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Canadian partisan named Jones had Chamber of Commerce. There are about raised a company of men to capture 300 churches in the city, representing all them. He gave chase in boats, overtook the leading religious sects in the United the unarmed flotilla at the foot of the States; and many charitable institutions. Thousand Islands, captured two of the Among the institutions for higher educaschooners, and emptied and burned them tion are Washington University, St. Louis (June 29). A rumor was circulated that University, the College of Christian the British were erecting fortifications Brothers, St. Louis School of Fine Arts, among the Thousand Islands, and that ex- Maria Consilia Convent, Training-School peditions of armed men were to be sent across the St. Lawrence to devastate American settlements on its borders. General Brown and Commander Woolsey, of the Oneida, were vested with ample power to provide for the defence of that frontier. Colonel Benedict, of St. Lawrence county, was ordered to guard the region from Og. densburg to St. Regis (q. v.) with a competent force, and militia were gathered at Ogdensburg and St. Vincent. This was the first warlike movement on the river in the war of 1812-15.

St. Leger, BARRY, military officer; born in England in 1737; entered the army as ensign in 1749; came to America with his regiment in 1757, and was with Wolfe at Quebec. He was appointed lieutenantcolonel in 1772; and in 1775 was sent to Canada, where he took charge of an unsuccessful expedition to the Mohawk Valley, by way of Lake Ontario, in 1777, to assist Burgoyne in his invasion. He died in 1789.

St. Louis, port of entry and chief city of Missouri; on the Mississippi River, 20 miles below the mouth of the Missouri; is the great metropolis of the southwest, the centre of trade and commerce of the two rivers and their tributaries, and the

COL. BARRY ST. LEGER. fifth city in the United States in population. It is built on rising ground, com- for Nurses, several theological seminaries, prising three terraces, reaching at some and dental and medical colleges, the State points 200 feet above the level of the river; School for the Blind and the St. Louis is the centre of fifteen railroads; and has Day School for Deaf Mutes. In 1903 the an area of 66 square miles. St. Louis has city had 879 miles of streets, of which 113 public parks which cover an area of 2,268 were paved, 7 national banks, and a sewer acres, and include Forest Park, the system covering 522 miles. The streets largest, which was the seat of the Louisi- are lighted by gas and electricity at an ana Purchase Exposition in 1904, Tower annual cost of $519,362. The annual cost Grove Park, Missouri Botanical Garden, of maintaining the city government is the Fair Grounds, Carondelet Park, and about $7,900,000; that of the police deLafayette Park. Among the principal partment about $400,000; and that of the public buildings of note are the Post-office fire department about $590,000. There are and Custom-house, which cost more than also many large milling and manufactur$6,500,000; City Hall, $2,000,000; Court- ing establishments. The census of 1900 house; Union Pacific Station; and the reported 6,732 manufacturing establish


ments, employing $162,179,331 capital and in St. Louis, Mo., in 1903, to commem. 82,672 persons, paying $117,861,443 for orate the acquisition of Louisiana by Presmaterials used and $38,191,076 for wages, ident Jefferson. Congress appropriated and yielding products valued at $233,629,- $5,000,000 in aid of the enterprise upon 733. The principal articles manufactured condition that the city of St. Louis exwere malt liquors, clothing, foundry and pend $10,000,000 for the same purpose. machine-shop products, iron and steel, The government appropriation was to be

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flouring and gristmill products, and carriages and wagons. On April 1, 1904, the total bonded debt of the city was $225,539,278; the sinking fund, $1,497,047; assessed

THE MISSISSIPPI AT ST. LOUIS. property valuation, $456,510,430; tax rate, $14.70 per $1,000. Population treated as a loan, and was to be repaid (1900), 575,238.

