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2d Pennsylvania Regiment, he was ordered ror over the frontier settlements in the to Canada in February, 1776, and in the Northwestern Territory. In May, 1791, early summer aided Sullivan in saving his Gen. Charles Scott, of Kentucky, led 800 army from capture. In August he was men, and penetrated to the Wabash counmade a brigadier-general, and joined try, almost to the present site of LaWashington in November. St. Clair was fayette, Ind., and destroyed several Indian actively engaged in New Jersey until villages. At the beginning of August April, 1777, when he took command of General Wilkinson, with more than 500 Ticonderoga, which he was compelled to men, pushed into the same region to evacuate (July 4-5), by the presence of Tippecanoe and the surrounding prairies, Burgoyne in overwhelming force. After destroyed some villages of Kickapoos, and that he was a member of Washington's made his way to the Falls of the Ohio, military family, acting as his aide at the opposite Louisville. These forays caused battle near the Brandywine. He was with the Indians to fight more desperately for Sullivan in the Seneca country in 1779. their country. Congress then prepared to St. Clair commanded the light infantry plant forts in the Northwestern Territory, in the absence of Lafayette, and was a and in September there were 2,000 troops member of the court that condemned at Fort Washington, under the immediate Major André. He was in command at West Point from Oct, 1, 1780, and aided in suppressing the mutiny of the Pennsylvania line in January, 1781. Joining Washington in October, he participated in the capture of Cornwallis, and afterwards led a body of troops to join Greene in South

PENNSYLCarolina, driving

VANIA the British from Wilmington on the way. He was afterwards a delegate in Congress; president of that body (February to November, 1787); ap

1.CA. pointed governor of the Northwestern Territory (February, 1788); fixed the seat of government at Cincinnati, and, command of Gen. Richard Butler. With in honor of the Cincinnati Society, gave General St. Clair as chief, these troops the place that name.

marched northward. They built Fort Made commander-in-chief of the army Hamilton, on the Miami River, 20 miles (March 4, 1791), he moved against the from Fort Washington, and garrisoned it. Indians on the Wabash, while so lame Forty-two miles farther on they built Fort from gout that he was carried on a litter. Jefferson, and, when moving from that The Indians, encouraged by the defeat of post, late in October, there were evidences Harmar (October, 1790), had spread ter. that Indian scouts were hovering on their




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flanks. The invaders halted and encamp- island and demanded of Governor De ed on a tributary of the Wabash, in Darke Graat its surrender within an hour. The county, O., 100 miles north from Fort surprised and astonished inhabitants, unWashington (now Cincinnati). There the able to offer any resistance, and ignorant wearied soldiers slept (Nov. 3), without of war between their home government suspicion of danger near. During the and Great Britain, surrendered the post night the sentinels gave warning of prowl. and its dependencies, at the same time in ing Indians, and early the next morning, voking clemency for the town. The island while the army were preparing for breakwas a rich prize, for it was a free port for fast, they were furiously attacked by the all nations and was “one continued store barbarians. The slaughter among the of French, Dutch, American, and English troops was dreadful. General Butler was property." All the magazines and storekilled, and most of the other officers were houses were filled, and even the beach was slain or wounded. The army fled in con- covered with tobacco and sugar. The fusion, and it was with great difficulty value of merchandise found there was that St. Clair escaped on a pack-horse, estimated at $15,000,000. There were after having three horses killed under taken in the bay a Dutch frigate, five him. Among the fugitives were 100 wom- smaller vessels of war, and 150 merchanten, wives of soldiers, most of whom es- ships. Thirty richly laden Dutch ships caped. St. Clair lost nearly half of his which had just left the island were overarmy-over 800 men killed and wounded. taken by a detachment from Rodney's The remainder returned to Fort Washing. tleet and captured, together with their ton.

convoy, a 60-gun Dutch ship. Keeping Blamed severely, a committee of Con- the Dutch flag flying on the island, no gress vindicated St. Clair; but he re- less than seventeen Dutch ships were designed his commission, March 5, 1792, and coyed into port and seized. in November, 1802, Jefferson removed him St. Francis Indians, a tribe inhabiting from the governorship in the Northwest. a village on the edge of Canada, which He was then broken in health, spirits, and was long a terror to the frontier settlers fortune, and, retiring to a log-house on of New England. Enriched by plunder the summit of Chestnut Ridge, among the and the ransoms paid for their captives, Alleghany Mountains, he there passed the they possessed a handsome chapel (they remainder of his days in poverty, while were Roman Catholics), with plate and he had unsettled righteous claims against ornaments. In their village might be the government. Five years before his seen, stretched on hoops, many scalps of death the legislature of Pennsylvania both sexes displayed as trophies of their granted him an annuity of $400, and, a valor in smiting the English. Against short time before his death, a pension these Indians General Amherst, while at from the government of $60 a month was Crown Point, in 1759, sent Maj. Robert awarded him. He published a narrative Rogers, a distinguished partisan officer, of his unfortunate campaign against the at the head of a corps of New Hampshire Indians. He died in Greensburg, Pa., Aug. rangers. With 200 of his rangers, Rogers 31, 1818.

