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and given to Gorges. Squanto taught them how to plant maize, to catch a certain fish wherewith to manure their lands, and late in the season he guided ambassadors from Plymouth to the court of Massasoit at Pokanoket, afterwards Warren, R. I.

Sampson, DEBORAH, heroine; born in Plympton, Mass., Dec. 17, 1760; was moved by patriotic feeling to disguise her sex and enter the Continental army when less than eighteen years old. Under the name of Robert Shurtleff she joined the 4th Massachusetts Regiment and served for three years in the ranks; received a sabre-cut in the temple in an action near Tarrytown; and soon afterwards was shot in the shoulder. During the campaign around Yorktown she had an attack of brain fever, and was taken to a hospital in Philadelphia, where her

SAMOSET IN THE STREETS OF PLYMOUTH. sex was discovered. Upon her recovery she was sent to Washington, who gave her etc. He died in New York City, Dec. 12, an honorable discharge, some advice, and a 1823. purse of money. After the war she was Sampson, WILLIAM, author; born in invited to the capital, and Congress voted Londonderry, Ireland, Jan. 17, 1764; her a grant of lands and a pension. She studied at Dublin University and bewrote an autobiography entitled The Fe- came a lawyer; later settled in New male Review. She died in Sharon, Mass., York City. His writings were largely inApril 29, 1827.

strumental in leading to the consolidaSampson, EZRA, clergyman; born in tion and important amending of the laws Middleboro, Mass., Feb. 12, 1749; gradu- of New York State. His publications inated at Yale College in 1773; settled in clude Memoirs of William Sampson; CathPlympton, Mass., in 1775; was chaplain in olic Question in America ; Discourse Before the American camp at Roxbury, and by his the New York Historical Society on the patriotic speeches greatly encouraged the Common Law; Discourse and Correspondsoldiers. His publications include Ser- ence with Learned Jesuits upon the Hismon Before Colonel Cotton's Regiment; tory of the Law; History of Ireland, Thanksgiving Discourse; The Sham Pa- etc. He died in New York City, Dec. triot Unmasked; Historical Dictionary, 27, 1836.

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Sampson, WILLIAM THOMAS, naval offi- the flag-ship New York, was about 7 miles cer; born in Palmyra, N. Y., Feb. 9, 1840; from the entrance to Santiago Harbor, graduated at the United States Naval returning from Siboney, whither he had Academy in 1860; promoted master in gone for a conference with General 1861; lieutenant in 1862; lieutenant-com- Shafter. In the absence of Rear-Admiral mander in 1866; commander in 1874; cap- Sampson the command of the American

fleet devolved on Rear-Admiral Schley. The battle which resulted in the destruction of Admiral Cervera's fleet was fought on plans formulated by Rear-Admiral Sampson, who was unable to reach the scene of the fight before the great American victory had been secured. For his services during the war he received the thanks of the President.

After the close of the war an unfortunate controversy arose between the friends of Rear-Admirals Sampson and Schley. This extended into the Congress and prevented the carrying out the wishes of President McKinley for the suitable recognition by promotions of the principal

participants in the victory. An attempt WILLIAM THOMAS SAMPSON.

was made to revive the grade of vice

admiral and to authorize the President to tain in 1889; and was superintendent of appoint both Sampson and Schley to that the Naval Academy in 1886-90. In the grade, but this measure also failed to Civil War he was serving as executive pass in Congress. officer of the iron-clad Patapsco when that. After the close of the hostilities Rearvessel was destroyed by a mine in Charles. Admiral Sampson was appointed one of ton Harbor. He was blown into the water, the three American commissioners to arbut was soon rescued. In the latter part range for the evacuation of Cuba. He of February, 1898, he was made president then resumed active command of the North of the board of inquiry on the destruction Atlantic Station till Oct. 14, 1899, when of the United States battle-ship Maine in he was appointed commandant of the Havana Harbor (see CUBA). After war was navy-yard at Boston. He died in Washdeclared against Spain he was appointed ington, D. C., May 6, 1902. See SCHLEY, acting rear-admiral by the President, and WINFIELD SCOTT. placed in command of the North Atlantic Report on Santiago Battle.—The folSquadron over the heads of ten officers his lowing is the text of Rear-Admiral Sampseniors in rank. He was ordered to block- son's report as commander-in-chief of the ade Havana, April 21, 1898. With a portion United States naval force, North Atlantic of his fleet he bombarded the fortifications Station: at San Juan, Porto Rico, May 12. He then placed the strongest part of his squadron off the southern shore of Cuba.