from the money earned by the exposition. St. Louis received its name from Pierre The city of St. Louis authorized an Ligueste Laclede in 1764, when he estab- issue of $5,000,000 in bonds, and the lished it as a post of the Louisiana Fur citizens of the city subscribed a second sum Company. Five years later Spanish of $5,000,000, making a total of $15,troops, under Captain Rios, took poscas. 000,000 to be devoted to the celebration. sion (Aug. 11, 1768), but exercised no St. Louis Arsenal. Under the inspiracivil functions pending the arrival of Don tion of a graduate of the West Point Pedro Piernas, who assumed the gov- Academy, Daniel M. Frost, and under the ernment, May 20, 1770. British troops lead of the governor of Missouri (C. F. and Indian allies attacked the city May Jackson), an attempt was made in May, 26, 1780, but were repulsed. The first ter. 1861, to seize the United States Arsenal ritorial General Assembly met at the at St. Louis. The Confederates had alhouse of Joseph Robidoux, Dec. 7, 1812. ready seized one unguarded arsenal at

Louisiana Purchase Centennial.-In 1900 Liberty, Clay county, under the direction it was proposed to hold a World's Fair of the governor, but the one at St. Louis was guarded by 500 regular troops, under from General Wool, a large portion of the Capt. Nathaniel Lyon, who had been ap- arms at the arsenal were removed (April pointed commander of the post in place 26) secretly to Alton, Ill., in a steamboat, of Major Bell, a Confederate. The govern- and thence by railway to Springfield. or had sent orders to the militia officers Frost, whom the governor had commisof the State to assemble their respective sioned a brigadier-general, formed a commands and go into encampment for a militia camp in the suburbs of St. Louis, week, the avowed object being “to attain and, to deceive the people, kept the naa greater degree of efficiency and perfec- tional flag flying over it. Captain Lyon tion in discipline.” For weeks before the enrolled a large number of volunteers, who President's call for troops the Confeder- occupied the arsenal grounds. Some of ates of St. Louis were drilled in the use of them, for want of room, occupied ground fire-arms in a building in that city; were outside. The St. Louis police demanded furnished with State arms by the govern- their return to the government grounds, or; received commissions from him, and because they were “ Federal soldiers, viowere sworn into the military service of lating the rights of the sovereign State of the State. They were closely watched by a Missouri.” No attention was paid to this few Unionists, and finally the latter class demand. To make his little force appear in St. Louis (who were largely of the Ger- large, Lyon sent out squads at night to man population) were formed into mili- distant points, to return in the morning tary companies, and drilled in the use of with druns beating and flags flying. fire-arms. When the President's call for Finally word came to Lyon that cannon

and mortars, in boxes marked "marble,” had been landed from a steamboat and sent to Frost's Confederate camp. Disguised as a woman, closely veiled, Lyon rode around that camp, and was satisfied that it was time for him to act with vigor. Early in the afternoon of May 9, Lyon, by

a quick movement, surUNITED STATES ARSENAL AT ST. LOUIS.

rounded Frost's camp

with 6,000 troops and troops came, they openly drilled, made heavy carnon, and placing guards so as their place of meeting a citadel, estab- to prevent any communication with the lished a perpetual guard, and kept up con- city, demanded of the commander the imstant communication with the arsenal. mediate surrender of men and munitions They were denounced by the Confederates of war under him, giving him only thirty as “outlaws, incendiaries, and miscre- minutes for deliberation. Intelligence of ants,” preparing to make war on Missouri. this movement had reached the city, and They were relieved by an order from the an armed body of Confederates rushed out President (April 30, 1861) for Captain to assist their friends. They were too late. Lyon to enroll into the military service of Frost surrendered his 1,200 militia, 1,200 the United States the loyal citizens of St. new rifles, twenty cannon, several chests Louis, in number not exceeding 1,000. of muskets, and a large quantity of amThis order was procured chiefly through munition. Most of these materials of war the influence of Col. (afterwards Maj. had been stolen from the arsenal at Baton Gen.) Frank P. Blair, who had already Rouge. The arsenal was saved. raised and organized a regiment of Mis- St.-Luc, LA CORNE DE, military officer; sourians, and assisted in the primary for- born in 1712. Prior to and during the mation of four others.

