth. After the arrival of the exhausted her first burst of speed the rearmy, when the situation forced upon the sult was never in doubt. She fell, in fact, Spanish admiral a decision, our vigi- far below what might reasonably have lance increased. The night blockading been expected of her. Careful measuredistance was reduced to 2 miles, and a ments of time and distance gave her an battle - ship was placed alongside the average speed, from the time she cleared search-light ship, with her broadside the harbor mouth until the time she was trained upon the channel in readiness to run on shore at Rio Tarquino, of 13.7 fire the instant a Spanish ship should knots. Neither the New York nor the appear. The commanding officers merit Brooklyn stopped to couple up their forthe greatest praise for the perfect manner ward engines, but ran out the chase with in which they entered into this plan and one pair, getting steam, of course, as put it into execution. The Massachu- rapidly as possible on all boilers. To setts, which, according to routine, was stop to couple up the forward engines sent that morning to coal at Guantanamo, would have meant a delay of fifteen min. like the others had spent weary nights utes, or 4 miles in the chase. upon this work, and deserved a better Fourteenth. Several of the ships were fate than to be absent that morning. struck, the Brooklyn more often than the

I enclose for the information of the de- others, but very slight material injury partment copies of orders and memoranda was done, the greatest being on board the issued from time to time relating to the Iowa. Our loss was one man killed and manner of maintaining the blockade. one wounded, both on the Brooklyn. It When all the work was done so well it is is difficult to explain this immunity from difficult to discriminate in praise. The loss of life or injury to ships in a combat object of the blockade of Cervera's squad- with modern vessels of the best type; ron was fully accomplished, and each in- but Spanish gunnery is poor at the best, dividual bore well his part in it, the and the superior weight and accuracy of commodore in command of the second our fire speedily drove the men from their division, the captains of ships, their officers guns and silenced their fire. This is borne and men. The fire of the battle-ships was out by the statements of prisoners, and powerful and destructive, and the resist- by observation. The Spanish vessels, as ance of the Spanish squadron was in they dashed out of the harbor, were great part broken almost before they covered with the smoke from their own had got beyond the range of their own guns, but this speedily diminished in volforts.

ume and soon almost disappeared. The The fine speed of the Oregon enabled fire from the rapid-fire batteries of the her to take a front position in the chase, battle-ships appears to have been remarkand the Cristobal Colon did not give up ably destructive. An examination of the until the Oregon had thrown a 13-inch stranded vessels shows that the Almirante shell beyond her. This performance adds Oquendo especially had suffered terribly to the already brilliant record of this fine from this fire. Her sides are everywhere battle-ship, and speaks highly of the skill pierced and her decks were strewn with and care with which her admirable effi- the charred remains of those who had ciency has been maintained during a ser- fallen. vice unprecedented in the history of ves- Fifteenth. The reports of Commodore sels of her class. The Brooklyn's westerly W. S. Schley and the commanding officers blockading position gave her an advantage are enclosed. in the chase which she maintained to the Sixteenth. A board appointed by me end, and she employed her fine battery several days ago has made a critical exwith telling effect. The Texas and the amination of the stranded vessels, both New York were gaining on the chase with a view of reporting upon the result during the last hour, and, had any acci- of our fire and the military features in. dent befallen the Brooklyn or the Oregon, volved, and of reporting upon the chance

of saving any of them and of wrecking rative of his early life under the title the remainder. The report of the board of From Forecastle to Cabin. will be speedily forwarded. Very respect. San Antonio, BATTLE OF, one of three fully,

W. T. SAMPSON. parts of a general engagement fought on Samuels, SAMUEL, seaman; born in Aug. 20, 1847, between the Mexican and Philadelphia, Pa., March 14, 1823; went to American troops, the others being known sea when eleven years old as cabin-boy, and as the battles of Contreras and Churuadvanced to merchant captain when twen- busco. See MEXICO, WAR WITH. ty-one years old; commanded the Dread. San Diego, a city and county seat of naught for several years; captain of the San Diego county, Cal.; on San Diego United States steamship John Rice in 1863– Bay, which gives it importance as a port 64; general superintendent of the quarter- of entry, and ranks as the second bay on master's department in New York City in the Pacific coast for commercial purposes, 1864; commanded the McClellan at the San Francisco being the first. Cabrillo taking of Fort Fisher in 1865; captain of discovered the bay in 1542, and Father the Fulton in 1866; the Henrietta yacht Junifero Serra made the first settlement in her race from New York to Southamp- here when, in 1769, he established the mis. ton; the Dauntless in her race with the sion of San Diego, the earliest of the celeCambria from Queenstown to New York brated California missions. The present in 1870, and with the Comet in 1877. He city was laid out on the magnificent water organized the Samana Bay Company of front in 1867. Santo Domingo in 1872; and later was San Francisco, the commercial metropat the head of several large business enter- olis of California. On June 17, 1776, prises. Captain Samuels published a nar- two friars, Francisco Palou and Benito

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Cambon, left Monterey with seven civil. filled with gold-seekers. The excitement ians and seventeen dragoons and their was so great that at one time 400 ships families, reaching, June 27, the place were in the harbor, which had been dewhere they established the Spanish mission serted by their crews. The usual conditions of San Francisco, Oct. 8, 1776. The settle- of a frontier mining town soon developed, ment by Americans dates from 1836, when and crime became so rampant that a vigiJacob P. Leese, an American residing in lance committee was formed in June, Los Angeles, obtained from Governor Chico 1851, which hung several murderers and a grant of land in Yerba Buena, and built banished many others. Order was soon a small frame - house on present south restored, but in 1856 another vigilance

