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Saltonstall, DUDLEY, naval officer; in their respective States or Territories), born in New London, Conn., Sept. 8, 1738; seventeen guns. nephew of Gurdon Saltonstall; appointed To a committee of Congress, officially captain in the navy by the Continental visiting a military post or station, sev. Congress; commanded the fleet at the un- enteen guns. successful attempt on the British post on To a general-in-chief, field-marshal, or the Penobscot in 1779. He died in the admiral, seventeen guns. West Indies in 1796.

To a lieutenant-general or vice-admiral, Saltonstall, GURDON, clergyman; born fifteen guns. in Haverville, Mass., March 27, 1666; To a major - general or rear - admiral, great-grandson of Sir Richard Salton- thirteen guns. stall; was graduated at Harvard College To a brigadier-general or commodore, in 1684; ordained in New London, Conn., eleven guns. in 1691; and was distinguished as an To officers of marines, volunteer forces, orator. He became influential in politics, and militia when in the service of the and in 1707 was made governor of Con- United States, a salute according to rank. necticut, which post he held till his death Commanders of divisions, of squadrons in New London, Sept. 20, 1724.

of divisions, of a senior officer present, Saltonstall, Sir RICHARD, colonist; and the narrow pennant of other officers, born in Halifax, England, in 1586. He, no salute; but when these officers salute with others, signed an agreement, Aug. 26, an officer of superior rank, they are to 1629, to settle permanently in New Eng- receive, if a captain, a return salute of land, provided that the government be nine guns; if a less rank, seven guns. transferred to them and the other colo- Return salutes of officers holding equal nists. The proposition was accepted and rank, gun for gun. No vessel mounting he was made first assistant to Governor less than six guns allowed to salute. Winthrop, with whom he arrived in New (An officer assigned to duty, according England on June 22, 1630. He returned to brevet rank, is entitled to the salute to England in 1631, but continued his in- prescribed for the grade to which asterest in the colony. He died in England signed.) about 1658.

When several persons, each of whom is Salutes. A salute with cannon is a entitled to a salute, arrive together at a certain number of guns fired in succession post, the one highest in rank or position with blank cartridges, in honor of a per- is alone saluted; if they arrive successiveson, to celebrate an event, or to show re- ly each is saluted in turn. As a rule a spect to the flag of a country.

personal salute is fired when the personThe national salute, which is fired at age entitled to it enters the port or stanoon, July 4, at each military post or tion. camp provided with artillery, is one gun To the sovereign or chief magistrate for each State in the Union.

of any foreign country, twenty-one guns. The salute to a national flag or inter. To members of the royal family-namenational salute is twenty-one guns. The ly, the heir-apparent and consort of the international salute is the only one that reigning sovereign of a foreign country, is returned.

twenty-one guns. The following are the personal salutes: To the viceroy, governor - general, or

To the President of the United States governors of provinces belonging to for. (given on both arrival at and departure eign states, seventeen guns. from a military post, or when passing To ambassadors extraordinary and plenthe vicinity; no other personal salute is ipotentiary, seventeen guns. fired in his presence), twenty-one guns. To envoys extraordinary and ministers

To the Vice-President of the United plenipotentiary, fifteen guns. States and the president of the Senate, To ministers resident, accredited to the nineteen guns.

United States, thirteen guns. To members of the cabinet, chief-jus. To chargés d'affaires, or subordinate tice of the United States, speaker of the diplomatic agents left in charge of misHouse of Representatives, governors (with- sions in the United States, eleven guns.

To consuls - general, accredited to the an officer; was appointed governor of United States, nine guns.