French and Indian War he bitterly opMeanwhile, in accordance with an order posed the British; won great distinction at


the battle of Ticonderoga, capturing 150 of pers," were built. Seven of these were on General Abercrombie's wagons; partici- the stocks there in August, 1814, when pated in the victory of St. Foy, near Admiral Cockburn appeared, with the inQuebec, and in the battle on the Plains of tention of destroying them and the village. Abraham. When the Revolutionary War The veteran Gen. Derry Benson, combegan he gave his support to the British mander of the militia of Talbot county, side; incited the Indians of the North and prepared to receive the invaders. He conNorthwest against the colonists; took part structed two redoubts, and the militia in the capture of Ethan Allen; and later from the adjacent country were called to commanded the Indians in the Burgoyne the defence of the place. Benson had, in campaign. He died in Montreal, Canada, the aggregate, about 300 men. Between Oct. 1, 1784.

midnight and dawn on Aug. 11 the inSt. Mary's River. See SAULT DE STE. vaders proceeded to the attack in eleven MARIE SHIP-CANAL.

barges, each armed with a 6-pounder fieldSt. Mémin, CHARLES BALTHAZAR, piece. The night was intensely dark, and JULIEN FÉVRE DE, artist; born in Dijon, the first intimation of their presence was France, March 12, 1770; went to Canada the booming of their cannon. The Maryin 1793 and soon after settled in New landers, though a little surprised, made a York; introduced into the United States gallant resistance from the batteries. the physionotrace, a machine designed by Under cover of their guns, the invaders Chrétien, by which a copy of the human landed in a compact body to storm the profile could be made with mathematical batteries, when a 9-pounder in one of them accuracy. In connection with its intro- opened and cut a wide swath through the duction St Mémin made a pantograph, by line of the British, killing nineteen and which he could reduce the original design wounding many. The Americans, outof the life-size profile to a size small numbered, fell back to the other battery, enough to be engraved in a circle 2 inches and continued the contest until daylight, in diameter. He made hundreds of these when the invaders, after spiking the guns profiles of the most prominent people in of the lower battery, fled, discomfited, to the United States. They have been pre- their vessels. served and in many instances are the only St.-Ours, JEAN BAPTISTE DE, military portraits of these persons now in exist. officer; born in Canada in 1668; joined ence. In 1798 he secured a profile of the French Canadian army early in life; Washington, which is of interest as it was promoted lieutenant in 1702, and soon the last portrait of him taken from life. after garde-marine; was one of the three In 1814 St. Mémin removed to France, in command of the expedition against and in 1817 became director of the Fort Orange (now Albany) in 1708. At Museum in Dijon. He died in Dijon, the head of about 200 Iroquois Indians France, June 23, 1852.

St. - Qurs took the village and fort of St. Michael, the chief port of Alaska on Haverhill. Later he was made major of Bering Sea; also the trading port of the Montreal, and afterwards was appointed Yukon Valley. It is on Norton Sound, in king's lieutenant. He died in Montreal, a region swampy and subject to inunda- Canada, in 1747. tions, and could be given an excellent St. Paul, a city, county seat of Ramharbor by extensive dredging and other im sey county, and capital of the State of provements. For many years it was an Minnesota; on both sides of the Missis. important station of the Russian Fur sippi River, with the principal portion on Company, and prior to the acquisition of the east bank, and the two parts conAlaska by the United States was known as nected by bridges. Four trans-continental Mikhailovsk. See ALASKA.

