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HARPERS' ENCYCLOPÆDIA

OF

UNITED STATES HISTORY

Sabin, JOSEPH, bibliophile; born in tion; Report on the Principal Fisheries of Braunston, Northamptonshire, England, the American Seas; Hundredth AnniDec. 9, 1821; received a common school versary of the Death of Major-General education; was apprenticed to a book. James Wolfe, etc. He died in Boston, seller and publisher; and later opened a Mass., April 14, 1877. similar establishment of his own and pub. Sabine Cross-roads, BATTLE AT. The lished The XXXIX Articles of the Church Confederates made a stand at Sabine of England, with Scriptural Proofs and Cross-roads, La., during the Red River References. He came to the United States expedition under General Banks, in 1864. in 1848 and settled in Philadelphia, Pa.; Franklin's troops moved forward, with removed to New York City in 1850; and General Lee's cavalry in the van, followed returned in 1856 to Philadelphia, where by two thin divisions under General Ranhe opened a book-store. In 1861 he re- som. General Emory followed Ransom. turned to New York City and made a Among his troops was a brigade of colored specialty of collecting rare books and soldiers. Lee was ordered to attack the prints. He prepared catalogues of many Confederates wherever he should find valuable libraries; edited and published them, but not to bring on a general enThe American Bibliopolist; a Literary gagement. Franklin advanced to PLEASRegister and Monthly Catalogue of Old ANT HILL (q. v.), where Banks joined Books; and contributed to the American him. Near Sabine Cross-roads, Lee found Publisher's Circular. He also published the trans-Mississippi army, fully 20,000 parts of a Dictionary of Books Relating strong, under several Confederate leaders. to America from Its Discovery to the Waiting for the main army to come up, Present Time. He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., Lee and Ransom were attacked (April 8), June 5, 1881.

by the Confederates. At a little past Sabin, LORENZO, historian; born in New noon, General Banks arrived at the front, Lisbon, N. H., Feb. 28, 1803; was self- and found the skirmishers hotly engaged. educated; became prominent in the poli. Orders were sent to Franklin to hurry tics of his native State. In 1852 he was forward, but he did not arrive in time to made a secret agent of the United States give needed assistance, for at 4 P.M. 8,000 Treasury Department to look after United infantry and 12,000 cavalry had fallen States commerce with the British colonies upon the Nationals along their whole line, under the Ashburton treaty. He was the and drove them back. Franklin, with a author of a Life of Commodore Edward division under General Cameron, arrived Preble; The American Loyalists, or Bio. at five o'clock, but the overwhelming num. graphical Sketches of Adherents to the ber of the Confederates turned the Na. British Crown in the War of the Revolu. tional flank and struck their centre

VIIT.—A

heavily. This assault, like the first, was and 521 of the latter band of the Sac and stubbornly resisted, but, finding the Con- Fox agency in Oklahoma. federates gaining their rear, the Nationals Sachem, among American Indian nafell back, and were received by General tions, the title of a chief having differEmory, who was advancing. Ransom lost ent powers in different tribes or families. ten guns and 1,000 men captured, and Lee The office was both hereditary and elective 156 wagons filled with supplies

in various tribes; in some it was applied Sable, ISLE OF. See ROCHE, ÉTIENNE, to the head chief of a group of families, MARQUIS DE LA.