Louisiana in 1724. His administration To officers of foreign services, visiting was marked by inefficiency. On Nov. 29, any military post or station (provided 1729, the Natchez Indians, after being with artillery), in accordance with their exasperated by evil persons, massacred all rank.

the male inhabitants in their country. Salvation Army, a quasi-military Later Périer endeavored to restore the organization for mission work, using, as French prestige by sending against the special means, a uniform, out-door pro- Natchez an expedition of 1,000 men, who cessions, with banners and music, and took several hundred prisoners and sent religious talks in the streets, public halls, them to Santo Domingo, where they were theatres, etc. The army is an outgrowth sold as slaves. Salvert returned to France of the East London Christian Revival So. in 1733. ciety, or, as afterwards called, the “ Chris- Salzburgers, the colony of seventytian Mission,” established in London by eight persons, representing forty-two Rev. William Booth, in 1865. Its aims families, who, under persecution, left their are: First, to go to the people with the homes in the archbishopric of Salzburg, message of salvation; second, to attract Bavaria; arrived in Savannah, Ga., in the people; third, to save the people; March, 1734, and under the direction of fourth, to employ the people in salvation Oglethorpe located “about 30 miles in work. Their motto is “ Blood and Fire.” the interior.” See GEORGIA; OGLETHORPE, It publishes many weekly newspapers and JAMES EDWARD. monthly magazines.

Sam Adams Regiments, the name ap

plied by Lord North to the 14th and 29th William Booth holds his first open-air

regiments of British soldiers, which had meeting at the Mile End Waste, Lon been stationed in Boston for more than don, from which his hearers “ pro.

a year when the massacre of 1770 OCcession " to a large tent near Baker's Row. Whitechapel.

July 5. 1865 curred, in which CRISPUS ATTUCKS (see Work of the Christian Mission first in BOSTON), among others, was killed. A for

troduced temporarily in the United mal demand for the immediate removal of States, at Cleveland, O., by a Lon

these troops from the city was made on don cabinet-maker .................. 1872 War Cry, a weekly newspaper, first

Governor Hutchinson by a committee of issued .......

1879 which Samuel Adams was chairman. The Salvation Army corps established in British authorities proposed to compromise

Philadelphia, by the family of Mr.
Shirley, from Coventry, England..... 1879

the trouble by sending away the 29th RegiMeeting held in Castle Garden, New

ment, but Adams insisted on both regi. York, and at “ Harry Hill's," by Com ments or none. He stirred up such a commissioner Roilton, and seven hal

motion in the streets of the city that both lelujah lasses sent over from Eng. land (the first uniformed corps sent

regiments were ordered away within a
out) ............................. 1880 few hours.
First American headquarters opened in

Samana Bay. See Santo DOMINGO.
Philadelphia ..................... 1880
First Rescue-home in England begun

Samar, an island of the Visayan group under the direction of Bramwell

of the Philippine Islands. It is the most

eastern of the group; is about 250 miles General Booth publishes his book, In

southeast of the island of Luzon; has an Darkest England, and the Way Out.

Oct., 1884 area of 56

area of 56,000 square miles, and a popuContinental congress of Salvation Army lation of about 185,000, of which about

of the United States begins its ses 10,000 are natives living in the mountains

sion in New York City...... Nov. 21, 1884 Ballington Booth appointed commander

in an almost savage state. The island is in the United States.....

1887 traversed by mountain ranges; it is withBallington Booth resigns and organizes out established roads, and the only means the “ Volunteers of America"....... 1896 of communication between its various

parts are the trails laid out by the AmeriSalvert, PÉRIER DU, colonial governor; can troops under General Hughes. On Sept. born in France about 1690; entered the 28, 1901, there was a sudden rising of the French navy, in which service he became natives, who had been regarded as friendly



1881 east





to the Americans, and attacked Company The group consists of ten inhabited and C, 9th United States Infantry, near Balan- two uninhabited islands, with an area of giga. The natives surprised the troops while 1,700 square miles and an aggregate poputhe latter were at breakfast, fought them lation, according to latest estimates, of with bollos, captured all the stores and 36,000 people, of which something over ammunitions of the company and nearly 200 are British subjects, 125 Germans, 25 all the rifles, and killed forty-eight mem- Americans, 25 French, and 25 of other bers of the company. The last previous in- nationalities, while the remainder are telligence from Samar was under date of natives of the Polynesian race. The bulk July 27, 1901, which noted the surrender of the population is located in the three of 500 natives, with two field-guns, twenty islands of Upolou, Savaii, and Tutuila, the rifles, and seventy bollos to the Americans. number in Upolou being 16,600, in Savaii