U. S. Flag-ship, New York (first rate), On May 19, after eluding the American ships, Admiral Cervera entered the harbor

OFF SANTIAGO DE CUBA, CUBA, of Santiago with his fleet. On May 31,

July 15, 1898. Sampson bombarded the fortifications at SIR,—I have the honor to make the folthe entrance of Santiago harbor, and on lowing report upon the battle with and the June 9 seized Guantanamo Bay and made destruction of the Spanish squadron comit a base of supplies.

manded by Admiral Cervera off Santiago On the morning of July 3, when Admiral de Cuba on Sunday, July 3, 1898. Cervera attempted to escape from San- Second. The enemy's vessels came out tiago Harbor, Rear-Admiral Sampson, with of the harbor between 9.35 and 10 A.M.,

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the head of the column appearing around ly out of the harbor at a speed estiCay Smith at 9.31, and emerging from mated at from 8 to 10 knots, and in the channel five or six minutes later. the following order: Infanta Maria Teresa

Third. The positions of the vessels of (flag-ship), Vizcaya, Cristobal Colon, and my command off Santiago at that moment the Almirante Oquendo. The distance bewere as follows: The flag-ship New York tween these ships was about 800 yards, was 4 miles east of her blockading station, which means that from the time the first and about 7 miles from the harbor en- one became visible in the upper reach of trance. She had started from Siboney, the channel until the last one was out of where I intended to land, accompanied the harbor an interval of only about by several of my staff, and go to the front twelve minutes elapsed. Following the and consult with General Shafter. A Oquendo, at a distance of about 1,200 discussion of the situation and a more yards, came the torpedo-boat destroyer definite understanding between us of the Pluton, and after her the Furor. The operations proposed had been rendered armored cruisers, as rapidly as they could necessary by the unexpectedly strong re- bring their guns to bear, opened a vigorsistance of the Spanish garrison of San- ous fire upon the blockading vessels, and tiago. I had sent my chief of staff on emerged from the channel shrouded in shore the day before to arrange an inter- the smoke from their guns. view with General Shafter, who had been Fifth. The men of our ships in front of suffering from heat prostration. I made the port were at Sunday quarters for inarrangements to go to his headquarters, spection. The signal was made simultanand my flag-ship was in the position men- eously from several vessels, “ Enemy ships tioned above when the Spanish squadron escaping," and general quarters were appeared in the channel.

sounded. The men cheered as they sprang The remaining vessels were in or near to their guns, and fire was opened probtheir usual blockading positions, dis- ably within eight minutes by the vessels tributed in a semicircle about the har- whose guns commanded the entrance. bor entrance, counting from the eastward The New York turned about and steamed to the westward, in the following order: for the escaping fleet, flying the signal, The Indiana, about a mile and a half from “ Close in towards harbor entrance and shore; the Oregon, the New York's place attack vessels," and gradually increased between these two, the Iowa, the Texas, speed, until towards the end of the chase and the Brooklyn, the latter 2 miles from she was making 1610 knots, and was rapidthe shore west of Santiago. The distance ly closing on the Cristobal Colon. She of the vessels from the harbor entrance was not at any time within the range was from 21 to 4 miles, the latter being of the heavy Spanish ships, and her only the limit of the day blockading distance. part in the firing was to receive the unThe length of the arc formed by the ships divided fire from the forts in passing the was about 8 miles. The Massachusetts harbor entrance and to fire a few shots had left at 4 A.M. for Guantanamo for at one of the destroyers, thought at the coal. Her station was between the Iowa moment to be attempting to escape from and the Texas. The auxiliaries Glouces- the Gloucester. ter and Vixen lay close to the land and Sixth. The Spanish vessels, upon clearnearer the harbor entrance than the large ing the harbor, turned to the westward vessels, the Gloucester to the eastward and in column, increasing their speed to the the Vixen to the westward. The torpedo- full power of their engines. The heavy boat Ericsson was in company with the blockading vessels, which had closed in flag-ship, and remained with her during towards the Morro at the instant of the her chase until ordered to discontinue, enemy's appearance, and at their best when she rendered very efficient service in speed, delivered a rapid fire, well sustained rescuing prisoners from the burning and destructive, which speedily overVizcaya. I enclose a diagram showing whelmed and silenced the Spanish fire. approximately the positions of the ves. The initial speed of the Spaniards carried sels as described above.