traversed the forest so stealthily that he St. Eustatius, CAPTURE OF. While surprised the village in October, slew a negotiations between the Dutch and Eng- large part of the warriors, and plundered lish were going on at The Hague, British and burned the town. Attempting to recruisers pounced upon Dutch merchant- turn by way of Lake Memphremagog and men, capturing 200 ships of the republic, the Connecticut River, the rangers suffered of Holland, worth, with their cargoes, terribly. Their provisions gave out, and 15.000,000 guilders. Swift cutters were some perished for want of food; others sent to Admiral Rodney at Barbadoes to were killed by pursuing Indians, but the seize the Dutch island of St. Eustatius, greater part reached Crown Point in in the West Indies. Suddenly, on Feb. 3, safety. 1781, the British West India fleet and Saint-Gaudens, AUGUSTUS, sculptor; army, after making a feint on the coast born in Dublin, Ireland, March 1, 1848, of Martinique, appeared off the doomed was brought to the United States wher. an infant; learned the trade of cameo-cut. Boys, led by Col. Seth Warner, also joined ter; studied drawing at Cooper Institute him. The garrison, commanded by Major in 1861; student at the National Acad. Preston, was well supplied with provisions emy of Design in 1865-66; then studied and ammunition. This circumstance, the in Paris till 1870 and in Rome in 1871–72, disaster to Ethan Allen near Montreal, and producing in the latter city his first figure, the insubordination and mutinous spirit Hiawatha. He returned to New York in displayed by the Connecticut and New 1873. Among his most important works York troops, prolonged the siege. It lastare Adoration of the Cross; The Puritan; ed fifty-five days. On the evening of Nov. statues of Abraham Lincoln, John A. 2, when Preston heard of the defeat of a Logan, Admiral Farragut; monument of considerable force under Carleton, on General Sherman; and numerous other their way to relieve him, and was notistatues, busts, etc. He designed the Medal fied of the fall of Chambly, he determined of Award of the Columbian Exposition; to surrender the fort unless relief speedily several medals authorized by Congress; came. Montgomery demanded an immediin 1901 was engaged on the Parnell Memo- ate surrender. Preston asked a delay of rial monument; and in 1904-05 on a four days. His request was denied, and Hanna memorial for Cleveland, O. the garrison became prisoners of war on

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St. John, JOHN PIERCE, lawyer; born the 3d, marching out of the fort with the in Brookville, Ind., Feb. 25, 1833; was honors of war. There were 500 regulars educated in Indiana; served in the Union and 100 Canadian volunteers. The spoils army during the Civil War, attaining the were forty-eight pieces of artillery, 800 rank of lieutenant-colonel; was elected to small-arms, some naval stores, and a quanthe Kansas State Senate in 1872, and gov- tity of lead and shot. ernor of Kansas in 1879; and was the St. Joseph, FORT. On the morning of Prohibition candidate for President of the May 25, 1763, a party of Pottawattomie United States in 1884, receiving 151,809 Indians appeared before the English post popular votes. In 1900 he supported Mr. at the mouth of the St. Joseph's River, on Bryan for President, and while claiming Lake Michigan. The fort was garrisoned independence in politics, is an advocate by an ensign and fourteen men. With of the free coinage of both gold and silver, friendly greetings the Pottawattomies prohibition, and woman suffrage.

were permitted to enter the fort, and in St. John, SIEGE OF. Because of the “two minutes” they had massacred the illness of General Schuyler, General Mont- whole garrison (see PONTIAC). In 1781 gomery was placed in active command of the Spanish, under Don Pourré, captured the American army invading Canada. the fort, which was at that time garriOn Sept. 10, 1775, Montgomery left Isle soned by the British. It was restored to aux Noix and landed 1,000 troops near the United States by the treaty of 1783. St. John, the first military post within St. Lawrence, MOVEMENT ON THE. the Canadian border. Deceived concern- When news of the declaration of war being the strength of the garrison and the tween the United States and Great disposition of the Canadians, he fell back Britain (June, 1812) reached Ogdensburg, and waited for reinforcements. Other N. Y., on the St. Lawrence, eight AmerNew York troops joined him. Lamb's ican schooners—trading vessels-lay in company of artillery came late in Septem- the harbor. They endeavored to escape ber. Some troops from New Hampshire into Lake Ontario, bearing away affright. under Colonel Bedel, and Green Mountain ed families and their effects. An active

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