Samoan, formerly known as Naviga- 12,500, and in Tutuila 3,700. The islands tor, Islands, a group of twelve islands are of volcanic origin, but fertile, proin the Southern Pacific Ocean. They are ducing cocoa-nuts, cotton, sugar, and coffee, located about 2,000 miles south and 300 the most important, however, being cocoamiles west of the Hawaiian Islands and nuts, from which the copra of comfourteen degrees south of the equator. They merce is obtained by drying the kernel of lie in an almost direct line between San the cocoa-nut, the copra, which is ex

ported to Europe and the United States, being used in the manufacture of cocoa-nut oil. The exportation of copra from the islands in 1896 amounted to 12,565,909 lbs., valued at $231,372. A considerable proportion of this was exported to the United States, a larger proportion, however, to Germany, whose citizens control its commerce through a trading company which has long been established there. The cocoa-nut and copra productions, however, vary greatly from year to year, owing to the fact that many of the cocoa-nut trees have been destroyed in recent wars

between native factions, A NATIVE VILLAGE, SAMOA.

a single individual being

able, by cutting out the Francisco and Australia and slightly south crown of the tree, to permanently destroy of the direct steamship line connecting the in two minutes' time the fruit-bearing Philippines with the proposed Panama or qualities of trees which require several Nicaraguan interoceanic canals. Their years for their growth. especial importance, therefore, lies more The government of the Samoan Islands in their position as coaling and repair had been from time immemorial under stations on these great highways of com- the two royal houses of Malietoa and merce rather than in their direct com- Tupea, except on the island of Tutuila, mercial value, their population being which was governed by native chiefs. In small and their imports and exports of 1873, at the suggestion of foreign resicomparatively little importance.

dents, a house of nobles and a house of

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representatives were established, with second, all civil suits between natives and Malietoa, Laupepa, and the chief of the foreigners or between foreigners of difroyal house of Tupea as joint kings. Sub- ferent nationalities; third, all crimes sequently Malietoa became sole king. In committed by natives against foreign

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1887 he was deposed by the German goy- ers or committed by such foreigners as ernment upon the claim of unjust treat- are not subject to any consular jurisment of German subjects, who formed the diction. bulk of the foreign population on the The future alienation of lands was proisland, and was deported first to German hibited, with certain specified exemptions. New Guinea and then to the Cameroons, The capital was located at Apia, the chief in Africa, and finally in 1888 to Hamburg, town of the group of islands, and a local Tamasese, a native chief, being meantime administration provided for the municipal proclaimed by the Germans as king, district of Apia. A commission was apthough against the protest of the British pointed to investigate titles to land aland American consuls at Samoa. Mataafa, leged to have been purchased from the a near relative of Malietoa, made war natives, and this in 1894 completed its upon Tamasese and succeeded to the king. labors, confirming about 75,000 acres of ship.

land to Germans, 36,000 to British, and In 1889 a conference between the repre- 21,000 to Americans, though much of this sentatives of the American, British, and land has since changed hands. Malietoa, German governments was held at Berlin, who had been deported, was restored as at which a treaty was signed by the three king in November, 1889, and continued as powers guaranteeing the neutrality of the such until his death, which occurred Aug. islands, in which the citizens of the three 22, 1898, when the consuls of the three signatory powers would have equal rights powers, with the chief-justice as presiof residence, trade, and personal protec- dent, took charge of the administration tion. They agreed to recognize the inde- pending the election of a successor. Out pendence of the Samoan government and of the election and recognition of this sucthe free rights of the natives to elect cessor to King Malietoa, deceased, serious their chief or king and choose a form of disagreements between the local repregovernment according to their own laws sentatives of the three governments mainand customs. A supreme court was es- taining the joint protectorate over the tablished, consisting of one judge styled islands occurred. These were followed in the chief-justice of Samoa. To this court 1899 by a new agreement between the were referred: First, all civil suits con- three nations, which has been been decerning real property situated in Samoa : scribed as follows:


