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abroad advantage agriculture American American labor amount attention attitude became become began capital Carey cause cent cities claimed comparative competition Cong Congress considerable continued cotton Debates demand depression difficulties discussion duties economic effect emphasized employed employment engaged England established existence extent fact factory farmers favor forced foreign free-traders gave greater growth hand held high wages higher History immigration important increase indicates industry influence interests labor argument laboring classes lands later less lines machinery maintain manufacturing means mechanics ment movement naturally necessary operatives paid pauper Pennsylvania period persons Philadelphia pointed political population possible prevent price of labor principal problem progress prosperity protection protectionists question rate of wages received reduced regarded Report result secure side similar skilled South tariff tion trade United wage argument West woolen workingmen workmen York
Página 201 - In places where those institutions prevail, besides the persons regularly engaged in them, they afford occasional and extra employment to industrious individuals and families, who are willing to devote the leisure resulting from the intermissions of their ordinary pursuits to collateral labors, as a resource for multiplying their acquisitions or their enjoyments.
Página 192 - Without commerce, industry would have no stimulus ; without manufactures, it would be without the means of production ; and without agriculture neither of the others can subsist.
Página 238 - The manner in which the remote lands of the United States are selling and settling, whilst it may possibly tend to increase more quickly the aggregate population of the country, and the mere means of subsistence, does not increase capital in the same proportion.
Página 230 - ... others require hands for work; and if we ourselves are not absolutely in the latter class, we are still most fortunately very near it. I cannot find that we have those idle hands, of which the chairman of the committee speaks. The price of labor is a conclusive and unanswerable refutation of that idea ; it is known to be higher with us than in any other civilized state, and this is the greatest of all proofs of general happiness.
Página 273 - A well-regulated currency; a tariff for revenue to defray the necessary expenses of the government, and discriminating with special reference to the protection of the domestic labor of the country ; the distribution of the proceeds from the sales of the public lands; a single term for the presidency; a reform of executive usurpations; and generally such an administration of the affairs of the country as shall impart to every branch of the public service the greatest...
Página 233 - But, if the fact were true, that the wages of labor are high, I deny the correctness of the argument founded upon it. The argument assumes, that natural labor is the principal element in the business of manufacture. That was the ancient theory. But the valuable inventions and vast improvements in machinery, which have been made within a few past years, have produced a new era in the arts.
Página 256 - ... per cent to 17.1 per cent of the whole. The positive increase in that time was from 349,506 persons employed in 1820, to 791,749 employed in 1840. This increase was greatest in the New England States, whose manufacturing population had enlarged from 21 per cent, in 1820, to 30.2 per cent in 1840 ; in which time the same class of population had nearly trebled in Massachusetts, and more than trebled in Rhode Island.
Página 241 - ... be sufficient, ultimately, to reduce the profits of any particular pursuit to its proportionate rate, as compared according to its nature with the profits of other branches of domestic industry. We are told in reference to the labor employed that the restrictive system is intended and calculated to bring into action a quantity of labor beyond what was previously actually put forth. That immediately employed in the protected branches is shown by the result to be, on the contrary, generally less...
Página 246 - State, by the various knowledge which its complicated pursuits put into requisition. It is the course of industry which must lay the foundation of those arts which tend to refinement in a nation, for which intellectual nations, and none more than republics, have acquired renown. The time has passed when objections might be made to manufactures, from the limited amount of our population and the dearness of labor.