them rapidly past the blockading vessels, Fourth. The Spanish vessels came rapid- and the battle developed into a chase, in which the Broołclyn and the Texas had at ed by the Spaniards—all steering in the the start the advantage of position. The same direction, and in formation-reBrooklyn maintained this lead. The moved all tactical doubts or difficulties Oregon, steaming at amazing speed from and made plain the duty of every United the commencement of the action, took States vessel to close in, immediately enfirst place. The Iowa and the Indiana, gage, and pursue. This was promptly and having done good work, and not having effectively done. As already stated, the the speed of the other ships, were direct- first rush of the Spanish squadron carried ed by me in succession at about the time it past a number of the blockading ships the Vizcaya was beached to drop out of which could not immediately work up to the chase and resume blockading stations. their best speed; but they suffered heavily These vessels rescued many prisoners. in passing, and the Infanta Maria Teresa The Vixen, finding that the rush of the and the Oquendo were probably set on fire Spanish ships would put her between two by shells fired during the first fifteen fires, ran outside of our own column minutes of the engagement. It was afterand remained there during the battle and wards learned that the Infanta Maria chase.

Teresa's fire-main had been cut by one of Seventh. The skilful handling and gal. our first shots, and that she was unable to lant fighting of the Gloucester excited the extinguish the fire. With large volumes admiration of every one who witnessed it of smoke rising from their lower decks aft, and merits the commendation of the Navy these vessels gave up both fight and flight Department. She is a fast and entirely and ran in on the beach-the Infanta unprotected auxiliary vessel—the yacht Maria Teresa at about 10.15 A.M. at Nima Corsair—and has a good battery of light Nima, 61, miles from the Santiago Harrapid-fire guns. She was lying about 2 bor entrance, and the Almirante Oquendo miles from the harbor entrance to the at about 10.30 A.M. at Juan Gonzales, 7 southward and eastward, and immediate- miles from the port. ly steamed in, opening fire upon the large Ninth. The Vizcaya was still under the ships. Anticipating the appearance of fire of the leading vessels; the Cristobal the Pluton and the Furor, the Gloucester Colon had drawn ahead, leading the chase, was slowed, thereby gaining more rapidly and soon passed beyond the range of the a high pressure of steam, and when the guns of the leading American ships. The destroyers came out she steaned for them Vizcaya was soon set on fire, and at 11.15 at full speed, and was able to close at she turned in shore and was beached at short range, where her fire was accurate, Acerraderos, 15 miles from Santiago, burndeadly, and of great volume. During this ing fiercely, and with her reserves of amfight the Gloucester was under the fire munition on deck already beginning to exof the Soca pa battery.

plode. Within twenty minutes from the time When about 10 miles west of Santiago they emerged from Santiago Harbor the the Indiana had been signalled to go back careers of the Furor and the Pluton were to the harbor entrance, and at Acerraderos ended, and two-thirds of their people kill. the Iowa was signalled to "resume blocked. The Furor was beached and sunk in ading station.” The Iowa, assisted by the the surf; the Pluton sank in deep water a Ericsson and the Hist, took off the crew of few minutes later. The destroyers prob- the Vizcaya, while the Harvard and the ably suffered much injury from the fire Gloucester rescued those of the Infanta of the secondary batteries of the battle. Maria Teresa and the Almirante Oquendo. ships Iowa, Indiana, and Texas, yet I This rescue of prisoners, including the think a very considerable factor in their wounded from the burning Spanish vesspeedy destruction was the fire at close sels, was the occasion of some of the most range of the Gloucester's battery. After daring and gallant conduct of the day. rescuing the survivors of the destroyers, The ships were burning fore and aft, their the Gloucester did excellent service in guns and reserve ammunition were exlanding and securing the crew of the In- ploding, and it was not known at what fanta Maria Teresa.