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side of Clay Street, west of Dupont, cele- committee was organized, which did its brating its completion by raising the work thoroughly. American flag, July 4, 1836. In 1840 there San Francisco contains a larger numwere four Americans, four Englishmen, ber of Chinese than any other American and six other Europeans in Yerba Buena. city. They occupy a quarter of the city In January, 1847, the name was changed which is much visited by tourists. to San Francisco. The first steamer of The Mid-winter Exposition of 1894 the Pacific Mail Company reached San brought many thousands of visitors from Francisco Feb. 28, 1849, and the discovery the East, and since then San Francisco of gold in the same year brought hun- has been a favorite place for holding dreds of steamships and sailing vessels national and international conventions. In

Emperor of Germany, who decided in favor of the United States, in October, 1872. The island was evacuated by the British on Nov. 22, following.

San Juan, city, sea port, and capital of the island of Porto Rico, in the department of Bayamon, on a long and narrow island, separated from the main island at one end by a shallow arm of the sea, over which is a bridge connecting it with the mainland, which runs out at this point in a long sand spit some 9 miles in length, apparently to meet the smaller island; at the other end the island ends in a rugged bluff or promontory some hundred feet high and three-fourths of a mile distant from the main island. This promontory is crowned by Morro Castle, the principal fortification of the city. At this end of the island is the entrance to the harbor, with a narrow channel and rocky bottom, so close under the headland that one can almost leap ashore from a passing vessel. The water here is some 30 feet deep. To a mariner unacquainted with the locality, or when a norther is blowing.

this entrance is one of difficulty and IN THE CHINESE QUARTER, SAN FRANCISCO.

danger. After rounding the bluff one

finds a broad and beautiful bay, landAugust, 1847, the population was 459, and locked and with a good depth of water, increased to 36,154 in 1852, owing to the which is being increased by dredging. It discovery of gold. In 1860 it was 56,802; is by far the best harbor in Porto Rico, 1870, 149,473; 1880, 233,959; 1890, 298,- and probably as good a one as can be 997, and in 1900, 342,782.

found in the West Indies. San Jacinto, a river in Texas, on whose The island upon which the city stands bank was fought the last battle of the is shaped much like an arm and hand; it Texan war for independence, April 21, is about 21/4 miles long and averages less 1836. See TEXAS.

than one-fourth of a mile in width. The San Jose, a city and county seat of greatest width is a little over half a mile Santa Clara county, Cal.; population in in the portion representing the hand, 1900, 21,500. In 1782 the Spaniards es- which also contains the major part of the tablished a pueblo here, and on the adop- city. San Juan is a perfect specimen of a tion of the first constitution of Califor- walled town, with portcullis, moat, gates, nia the State capital was located in the and battlements. Built over 250 years town.

ago, it is still in good condition and reSan Juan, a small island near Van- pair. The walls are picturesque, and couver's Island. The possession of this represent a stupendous work and cost island, commanding the strait between in themselves. Inside the walls the British Columbia and the United States, city is laid off in regular squares, was disputed, under conflicting interpreta- six parallel streets running in the directions of the treaty of Washington respect- tion of the length of the island and seven ing the boundaries, June 12, 1846. The at right angles. The houses are closely matter (by treaty of Washington, May 8, and compactly built, of brick, usually of 1871) was referred for arbitration to the two stories, stuccoed on the outside and painted in a variety of colors. The upper Marina and Puerta de Tierra, containing floors are occupied by the more respect- 2,000 or 3,000 inhabitants each. There are able people, while the ground floors, al. also two suburbs—one, San Turce, apmost without exception, are given up to proached by the only road leading out of negroes and the poorer class, who crowd the city; and the other, Cataño, across one upon another in the most appalling the bay, reached by ferry. The Marina manner. The entire population depends and the two suburbs are situated on upon rain-water, caught upon the flat sandy points or spits, and the latter are roofs of the buildings and conducted to the surrounded by mangrove swamps. Onecistern, which occupies the greater part of half of the population consists of negroes the inner court-yard that is an essential and mixed races. There is but little manupart of Spanish houses the world over, but facturing, and it is of small importance. that here, on account of the crowded con- The Standard Oil Company has a small ditions, is very small. There is no sewer- refinery across the bay in which crude age, except for surface water and sinks, petroleum, brought from the United while vaults are in every house and occupy States, is refined. Matches are made, whatever remaining space there may be some brooms, a little soap, and a cheap in the patios not taken up by the cisterns. class of trunks. There are also ice, gas,


The streets are wider than in the older and electric-light works. The climate is part of Havana, and will admit two car- warm, but for three months of the year riages abreast. The sidewalks are nar- agreeable, although one is subject, from row, and in places will accommodate but the sudden change, to colds and catarrh. one person. The pavements are of a com- The natives are particularly susceptible position manufactured in England from to this class of ailments, and to conslag-pleasant and even, and durable when sumption and bronchitis. no heavy strain is brought to bear upon According to the census taken by the them, but easily broken and unfit for heavy United States War Department in 1899, traffic. The streets are swept once a day the population of the city was 32,048. For by hand, and are kept very clean. Be- military and naval operations connected sides the town within the walls there are with San Juan, see PORTO RICO; SPAIN, small portions just outside, called the WAB WITH.

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