T'he treaty bears date at Washington, Dec. by arbitration in conformity with the prin. 2, 1899, and after reciting its purpose to be ciples of international law or considerations to adjust amicably questions between the of equity." three powers in respect to the Samoan group, There is also a provision to the effect that and to avoid future misunderstandings, pro- “either of the three governments named, ceeds textually as follows:

with the consent of the others, previously

obtained in every case, submit to the King Article I. The general act concluded and for arbitration similar claims of persons, not signed by the aforesaid powers at Berlin being natives, who are under the protection on the 14th day of June. A.D. 1899, and all of that government and who are not included previous treaties, conventions, and agreements in the above-mentioned categories." relating to Samoa are annulled.

The agreement provides for the exchange Art. II. Germany renounces in favor of the of ratifications four months from the date United States of America all her rights and of its signature, which is the 7th of Novemclaims over and in respect to the island of ber last, or earlier if possible. Tutuila and all other islands of the Samoan group east of long. 171 deg. W. of Green Island of Tutuila and Pago-Pago Har. wich. Great Britain in like manner renounces

au bor.—The harbor of Pago-Pago, in the in favor of the United States of America all her rights and claim over and in respect to island of Tutuila, the southernmost of the the island of Tutuila and all other islands of the Samoan group east of long. 171 deg. W.

: naval and coaling station, first in 1872, and of Greenwich. Reciprocally, the United States of America renounces in favor of Germany afterwards confirmed by a treaty signed all their rights and claims over and in re- in Washington, Jan. 17, 1878, and ratifispect to the islands of Upolou and Savail, cations exchanged on Feb. 13 of the same and all other islands of the Samoan group

Pyear, by which the United States was west of long. 171 deg. W. of Greenwich.

Art. III. It is understood and agreed that given the right to establish at that harbor each of the three signatory powers shall continue to enjoy in respeet to their commerce dom of trade. commercial treatment as a and commercial vessels in all the islands of the Samoan group privileges and conditions favored nation, and extra-territorial con. equal to those enjoyed by the sovereign power sular jurisdiction. This harbor was occuin all ports which may be open to the com- pied by the United States in 1898, with merce of either of them. Art. IV. The present convention shall be

the purpose of utilizing its advantages as ratified as soon as possible and shall come il into force immediately after the exchange of the island upon whose coast this harbor ratifications.

is located, has a population of 3,700 and A separate treaty was negotiated to cover an area of 54 square miles, while Upolou the provisions for the settlement of claims has an area of 340 square miles, and in Samoa. It sets forth that the three gov- Savaii 659 square miles. By the above ernments are “ desirous of effecting a prompt and satisfactory settlement of the claims of

agreement the German and British gov. the citizens and subjects of their respective ernments withdrew their claims to this countries resident in the Samoan Islands on island in favor of the United States. See account of recent military operations con APIA. ducted there, and have concluded a convention for the accomplishment of this end

Samoset, chief of the Pemaquid Indby arbitration."

ians; born in New England about 1590. The King of Sweden and Norway is made In March, 1621, a naked Indian, who had arbitrator, and he is not only to determine learned a few words of English from the the amount of claims, but is to decide to " what extent either of the three govern- fishermen at Pemaquid, suddenly appeared ments is bound, alone or jointly with the in the streets of Plymouth, Mass., and others, to make good these losses."

startled the Pilgrims by the exclamation, The nature of the claims to be adjusted « Welcome Englishmen! Welcome. Eng. is set forth in Article I. of this treaty, as follows:

lishmen!” He was Samoset, and gave “ All claims put forward by American cit- them much information. He told them of Izens or German or British subjects, respec- the plague that had swept off the Indians tively, whether individuals or companies, for compensation on account of losses which they about four years before, and that the allege that they have suffered in consequence place where they were seated was called of unwarranted military action, if this be

SOIT shown to have occurred, on the part of Amer

(q. v.). icans, German or British officers, between the

He brought to the settlement 1st of January last and the arrival of the some of the friendly Indians, among them joint commission in Samoa, shall be decided Squanto, whom Weymouth had kidnapped

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