each family having its own chief. In the Sac and For Indians, associate Iroquois Confederacy there were fifty families of the Algonquian nation. They sachems in whom was vested the supreme were seated on the Detroit River and power. They were equal in rank and Saginaw Bay when the French discovered authority; were distributed among the nathem, but were driven beyond Lake Michi- tions composing the confederacy, and were gan by the Iroquois. Settling near Green united in what was known as the council Bay, they took in the Foxes, and they have of the league, which was the body posbeen intimately associated ever since, espe- sessing the executive, legislative, and jucially in wars. Roving and restless, they dicial authority for the entire confederacy. were continually at war with the fiery Among the New England Indians, the highSioux, and were allies of the French est functionaries were known as sachems, against the latter. In the conspiracy of and the ones immediately subordinate to PONTIAC (q. v.), the Sacs were his con- them as sagamores. federates, but the Foxes were not; and Sachse, JULIUS FRIEDRICH, author; in the wars of the Revolution and 1812 born in Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 22, 1842. they were friends of the British. They He is the author of The German Pietists were divided into a large number of class- of Provincial Pennsylvania; Pennsyles distinguished by totems of different vania: The German Influence in Its Setanimals. They remained faithful to trea- tlement and Development; The German ties with the United States until BLACK Separatists of Pennsylvania, 1720-1800; HAWK (q. v.) made war in 1832, when Critical and Legendary History of the Keokuk, a great warrior and diplomat, re- Ephrata Cloister and the Dunkers, etc. mained faithful. The Foxes proper were Sackett's Harbor. Early in July, 1812, first known as Outagamies (English a rumor spread that the Oneida had been “ foxes”). They were visited in their captured by the British, and that a squad. place of exile with the Sacs by the Jesuit ron of British vessels were on their way missionary Allouez, in 1667, when they from Kingston to recapture the Lord Nel. numbered 500 warriors. The missionaries son, lying at Sackett's Harbor. General could make very little impression upon Brown, with a militia force, immediately them. When De Nonville made his cam took post at the harbor. The story was paign against the Five Nations, the unit- not true, but a squadron made an attack ed Sacs and Foxes joined him, as they on the harbor eighteen days afterwards. had De la Barré in 1684, but they soon The squadron, built at Kingston, consisted became friendly to the Iroquois, and pro- of the Royal George, 24: Prince Regent, posed to join their confederacy. In 1712 22; Earl of Moira, 20; Simcoe, 12; and they attacked Detroit, and hostilities were Seneca, 4, under the command of Commocarried on for almost forty years, when dore Earle, a Canadian. Earle sent word they joined the French in their final to Colonel Bellinger, in command of the struggle to hold Canada. The Foxes be- militia at Sackett's Harbor, that all he friended the white people in Pontiac's wanted was the Oneida and the Lord NelWar. Since the War of 1812 the history son, at the same time warning the inhabiof the Sacs and Foxes is nearly the same. tants that in case of resistance the village In 1899 there were seventy-seven Sac and would be destroyed. The Oneida weighed Fox Indians of the Missouri at the Pot- anchor and attempted to escape to the tawattomie and Great Nehama agency in lake. She failed, and returned. She was Kansas; 388 Sacs and Foxes of Missis- moored just outside of Navy Point, in sippi at the Sac and Fox agency in Iowa; position to have her broadside of nine

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guns brought to bear upon approaching the Royal George. Shots came from the vessels. The remainder of her guns were two British vessels, which were returned, taken out to be placed in battery on the and a brisk cannonading was kept up for land. An iron 32-pounder, which had been about two hours, the squadron standing off lying in the mud near the shore, and and on out of the range of the smaller from that circumstance was called the guns. One of the enemy's shot (a 32“ Old Sow," was placed in battery on a pounder) came over the bluff, struck the bluff with three other heavy guns; and a ground, and ploughed a furrow. Sergeant company of artillery had four heavy guns. Spier caught it up and ran with it to With this force the Americans were pre- Vaughan, exclaiming, “I have been playpared to receive the invaders.

ing ball with the redcoats and have caught The squadron slowly entered the harbor 'em out. See if the British can catch it (July 29), and when the Royal George back again.” The Royal George was at and Prince Regent were near enough, that moment nearing to give a broadside. Capt. William Vaughan, a sailing-mas. Vaughan's great gun immediately sent back

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MAP OF OPERATIONS AT SACKETT'S HARBOR IN MAY, 1813. ter, in charge of the “ Old Sow” and her the ball with such force and precision that companions, opened fire upon them, but it went crashing through the stern of the without effect. The people on the shore British vessel, raked her decks, sent plainly heard derisive laughter on board splinters as high as her mizzen topsail,

killed fourteen men, and wounded eigh- 28th he was in Backus's camp. Thence he teen. The Royal George had already re- sent expresses in all directions to summon ceived a shot between wind and water, the militia to the field, and fired alarm and been pierced by another, and she now guns to arouse the inhabitants. showed a signal for retreat. The squad- As fast as the militia came in they were ron put about and sailed out of the harbor, armed and sent to Horse Island, where while the band on shore played “Yankee the Sackett's Harbor light-house was Doodle." The Americans received no in- erected. It was connected with the main jury.

by an isthmus covered with water of When, in May, 1813, the British au- fordable depth, and there it was expected thorities heard of the depletion of the the invaders would attempt to land. At military force at Sackett's Harbor when noon six British vessels and forty bateaux Chauncey and Dearborn sailed for York, appeared off Sackett's Harbor, having over they resolved to attempt its capture. It 1,000 land troops, under the command of was then the chief place of deposit for the Gov.-Gen. Sir George Prevost. The troops