moment the fire would reach the main Eighth. The method of escape attempt- magazine. In addition to this, a heavy surf was running just inside of the Span- been done she would have gone down in ish ships. But no risk deterred our officers deep water and would have been, to a and men until their work of humanity was certainty, a total loss. complete.

Eleventh. I regard this complete and Tenth. There remained now of the important victory over the Spanish forces Spanish ships only the Cristobal Colon, as the successful finish of several weeks of but she was their best and fastest vessel. arduous and close blockade, so stringent Forced by the situation to hug the Cuban and effective during the night that the coast, her only chance of escape was by enemy was deterred from making the superior and sustained speed. When the attempt to escape at night, and deliberVizcaya went ashore the Colon was about ately elected to make the attempt in day. 6 miles ahead of the Brooklyn and the light. That this was the case I was inOregon, but her spurt was finished, and formed by the commanding officer of the the American ships were now gaining Cristobal Colon. upon her. Behind the Brooklyn and the Twelfth. It seems proper briefly to deOregon came the Texas, the Vixen, and scribe here the manner in which this was the New York. It was evident from the accomplished. The harbor of Santiago is bridges of the New York that all the naturally easy to blockade, there being American ships were gradually overhaul- but one entrance, and that a narrow one, ing the chase, and that she had no chance and the deep water extending close up to of escape. At 12.50 the Brooklyn and the the shore line, presenting no difficulties of Oregon opened fire and got her range navigation outside of the entrance. At the Oregon's heavy shell striking beyond the time of my arrival before the port, her—and at 1.20 she gave up without June 1, the moon was at its full, and there firing another shot, hauled down her was sufficient light during the night to colors and ran ashore at Rio Torquino, enable any movement outside of the en48 miles from Santiago. Captain Cook, of trance to be detected; but with the waning the Brooklyn, went on board to receive of the moon and the coming of dark nights the surrender.

there was opportunity for the enemy to While his boat was alongside I came escape or for his torpedo-boats to make up in the New York, received his report an attack upon the blockading vessels. and placed the Oregon in charge of the It was ascertained with fair conclusivewreck, to save her, if possible; and di- ness that the Merrimac, so gallantly taken rected the prisoners to be transferred to into the channel on June 3, did not obthe Resolute, which had followed the struct it. chase. Commodore Schley, whose chief of I therefore maintained the blockade as staff had gone on board to receive the follows: To the battle-ships was assigned surrender, had directed that all their per- the duty, in turn, of lighting the channel. sonal effects should be retained by the Moving up to the port, at a distance of officers. This order I did not modify. from 1 to 2 miles from the MorroThe Cristobal Colon was not injured by dependent upon the condition of the atour firing, and probably is not much in- mosphere-they threw a search-light beam jured by beaching, though she ran ashore directly up the channel and held it steadat high speed. The beach was so steep ily there. This lightened up the entire that she came off by the working of the breadth of the channel for half a mile sea. But her sea-valves were opened and inside of the entrance so brilliantly that broken, treacherously, I am sure, after the movement of small boats could be de. her surrender, and despite all efforts she tected. Why the batteries never opened sank. When it became evident that she fire upon the search-light ship was always could not be kept afloat she was pushed a matter of surprise to me, but they never by the New York bodily upon the beach- did. Stationed close to the entrance of the the New York's stern being placed against port were three picket launches, and at a her for this purpose, the ship being little distance farther out three small handled by Captain Chadwick with ad- picket vessels, usually converted yachts, mirable judgment-and sank in shoal and when they were not available one or water and may be saved. Had this not two of our topedo-boats. With this ar. VIII.-C

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