and seven Eastern trunk line railroads St. Michael, DEFENCE OF. On the east- pass through or extend to it, giving it ex. ern shore of Chesapeake Bay was the little ceptional importance as a shipping point. town of St. Michael, in Talbot county, The site was first occupied by the whites Md., founded by ship-builders, and famous by a small French colony, principally enas the place where most of the swift-sail. gaged in the fur trade, and its name was ing privateers, called “ Baltimore clip- derived from the Roman Catholic mission VIII.-B


of St. Paul, established in 1841. Six sailing the block-house, a sharp skirmish years afterwards the settlement was ensued, in which the British lost seven plotted; in 1849 the town was made the men killed, while not an American was territorial capital; and in 1854 it was hurt. The spoils of victory were forty given a city charter. Its remarkable de prisoners (exclusive of the commander velopment is due to its location at the and the Roman Catholic priest), with head of navigation on the Mississippi as their arms and accoutrements, thirty-eight well as to its railroad connections. Popu- muskets, two bateaux, a flag, and a quanlation in 1900, 163,065.

tity of baggage, including 800 blankets. St. Philip, FORT, ATTACK ON. While The flag which waved over the block-house the armies were burying their dead on the was captured by Lieut. William L. Marcy, field of strife near New Orleans after the afterwards governor of New York. battle there (Jan. 8, 1815), some of St. Sacrament Lake, a former name the British troops sought to secure the of Lake George; a beautiful sheet of free navigation of the Mississippi for them- water lying west of the upper end of selves by capturing Fort St. Philip, at Lake Champlain; originally named by a bend of the stream, 70 or 80 miles below Father Jogues, a Jesuit missionary who New Orleans in a direct line. It was re- visited it about the middle of the sevengarded as the key to Louisiana. It was teenth century. This lake was the theatre garrisoned by 366 men, under Major Over- of important military events in the FRENCH ton, of the Rifle Corps, and the crew of AND INDIAN WAR (q. v.) and the Revolua gunboat which had been warped into a tionary War. At the head of the lake bayou at its side. A British squadron of Gen. Sir William Johnson was encampfive vessels appeared near the fort on the ed early in September, 1755, with a morning of Jan. 9 and anchored, out of body of provincial troops and a party range of the heavy guns of the fort, two of Indians under the Mohawk chief Henbomb-vessels with their broadsides to the drick. There he was attacked (Sept. 8) fort. These opened fire in the afternoon, by the French under Dieskau, and would and continued a bombardment and can- have been defeated but for the energy nonade, with little interruption, until day- and skill of Gen. Phineas Lyman. The break on the 18th. During that time the assailants were repulsed, and their leadAmericans were much exposed to rain and er (Dieskau) was badly wounded, made cold. The British cast more than 1,000 prisoner, sent to New York, and paroled. shells, besides many round and grape shot, He died of his wounds not long afterupon the fort, the result of which was wards. Johnson was knighted, and gave two Americans killed and seven wounded. the name of Lake George to the sheet They had expended 20,000 lbs. of pow. of water, in honor of his sovereign, by der, and withdrew without gaining the which name it is still known. At its fort, spoils, or glory. See also JACKSON head Fort William Henry was built, and AND ST. PHILIP, FORTS.

suffered siege and capture by the French St. Regis, SKIRMISH AT. On each side and Indians in 1757. The next year it of the boundary-line between the United was the scene of a vast armament upon States and Canada is the Indian village its bosom going to the attack of TICONof St. Regis, at the mouth of the St. Regis DEROGA (9. v.). River. In that village Captain McDon- St.-Simon, CLAUDE ANNE, MARQUIS DE, nell was placed, with some armed Ca- military officer ; born in the Castle of La nadian voyageurs, in September, 1812. Faye, Spain, in 1743; learned the art of Maj. G. D. Young, stationed at French gunnery and fortifications at Strasburg; Mills (afterwards Fort Covington), left distinguished himself in Flanders; and that post on the night of Oct. 21 with was chief of the body-guard of the King about 200 men, crossed the St. Regis in a of Poland in 1758. After various serboat, a canoe, and on a hastily constructed vices in Europe, he came to America with raft, and before dawn was within half a De Grasse, at the head of French troops, mile of St. Regis. There they were rested and assisted in the siege of Yorktown in and refreshed, and soon afterwards pushed 1781. In 1789 he was a deputy in the forward and surrounded the town. As- States-General. Being a native of Spain,

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