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naval and military stores of the Americans were embarked in the bateaux, but were on the northern frontier, and its possession soon ordered back, when the whole squadwould give to the holder the command of ron went out on the open lake. The apthe lake. The fall of York made the Brit- pearance of a flotilla of American gunish hesitate; but when it was known that boats approaching from the westward had Chauncey and Dearborn had gone to the alarmed . Prevost. They were conveying Niagara River, an armament proceeded part of a regiment from Oswego to join from Kingston to assail the harbor. On the garrison at Sackett's Harbor. As soon the evening of May 27, word reached that as their real weakness was discovered the place that a British squadron, under Sir squadron returned to the harbor, and on James Yeo, had sailed from Kingston. the next morning a considerable force, Colonel Backus was in command of the armed with cannon and muskets, landed on troops at Sackett's Harbor. Gen. Jacob Horse Island. The militia had been withBrown was at his home, a few miles from drawn from the island, and placed behind Watertown, and he had promised to take a gravel ridge on the main. These fled chief command in case of invasion. He almost at the first fire of the invaders. was summoned, and before the dawn of the This disgraceful conduct astonished

General Brown, and he attempted to rally one of the most popular of foreign ministhe fugitives. Colonel Backus, with his ters until the closing days of the Presi. regulars and Albany volunteers, was dis- dential campaign of 1888. On Oct. puting the advance inch by inch, and a 24, a letter alleged to have been written heavy gun at Fort Tompkins, in the front, to him by Charles F. Murchison, of Powas playing upon the British, when a mona, Cal., was published. In it Murchidense smoke was seen rising in the rear of son said that he was a naturalized citizen the Americans. The storehouses, in which of the United States, but of English birth, an immense amount of materials had been and that he wished information not only gathered, and a ship on the stocks, had for himself but for many other citizens been fired by the officers in charge, under of English birth whose political action he the impression, when the militia fled, that desired to influence. The letter also rethe fort would be captured. For a moment flected upon the conduct of the United it was believed the British were the in- States respecting unsettled controversies cendiaries, and the sight was dishearten- between the two countries. The British ing; but when Brown found it was an uno minister answered this letter, advising his wise friend, he felt a relief, and redoubled correspondent to vote with the Democratic his exertions to rally the militia. He suc. party, which, he declared, was favorable ceeded, and so turned the fortunes of the to England. The United States governday in his favor. Prevost, moving cau. ment at once requested of Great Britain tiously with his troops, mounted a high the recall of her minister on the ground stump, and, with his field-glass, saw the that he had abused the usual privileges of rallying militia on his flank and rear. Be- diplomatic life by interfering in the politi. lieving them to be reinforcements of Amer- cal affairs of a friendly nation. As this ican regulars, he sounded a retreat, and request was not promptly complied with that movement soon became a disorderly the State Department sent Lord Sackville flight, as his men hurried to reach their his passports on Oct. 30. The affair was boats, leaving their dead and wounded be the subject of much diplomatic correspondhind them. At noon the whole armament ence, entered largely into the arguments left the harbor, and the menaced place of the campaign, and led Great Britain to was saved. So, also, was the ship on the withhold the appointment of a successor stocks; not so the stores, for half a million till after the inauguration of the new addollars' worth was destroyed. Sackett's ministration. Lord Sackville openly disHarbor was never again molested, and it claimed any intention to interfere in the remained the chief place of deposit for political affairs of the United States, and supplies of the army on the northern fron- it was widely believed that he had untiers during the war. For his conduct in wittingly fallen into a trap purposely the defence of Sackett's Harbor, Brown set to influence the Presidential election. was promoted brigadier-general, United Saco Bay, SETTLEMENT OF. In 1616 States army. See BROWN, JACOB.

Sir Ferdinando Gorges sent out, at his Sackville, GEORGE GERMAIN, VISCOUNT, own expense, Richard Vines to make a military officer; born in England, Jan. settlement in New England. On Saco Bay 26, 1716; educated at Trinity College, he spent the winter of 1616-17, at a place Dublin; won distinction in the British called Winter Harbor. During that period army; promoted lieutenant-general in the pestilence that almost depopulated 1758; was secretary of state for the colo- the country from the Penobscot to Narnies during the Revolutionary War and raganset Bay raged there, and Vines, bewas especially bitter against the Ameri- ing a physician, attended the sick Indians cans; created Viscount in February, 1782. with great kindness, which won their gratiHe died Aug. 26, 1785.

tude. He and his companions dwelt and Sackville, BARON LIONEL SACKVILLE slept among the sick in their cabins, but SACKVILLE-WEST, diplomatist; born in were never touched by the pestilential England, July 19, 1827; entered the dip- fever. He made the whole coast a more lomatic service in 1847; was envoy ex- hospitable place for Englishmen aftertraordinary and minister plenipotentiary wards. He restrained traders from deto the United States in 1881-88. He was bauching the Indians with rum, and he

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